United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Borage known as a starflower, is an annual herb in the flowering plant family Boraginaceae. It has naturalized in many other locales, it grows satisfactorily in gardens in the UK climate, remaining in the garden from year to year by self-seeding. The leaves are edible and the plant is grown in gardens for that purpose in some parts of Europe; the plant is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil extracted from its seeds. The plant contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, some of which are hepatotoxic and carcinogenic. Borago officinalis grows to a height of 60–100 cm, is bristly or hairy all over the stems and leaves; the flowers are perfect with five narrow, triangular-pointed petals. Flowers are most blue, although pink flowers are sometimes observed. White flowered types are cultivated; the blue flower is genetically dominant over the white flower. The flowers arise along scorpioid cymes to form large floral displays with multiple flowers blooming suggesting that borage has a high degree of geitonogamy.
It has an indeterminate growth habit. In temperate climate such as in the UK, its flowering season is long, from June to September. In milder climates, borage will bloom continuously for most of the year. Traditionally borage was cultivated for culinary and medicinal uses, although today commercial cultivation is as an oilseed. Borage is used as either a dried herb; as a fresh vegetable, with a cucumber-like taste, is used in salads or as a garnish. The flower has a sweet honey-like taste and is used to decorate desserts and cocktails. Vegetable use of borage is common in Germany, in the Spanish regions of Aragon and Navarre, in the Greek island of Crete and in the northern Italian region of Liguria. Although used in soups, one of the better known German borage recipes is the Green Sauce made in Frankfurt. In Italian Liguria, borage is used as a filling of the traditional pasta ravioli and pansoti, it is used to flavour pickled gherkins in Poland. Borage is traditionally used as a garnish in the Pimms Cup cocktail, but is nowadays replaced by a long sliver of cucumber peel or by mint.
It is one of the key "Botanical" flavourings in Gilpin's Westmorland Extra Dry Gin. The seeds contain 26-38% of borage seed oil, of which 17-28% is gamma-linolenic acid, the richest known source; the oil contains the fatty acids palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, nervonic acid. The oil is marketed as "starflower oil" or "borage oil" for use as a GLA supplement, although healthy adults will produce ample GLA from dietary linoleic acid; the leaves contain small amounts of the liver-toxic Pyrrolizidine alkaloids intermedine, lycopsamine and supinine and the non-toxic saturated PA thesinine. PAs are present in borage seed oil, but may be removed by processing; the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment has advised that honey from borage contains PAs, transferred to the honey through pollen collected at borage plants, advise that commercial honey production could select for raw honey with limited PA content to prevent contamination. Traditionally, Borago officinalis has been used in hyperactive gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disorders, such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary.
One case of status epilepticus has been reported, associated with borage oil ingestion. A methanol extract of borage has shown strong amoebicidal activity in vitro; the 50% inhibitory concentration of the extract against Entamoeba histolytica was 33 µg/mL. Pliny the Elder and Dioscorides say that borage was the "Nepenthe" mentioned in Homer, which caused forgetfulness when mixed with wine. Francis Bacon thought that borage had "an excellent spirit to repress the fuliginous vapour of dusky melancholie."John Gerard's Herball mentions an old verse concerning the plant: "Ego Borago, Gaudia semper ago". He states that "Those of our time do use the flowers in salads to make the mind glad. There be many things made of these used everywhere for the comfort of the heart, for the driving away of sorrow and increasing the joy of the mind; the leaves and flowers of Borage put into wine make men and women glad and merry and drive away all sadness and melancholy, as Dioscorides and Pliny affirm. Syrup made of the flowers of Borage comfort the heart, purge melancholy and quiet the frantic and lunatic person.
The leaves eaten raw engender good blood in those that have been sick." Borage is used in companion planting. It is said to protect or nurse legumes, spinach and strawberries, it is said to be a good companion plant to tomatoes because it confuses the mother moths of tomato hornworms or manduca looking for a place to lay their eggs. Claims that it improves tomato growth and makes them taste better remain unsubstantiated. List of companion plants "Borage"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Borage". MissouriBotanicalGarden.org
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes. Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants, or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants. If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, producing a pollen tube that transfers the sperm to the ovule containing the female gametophyte. Individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail; the study of pollen is called palynology and is useful in paleoecology, paleontology and forensics. Pollen in plants is used for transferring haploid male genetic material from the anther of a single flower to the stigma of another in cross-pollination. In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower. Pollen is used as food and food supplement.
However, because of agricultural practices, it is contaminated by agricultural pesticides. Pollen itself is not the male gamete; each pollen grain contains a generative cell. In flowering plants the vegetative tube cell produces the pollen tube, the generative cell divides to form the two sperm cells. Pollen is produced in the microsporangia in the male cone of a conifer or other gymnosperm or in the anthers of an angiosperm flower. Pollen grains come in a wide variety of shapes and surface markings characteristic of the species. Pollen grains of pines and spruces are winged; the smallest pollen grain, that of the forget-me-not, is around 6 µm in diameter. Wind-borne pollen grains can be as large as about 90–100 µm. In angiosperms, during flower development the anther is composed of a mass of cells that appear undifferentiated, except for a differentiated dermis; as the flower develops, four groups of sporogenous cells form within the anther. The fertile sporogenous cells are surrounded by layers of sterile cells that grow into the wall of the pollen sac.
Some of the cells grow into nutritive cells that supply nutrition for the microspores that form by meiotic division from the sporogenous cells. In a process called microsporogenesis, four haploid microspores are produced from each diploid sporogenous cell, after meiotic division. After the formation of the four microspores, which are contained by callose walls, the development of the pollen grain walls begins; the callose wall is broken down by an enzyme called callase and the freed pollen grains grow in size and develop their characteristic shape and form a resistant outer wall called the exine and an inner wall called the intine. The exine is. Two basic types of microsporogenesis are recognised and successive. In simultaneous microsporogenesis meiotic steps I and II are completed prior to cytokinesis, whereas in successive microsporogenesis cytokinesis follows. While there may be a continuum with intermediate forms, the type of microsporogenesis has systematic significance; the predominant form amongst the monocots is successive.
During microgametogenesis, the unicellular microspores undergo mitosis and develop into mature microgametophytes containing the gametes. In some flowering plants, germination of the pollen grain may begin before it leaves the microsporangium, with the generative cell forming the two sperm cells. Except in the case of some submerged aquatic plants, the mature pollen grain has a double wall; the vegetative and generative cells are surrounded by a thin delicate wall of unaltered cellulose called the endospore or intine, a tough resistant outer cuticularized wall composed of sporopollenin called the exospore or exine. The exine bears spines or warts, or is variously sculptured, the character of the markings is of value for identifying genus, species, or cultivar or individual; the spines may be less than a micron in length referred to as spinulose, or longer than a micron referred to as echinate. Various terms describe the sculpturing such as reticulate, a net like appearance consisting of elements separated from each other by a lumen.
The pollen wall protects the sperm. The pollen grain surface is covered with waxes and proteins, which are held in place by structures called sculpture elements on the surface of the grain; the outer pollen wall, which prevents the pollen grain from shrinking and crushing the genetic material during desiccation, is composed of two layers. These two layers are the tectum and the foot layer, just above the intine; the tectum and foot layer are separated by a region called the columella, composed of strengthening rods. The outer wall is constructed with a resistant biopolymer called sporopollenin. Pollen apertures are regions of the pollen wall that may involve exine thinning or a significant reduction in exine thickness, they allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. Elongated apertures or furrows in the pollen grain are called sulci. Apertures that are more circular are called pores. Colpi and pores are major features in the identification of classes of pollen.
Pollen may be referre
New London, New Hampshire
New London is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 4,397 at the 2010 census; the town is the home of Colby–Sawyer College. The town center, where 1,403 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the New London census-designated place, is located on a hilltop along New Hampshire Route 114 north of Route 11 and Interstate 89. In 1753, the Masonian Proprietors of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, granted the area now called New London as "Heidelberg". Although it appears on some New Hampshire maps, the township was never settled, the 1753 grant lapsed into default. In 1773 the same area was awarded as the "Alexandria Addition" to a new group of speculators, granted the adjacent township of Alexandria; these proprietors were led by Jonas Minot of Concord, but the others were Scotch-Irish immigrants living in Londonderry, New Hampshire. None built dwellings in the Alexandria Addition. Instead they recruited settlers to build roads, schools, a church—all increasing the value of their land holdings.
Nearly all of the original settlers came from Massachusetts, either from the Amesbury area of the north shore or from the Attleboro area in the southeast. The township proprietors soon began a long, systematic process of subdividing and selling their properties at great profit. By 1779, there were sixteen families recorded within the bounds of the Alexandria Addition, they petitioned the General Court to incorporate as the town of "New London"—officially named after London, but also an acknowledgement of the Londonderry-based proprietors; the first town meeting was held on August 3, 1779. In 1807, the northern half of New London was annexed, merged with an area called "Kearsarge Gore", incorporated as the town of Wilmot, New Hampshire. In the early 19th century, there were three small additions to New London, including the village of Otterville in 1817. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 25.6 square miles, of which 22.5 sq mi is land and 3.1 sq mi is water, comprising 12.04% of the town.
The highest point in town is Morgan Hill 1,770 feet above sea level. The town is crossed by Interstate 89, which serves New London with two exits, by New Hampshire Routes 11, 103A, 114; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,397 people, 1,666 households, 1,037 families residing in the town. There were 2,303 housing units, of which 637, or 27.7%, were vacant. 521 of the vacant units were for seasonal or recreational use. The racial makeup of the town was 96.5% white, 1.1% African American, 0.05% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.05% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.1% some other race, 1.2% from two or more races. 1.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 1,666 households, 18.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were headed by married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 22.2% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.09, the average family size was 2.63. 912 town residents, or 20.7 of the population, lived in group quarters rather than households. In the town, 13.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 22.6% were from 18 to 24, 10.0% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 30.7% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.3 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household was $68,981, the median income for a family was $98,833. Male full-time workers had a median income of $57,237 versus $55,641 for females; the per capita income for the town was $35,090. 9.9% of the population and 6.4% of families were below the poverty line. 8.7% of the population under the age of 18 and 2.0% of those 65 or older were living in poverty. Colby–Sawyer College: A small liberal arts school that includes a gym open to the public. Little Sunapee Lake: A clean, small lake on the west side of town with public and private beaches.
Bucklin Beach and operated by the town, allows parking in its lot only by town residents. New London Barn Playhouse: A prominent summer stock small professional theatre. New Hampshire's oldest summer theatre; each summer it produces Dramas to sold out crowds of residents and tourists. First Baptist Church: Built in 1826 and opened in January of the following year, the church is of a classical New England design by the renowned church architect Asher Benjamin; the First Baptist Meeting House is listed on both the State Register of Historic Places. Pleasant Lake: Located on the east side of town, the lake features public beach access from Elkins Beach. Fireworks on the Fourth of July. Mount Kearsarge: The mountain occupies the towns of Warner and Wilmot and is a prominent landform overlooking New London; the Wilmot trailhead in Winslow State Park is a 15-minute drive away, the trip from the park to the summit is about 1 mile by the Winslow Trail. The Barlow Trail is a longer route to the summit. Mount Sunapee Resort provides skiing and riding in the winter.
It is a resort in the summer, featuring activities such as hiking, zip lining, rock climbing and disc golf, segway tours. New London Historical Society: Guided tours of its carriage and sleigh museum and its 19th-century village depicting rural New England life. New London Town Green: Friday nights during the summer there are free concerts here; the first weekend in August is Hospital
Flax known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world; the textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, traditionally used for bed sheets and table linen. The oil is known as linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant; the plant species is known only as a cultivated plant, appears to have been domesticated just once from the wild species Linum bienne, called pale flax. Several other species in the genus Linum are similar in appearance to L. usitatissimum, cultivated flax, including some that have similar blue flowers, others with white, yellow, or red flowers. Some of these are perennial plants, unlike L. usitatissimum, an annual plant. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1.2 m tall, with slender stems. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long, 3 mm broad; the flowers are 15 -- 25 mm in diameter, with five petals.
The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm in diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4–7 mm long. The earliest evidence of humans using wild flax as a textile comes from the present-day Republic of Georgia, where spun and knotted wild flax fibers were found in Dzudzuana Cave and dated to the Upper Paleolithic, 30,000 years ago. Flax was first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region. Evidence exists of a domesticated oilseed flax with increased seed size by 9,000 years ago from Tell Ramad in Syria. Use of the crop spread, reaching as far as Switzerland and Germany by 5,000 years ago. In China and India, domesticated flax was cultivated at least 5,000 years ago. Flax was cultivated extensively in ancient Egypt, where the temple walls had paintings of flowering flax, mummies were entombed in linen. Egyptian priests wore only linen. Phoenicians traded Egyptian linen throughout the Mediterranean and the Romans used it for their sails; as the Roman Empire declined, so did flax production, but Charlemagne revived the crop in the eighth century CE with laws designed to publicize the hygiene of linen textiles and the health of linseed oil.
Flanders became the major center of the linen industry in the European Middle Ages. In North America, flax was introduced by the colonists and it flourished there, but by the early 20th century, cheap cotton and rising farm wages had caused production of flax to become concentrated in northern Russia, which came to provide 90% of the world's output. Since flax has lost its importance as a commercial crop, due to the easy availability of more durable fibres. Flax is grown for its seeds, which can be ground into a meal or turned into linseed oil, a product used as a nutritional supplement and as an ingredient in many wood-finishing products. Flax is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. Moreover, flax fibers are used to make linen; the specific epithet, means "most useful". Flax fibers taken from the stem of the plant are two to three times as strong as cotton fibers. Additionally, flax fibers are smooth and straight. Europe and North America both depended on flax for plant-based cloth until the 19th century, when cotton overtook flax as the most common plant for making rag-based paper.
Flax is grown on the Canadian prairies for linseed oil, used as a drying oil in paints and varnishes and in products such as linoleum and printing inks. Linseed meal, the byproduct of producing linseed oil from flax seeds, is used to feed livestock, it is a protein-rich feed for ruminants and fish. Flaxseeds occur in two basic varieties/colors: brown or yellow. Most types of these basic varieties have similar nutritional characteristics and equal numbers of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids; the exception is a type of yellow flax called solin, which has a different oil profile and is low in omega-3s. Flaxseeds produce a vegetable oil known as flaxseed oil or linseed oil, one of the oldest commercial oils, it is an edible oil sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Solvent-processed flaxseed oil has been used for many centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing. Although brown flaxseed varieties may be consumed as as the yellow ones, have been for thousands of years, its better-known uses are in paints, for fiber, for cattle feed.
A 100-gram portion of ground flaxseed supplies about 534 calories, 41 g of fat, 28 g of fiber, 20 g of protein. Flaxseed sprouts are edible and have a spicy flavor profile. Excessive consumption of flaxseeds with inadequate amounts of water may cause bowel obstruction. In northern India, called tisi or alsi, is traditionally roasted and eaten with boiled rice, a little water, a little salt. In India, linseed oil is known as javas in Marathi, it is used in Savji curries, such as mutton curries. Whole flaxseeds are chemically stable, but ground flaxseed meal, because of oxidation, may go rancid when left exposed to air at room temperature in as little as one week. Refrigeration and storage in sealed containers will keep ground flaxseed meal for a longer period before it turns rancid. Under conditions similar to those found in commercial bakeries, trained sensory panelists could not detect differences between bread made with freshly ground flaxseed and bread made with flaxseed, milled four months earlier and stored at room temperature.
This shows, if packed without exposure to air and light, milled flaxseed is stable against
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th