Yerkes Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin operated by the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics. It closed public operations in 2018; the observatory, which called itself "the birthplace of modern astrophysics", was founded in 1897 by astronomer George Ellery Hale and financed by businessman Charles T. Yerkes, it represented a shift in the thinking about observatories, from their being mere housing for telescopes and observers, to the early-20th-century concept of observation equipment integrated with laboratory space for physics and chemistry. The observatory houses a 40-inch diameter doublet lens refracting telescope, the largest successfully used for astronomy, a collection of over 170,000 photographic plates. Notable astronomers who conducted research at Yerkes include Edwin Hubble, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Russian-American astronomer Otto Struve, Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper, the twentieth-century popularizer of astronomy Carl Sagan.
Yerkes Observatory's 40 in refracting telescope has a lens produced by the optical firm Alvan Clark & Sons and a mounting by the Warner & Swasey Company. It is the largest refracting telescope used for astronomical research; the mounting and tube for the 40-inch telescope was exhibited at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago before being installed in the observatory. The grinding of the lens was completed later; the observatory houses 40 in and 24 in reflecting telescopes. Several smaller telescopes are used for educational purposes. Both telescopes are available on Skynet Junior Scholars, the 40-inch reflector helped pioneer the field of adaptive optics. Research conducted at Yerkes in the last decade includes work on the interstellar medium, globular cluster formation, infrared astronomy, near-Earth objects; until the University of Chicago maintained an engineering center in the observatory, dedicated to building and maintaining scientific instruments. In 2012 the engineers completed work on the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera, part of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy.
Researchers use the Yerkes collection of over 170,000 archival photographic plates that date back to the 1890s. The past few years have seen astronomical research replaced by educational outreach and astronomical tourism activities. In March 2005, the University of Chicago announced plans to sell the observatory and its land on the shore of Geneva Lake. Two purchasers had expressed an interest: Mirbeau, an East Coast developer that wanted to build luxury homes, Aurora University, which has a campus straddling the Williams Bay property; the Geneva Lake Conservancy, a regional conservation and land trust organization, maintained that it was critical to save the historic Yerkes Observatory structures and telescopes for education and research, as well as to conserve the rare undeveloped, wooded lakefront and deep forest sections of the 77-acre site. On June 7, 2006, the University announced it would sell the facility to Mirbeau for US$8 million with stipulations to preserve the observatory, the surrounding 30 acres, the entire shoreline of the site.
Under the Mirbeau plan, a 100-room resort with a large spa operation and attendant parking and support facilities was to be located on the 9-acre virgin wooded Yerkes land on the lakeshore—the last such undeveloped, natural site on Geneva Lake's 21-mile shoreline. About 70 homes were to be developed on the upper Yerkes property surrounding the historic observatory; these grounds had been designed more than 100 years by John Charles Olmsted, the nephew and adopted son of famed landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. Williams Bay's refusal to change the zoning from education to residential caused Mirbeau to abandon its development plans. In view of the public controversy surrounding the development proposals, the university suspended these plans in January 2007; the university's department of astronomy and astrophysics formed a study group, including representatives from the faculty and observatory and a wide range of other involved parties, to plan for the operation of a regional center for science education at the observatory.
The study group began its work in February 2007 and issued its final report November 30, 2007. The report recommended creating a formal business plan to ensure the financial viability of the proposed science education center, establishing ownership of the proposed center before initiating plans for creating it, forming a partnership between the University of Chicago and local interests to plan for the center, it suggested that some lakefront and woods parcels could be sold for residential development. In March 2018, the University of Chicago announced that it would no longer operate the observatory after October 1, 2018, would be seeking a new owner. In May 2018, the Yerkes Future Foundation, a group of concerned local residents, submitted an expression of interest to the University of Chicago with a proposal that would seek to maintain public access to the site and continuation of the educational programs. No successor operator had been identified by the end of August, plans were put in place to close the facility on October 1.
As of September 14, 2018 the University's talks continue with the Yerkes Future Foundation, but no long term plans have been announced by the University of Chicago for Yerkes Observatory aft
Hyde Park Academy High School
Hyde Park Academy High School is a public 4–year high school located in the Woodlawn neighborhood on the south side of Chicago, United States. Opened in 1863, Hyde Park is located in the Woodlawn neighborhood south of the University of Chicago. Hyde Park is operated by the Chicago Public Schools district. In 2012, Hyde Park became the fourth Chicago public high school to become an International Baccalaureate school; the school was established by the Chicago Board of Education as Hyde Park High School in 1863. The school was housed in several locations from its opening until 1886 when the board of education dedicated a three-floor school building located at Kimbark Avenue and 56th Streets in Hyde Park neighborhood. Hyde Park remained at the location from 1889 until it was decided that a new location was needed to house the school's growing population in 1910. Chicago officials decided on a site bordered by Stony Island Avenue to the east, Harper Avenue to the west, 62nd street to the north and 63rd street to the south.
Hyde Park moved to its present site at 6220 South Stony Island Avenue in July 1914. The school underwent several major renovations during the 20th century. From the school's beginning, Hyde Park's student body was predominantly White. Whites were the highest populated in the area; the school's demographics began to change during the mid–1940s after the government pushed for integration of schools and neighborhoods. Over a span of twenty years beginning in 1947, the white population at the school began to decline due to whites being opposed to accepting low income African–Americans to attend the school. In January 1966, The Chicago board of education was charged with violation federal and state laws when they approved a plan to modernize Hyde Park and build a new high school that would serve Hyde Park's current white student body attracting other white students located next to the school; the plan was in violation of the United States Civil Rights Act of 1964, the plan was never carried out. By 1967, the school was predominantly African–American by a total of 97%.
Although the demographics among students had changed, the teaching staff remained the same. The opening of Kenwood High School in 1969 resulted in white enrollment at the school becoming negligible to non-existent. In April 1973, the school became a magnet school and its named changed to Hyde Park Career Academy, establishing the school as a "career academy"; the push to change the school's name and curriculum was made by principal Weldon Beverly Jr.. Hyde Park began to offer International Baccalaureate classes to its students during the 2000–2001 school year. In 2004, Chicago Public Schools CEO Arne Duncan and Chicago mayor Richard M. Daley introduced the Renaissance 2010 program. Under this program, Hyde Park was forced to accept more than 300 more area–students than any other high school in the city during a two–year period; the school name changed to Hyde Park Academy High School in 2012 when the school became International Baccalaureate. On November 26, 1957, Shortly after 2:00 p.m.. At the time, this had been the school's fourth time receiving a bomb threat within a one-month period.
On December 8, 1988, three teenage males were caught trespassing in the school at around 2:15 p.m.. On February 15, 2013, President Barack Obama delivered a televised speech in the school's gymnasium addressing the issue of gun violence in Chicago. Hyde Park competes in the Chicago Public League and is a member of the Illinois High School Association. Hyde Park sport teams are known as Thunderbirds. Hyde Park boys' basketball team have been regional champions four times; the boys' track and field placed first in the state in 1903 and 1929. The girls' basketball team won regional titles three consecutive seasons. Hyde Park Career Academy School Website
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon. When the object enters the atmosphere, various factors such as friction and chemical interactions with the atmospheric gases cause it to heat up and radiate that energy, it becomes a meteor and forms a fireball known as a shooting star or falling star. Meteorites vary in size. For geologists, a bolide is a meteorite large enough to create an impact crater. Meteorites that are recovered after being observed as they transit the atmosphere and impact the Earth are called meteorite falls. All others are known as meteorite finds; as of August 2018, there were about 1,412 witnessed falls that have specimens in the world's collections. As of 2018, there are more than 59,200 well-documented meteorite finds. Meteorites have traditionally been divided into three broad categories: stony meteorites that are rocks composed of silicate minerals.
Modern classification schemes divide meteorites into groups according to their structure and isotopic composition and mineralogy. Meteorites smaller than 2 mm are classified as micrometeorites. Extraterrestrial meteorites are such objects that have impacted other celestial bodies, whether or not they have passed through an atmosphere, they have been found on the Mars. Meteorites are always named for the places they were found a nearby town or geographic feature. In cases where many meteorites were found in one place, the name may be followed by a number or letter; the name designated by the Meteoritical Society is used by scientists and most collectors. Most meteoroids disintegrate. Five to ten a year are observed to fall and are subsequently recovered and made known to scientists. Few meteorites are large enough to create large impact craters. Instead, they arrive at the surface at their terminal velocity and, at most, create a small pit. Large meteoroids may strike the earth with a significant fraction of their escape velocity, leaving behind a hypervelocity impact crater.
The kind of crater will depend on the size, degree of fragmentation, incoming angle of the impactor. The force of such collisions has the potential to cause widespread destruction; the most frequent hypervelocity cratering events on the Earth are caused by iron meteoroids, which are most able to transit the atmosphere intact. Examples of craters caused by iron meteoroids include Barringer Meteor Crater, Odessa Meteor Crater, Wabar craters, Wolfe Creek crater. In contrast relatively large stony or icy bodies like small comets or asteroids, up to millions of tons, are disrupted in the atmosphere, do not make impact craters. Although such disruption events are uncommon, they can cause a considerable concussion to occur. Large stony objects, hundreds of meters in diameter or more, weighing tens of millions of tons or more, can reach the surface and cause large craters, but are rare; such events are so energetic that the impactor is destroyed, leaving no meteorites. Several phenomena are well documented during witnessed meteorite falls too small to produce hypervelocity craters.
The fireball that occurs as the meteoroid passes through the atmosphere can appear to be bright, rivaling the sun in intensity, although most are far dimmer and may not be noticed during daytime. Various colors have been reported, including yellow and red. Flashes and bursts of light can occur. Explosions and rumblings are heard during meteorite falls, which can be caused by sonic booms as well as shock waves resulting from major fragmentation events; these sounds can be heard with a radius of a hundred or more kilometers. Whistling and hissing sounds are sometimes heard, but are poorly understood. Following passage of the fireball, it is not unusual for a dust trail to linger in the atmosphere for several minutes; as meteoroids are heated during atmospheric entry, their surfaces experience ablation. They can be sculpted into various shapes during this process, sometimes resulting in shallow thumbprint-like indentations on their surfaces called regmaglypts. If the meteoroid maintains a fixed orientation for some time, without tumbling, it may develop a conical "nose cone" or "heat shield" shape.
As it decelerates the molten surface layer solidifies into a thin fusion crust, which on most meteorites is black. On stony meteorites, the heat-affected zone is at most a few mm deep. Reports vary. Meteorites from multiple falls, such as Bjurbole, Tagish Lake, Buzzard Coulee, have been found having fallen on lake and sea ice suggesting that they were not hot when they
The English Mechanic and World of Science
The English Mechanic and World of Science was a popular-science magazine, published weekly from 1865 to 1926 consisting of 24 pages. It was aimed at people interested in inventions and gadgets and new discoveries in science and mathematics. A regular chess column was included, written by James Pierce; the magazine popularized amateur telescope construction in the UK and in the United States after the Reverend William Frederick Archdall Ellison's articles on the subject were reprinted in the Scientific American. A letter published in the magazine led to the formation of the British Astronomical Association. In the May 1899 issue there was an article by T Hyler-White on a motor tricycle that could be powered by a 1.75 hp De Dion-Bouton. Following this and starting in January 1900 there appeared a series of 56 further articles entitled "A small car and how to build it", containing the plans for what was the UK's first kit car; the design was based on the Benz Velo, it was suggested that a Benz engine should be used and to keep down costs various secondhand parts should be used, although some new castings were made available with a machining service if required.
Further series of articles appeared with more designs including in 1901 a steam car, in 1902 a steam-3 wheeler, in 1904 a 5 hp twin-cylinder car, in 1909 a single-cylinder engined runabout and in 1913 a cyclecar. It is not known how many cars were built following the plans but at least four survive, they are collectively known today as "English Mechanics" but it is probable that a variety of names was used at the time. Commercial scans at the englishmechanic.com website Scans at the Internet Archive
Mount Wilson Observatory
The Mount Wilson Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, United States. The MWO is located on Mount Wilson, a 1,740-metre peak in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, northeast of Los Angeles; the observatory contains two important telescopes: the 100-inch Hooker telescope, the largest aperture telescope in the world from its completion in 1917 to 1949, the 60-inch telescope, the largest operational telescope in the world when it was completed in 1908. It contains the Snow solar telescope completed in 1905, the 60 foot solar tower completed in 1908, the 150 foot solar tower completed in 1912, the CHARA array, built by Georgia State University, which became operational in 2004 and was the largest optical interferometer in the world at its completion. Due to the inversion layer that traps smog over Los Angeles, Mount Wilson has more natural steady air than any other location in North America, making it ideal for astronomy and in particular for interferometry; the increasing light pollution due to the growth of greater Los Angeles has limited the ability of the observatory to engage in deep space astronomy, but it remains a productive center, with the CHARA Array continuing important stellar research.
The observatory was conceived and founded by George Ellery Hale, who had built the 1 meter telescope at the Yerkes Observatory the world's largest telescope. The Mount Wilson Solar Observatory was first funded by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1904, leasing the land from the owners of the Mount Wilson Hotel in 1904. Among the conditions of the lease was that it allow public access. There are three solar telescopes at Mount Wilson Observatory. Today, the 60 foot Solar Tower, is still used for solar research; the Snow Solar Telescope was the first telescope installed at the fledgling Mount Wilson Solar Observatory. It was the world's first permanently mounted solar telescope. Solar telescopes had been portable so they could be taken to solar eclipses around the world; the telescope was donated to Yerkes Observatory by Helen Snow of Chicago. George Ellery Hale director of Yerkes, had the telescope brought to Mount Wilson to put it into service as a proper scientific instrument, its 24-inch primary mirror with a 60-foot focal length, coupled with a spectrograph, did groundbreaking work on the spectra of sunspots, doppler shift of the rotating solar disc and daily solar images in several wavelengths.
Stellar research soon followed as the brightest stars could have their spectra recorded with long exposures on glass plates. Today the Snow solar telescope is used by undergraduate students who get hands on training in solar physics and spectroscopy, it was used publicly for the May 9, 2016 transit of Mercury across the face of the sun. The 60-foot Solar Tower soon built on the work started at the Snow telescope. At its completion in 1908, the vertical tower design of the 60 foot focal length solar telescope allowed much higher resolution of the solar image and spectrum than the Snow telescope could achieve; the higher resolution came from situating the optics higher above the ground, thereby avoiding the distortion caused by the heating of the ground by the sun. On June 25, 1908, Hale would record Zeeman splitting in the spectrum of a sunspot, showing for the first time that magnetic fields existed somewhere besides the earth. A discovery was of the reversed polarity in sunspots of the new solar cycle of 1912.
The success of the 60 foot Tower prompted Hale to pursue yet taller tower telescope. In the 1960s, Robert Leighton discovered the sun had a 5-minute oscillation and the field of heliosiesmology was born; the 60 foot Tower is operated by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at University of Southern California. The 150-foot focal length solar tower expanded on the solar tower design with its tower-in-a-tower design. An inner tower supports the optics above, while an outer tower, which surrounds the inner tower, supports the dome and floors around the optics; this design allowed complete isolation of the optics from the effect of wind swaying the tower. Two mirrors feed sunlight to a 12-inch lens, it was first completed in 1910, but unsatisfactory optics caused a two-year delay before a suitable doublet lens was installed. Research included solar rotation, sunspot polarities, daily sunspot drawings, many magnetic field studies; the solar telescope would be the world's largest for 50 years until the McMath-Pierce Solar telescope was completed at Kitt Peak in Arizona in 1962.
In 1985, UCLA took over operation of the solar tower from the Carnegie Observatories after it was decided to stop funding the observatory. For the 60-inch telescope, George Ellery Hale received the 60-inch mirror blank, cast by Saint-Gobain in France, in 1896 as a gift from his father, William Hale, it was a glass disk 19 cm thick and weighing 860 kg. However it was not until 1904 that Hale received funding from the Carnegie Institution to build an observatory. Grinding took two years; the mounting and structure for the telescope was built in San Francisco and survived the 1906 earthquake. Transporting the pieces to the top of Mount Wilson was an enormous task. First light was December 8, 1908, it was at the time the largest operational telescope in the world. Lord Rosse's Leviathan of Parsonstown, a 72-inch telescope built in 1845, was, by the 1890s, out of commission. Although smaller than the Leviathan, the 60-inch had many advantages including a far better site, a glass mirror instead
Harvey H. Nininger
Harvey Harlow Nininger was an American meteoriticist and educator, although he was self-taught, he revived interest in scientific study of meteorites in the 1930s and assembled the largest personal collection of meteorites up to that time. He founded the American Meteorite Museum, first located near Meteor Crater, Arizona in Sedona, Arizona. Part of the Nininger Collection was sold to the British Museum in 1958, the remainder of the collection was sold to the Arizona State University Center for Meteorite Studies in 1960 which displays a selection of these meteorites in their public museum. Dr. Fletcher Watson of Harvard University in his book Between The Planets writes that Nininger was accounting for half of all the meteorite discoveries in the world at that time. In his career, Nininger published four books relating to meteorites. Over the years I delivered hundreds of lectures throughout the nation in colleges and universities...in elementary and secondary schools... I spoke on street corners, in country schools, in the Carnegie Music Hall...
It was a source of some chagrin to be introduced, as I was as "the man who has found more meteorites than any other man in history." Such a statement missed the main point of my life. Collecting occupied much of my time and effort, but collecting served as a sort of platform or footing on which to stand while I sought to educate, while I pleaded for an organized program of meteoritical research. Nininger's career as a self-taught and self-financed meteorite scientist and collector was unique, he lived to see meteoritics receive serious attention in the earth and space sciences, as he had urged for forty years. Nininger is considered by many today to be the father of modern meteoritics, having recovered a substantial portion of the meteorites available to scientists today as well as bringing to attention the fact that meteorites are present in great enough concentrations on Earth's surface to warrant looking for. Before Nininger pursued his meteorite hunting endeavors, many scientists regarded it as a folly to spend one's time doing so, believing meteorites to be so uncommon as to render searching for them a complete waste of time.
In 1965, Nininger and his wife endowed the Nininger Meteorite Award, awarded annually by the Center for Meteorite Studies at Arizona State University. Meteorite Glossary of meteoritics Cokinos, Christopher; the Fallen Sky: An Intimate History of Shooting Stars, 2009. ISBN 1-5854-2720-9 Nininger, Harvey Harlow. Find a Falling Star, 1972. ISBN 0-8397-2230-3 Palmer, D. T. "Harvey Nininger: Father of American Meteoritics", Meteorite Vol. 5, p. 40-41. American Meteorite Museum postcards, MSS 3668 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University Interview transcript, Flagstaff Public Library, 1976 Nininger Meteorite Award Center for Meteorite Studies Biographical sketch, with photos Nininger Moments
Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune. It is the largest known plutoid. Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and was considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, Eris, a dwarf planet in the scattered disc, 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered; this led the International Astronomical Union to define the term "planet" formally in 2006, during their 26th General Assembly. That definition excluded reclassified it as a dwarf planet. Pluto is the largest and second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System, the ninth-largest and tenth-most-massive known object directly orbiting the Sun, it is less massive than Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is made of ice and rock and is small—about one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume, it has a moderately eccentric and inclined orbit during which it ranges from 30 to 49 astronomical units or AU from the Sun.
This means that Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but a stable orbital resonance with Neptune prevents them from colliding. Light from the Sun takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance. Pluto has five known moons: Charon, Nix and Hydra. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body; the New Horizons spacecraft performed a flyby of Pluto on July 14, 2015, becoming the first spacecraft to do so. During its brief flyby, New Horizons made detailed measurements and observations of Pluto and its moons. In September 2016, astronomers announced that the reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules that may be ingredients for the emergence of life, produced from methane and other gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred about 19,000 km to the orbiting moon. In the 1840s, Urbain Le Verrier used Newtonian mechanics to predict the position of the then-undiscovered planet Neptune after analyzing perturbations in the orbit of Uranus.
Subsequent observations of Neptune in the late 19th century led astronomers to speculate that Uranus's orbit was being disturbed by another planet besides Neptune. In 1906, Percival Lowell—a wealthy Bostonian who had founded Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1894—started an extensive project in search of a possible ninth planet, which he termed "Planet X". By 1909, Lowell and William H. Pickering had suggested several possible celestial coordinates for such a planet. Lowell and his observatory conducted his search until his death to no avail. Unknown to Lowell, his surveys had captured two faint images of Pluto on March 19 and April 7, 1915, but they were not recognized for what they were. There are fourteen other known precovery observations, with the earliest made by the Yerkes Observatory on August 20, 1909. Percival's widow, Constance Lowell, entered into a ten-year legal battle with the Lowell Observatory over her husband's legacy, the search for Planet X did not resume until 1929.
Vesto Melvin Slipher, the observatory director, gave the job of locating Planet X to 23-year-old Clyde Tombaugh, who had just arrived at the observatory after Slipher had been impressed by a sample of his astronomical drawings. Tombaugh's task was to systematically image the night sky in pairs of photographs examine each pair and determine whether any objects had shifted position. Using a blink comparator, he shifted back and forth between views of each of the plates to create the illusion of movement of any objects that had changed position or appearance between photographs. On February 18, 1930, after nearly a year of searching, Tombaugh discovered a possible moving object on photographic plates taken on January 23 and 29. A lesser-quality photograph taken on January 21 helped confirm the movement. After the observatory obtained further confirmatory photographs, news of the discovery was telegraphed to the Harvard College Observatory on March 13, 1930. Pluto has yet to complete a full orbit of the Sun since its discovery because one Plutonian year is 247.68 years long.
The discovery made headlines around the globe. Lowell Observatory, which had the right to name the new object, received more than 1,000 suggestions from all over the world, ranging from Atlas to Zymal. Tombaugh urged Slipher to suggest a name for the new object before someone else did. Constance Lowell proposed Zeus Percival and Constance; these suggestions were disregarded. The name Pluto, after the god of the underworld, was proposed by Venetia Burney, an eleven-year-old schoolgirl in Oxford, interested in classical mythology, she suggested it in a conversation with her grandfather Falconer Madan, a former librarian at the University of Oxford's Bodleian Library, who passed the name to astronomy professor Herbert Hall Turner, who cabled it to colleagues in the United States. Each member of the Lowell Observatory was allowed to vote on a short-list of three potential names: Minerva and Pluto. Pluto received every vote; the name was announced on May 1, 1930. Upon the announcement, Madan gave Venetia £5 as