1997 United Kingdom general election
The 1997 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 1 May 1997, five years after the previous general election on 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons. Under the leadership of Tony Blair, the Labour Party ended its eighteen-year spell in opposition and won the general election with a landslide victory, winning 418 seats, the most seats the party has held to date, the highest proportion of seats held by any party in the post-war era. For the first time since 1931, the outgoing government lost more than half its parliamentary seats in an election; the election saw a 10.0% swing from Conservative to Labour on a national turnout of 71%, would be the last national vote where turnout exceeded 70% until the 2016 EU referendum nineteen years later. As a result Blair became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, a position he held until his resignation on 27 June 2007. Under Blair's leadership, the Labour Party had adopted a more centrist policy platform under the name'New Labour'.
This was seen as moving away from the traditionally more left-wing stance of the Labour Party. Labour made several campaign pledges such as the creation of a National Minimum Wage, devolution referendums for Scotland and Wales and promised greater economic competence than the Conservatives, who were unpopular following the events of Black Wednesday in 1992; the Labour Party campaign was a success. However, 1997 was the last general election in which Labour had a net gain of seats until the snap 2017 general election 20 years later. A record number of women were elected to 120, of whom 101 were Labour MPs; this was in part thanks to Labour's policy of using all-women shortlists. The Conservative Party was led by incumbent Prime Minister John Major and ran their campaign emphasising falling unemployment and a strong economic recovery following the early 1990s recession. However, a series of scandals, party division over the European Union, the events of Black Wednesday and a desire of the electorate for change after 18 years of Conservative rule all contributed to the Conservatives' worst defeat since 1906, with only 165 MPs elected to Westminster, as well as their lowest share of the vote since 1832.
The party was left with no seats whatsoever in Scotland or Wales, many key Conservative politicians, including Defence Secretary Michael Portillo, Foreign Secretary Malcolm Rifkind, Trade Secretary Ian Lang, Scottish Secretary Michael Forsyth and former ministers Edwina Currie, Norman Lamont, David Mellor and Neil Hamilton lost their parliamentary seats. However, future Prime Minister Theresa May was elected to the safe Conservative seat of Maidenhead, current Speaker John Bercow at Buckingham. Following the defeat, the Conservatives began their longest continuous spell in opposition in the history of the present day Conservative Party, indeed the longest such spell for any incarnation of the Tories/Conservatives since the 1760s, lasting 13 years, including the whole of the 2000s. Throughout this period, their representation in the Commons remained below 200 MPs; the Liberal Democrats, under Paddy Ashdown, returned 46 MPs to parliament, the most for any third party since 1929 and more than double the number of seats it got in 1992, despite a drop in popular vote, in part due to tactical voting by anti-Conservative voters supporting it in lieu of Labour in areas where that party had little strength.
The Scottish National Party returned six MPs, double its total in 1992. As with all general elections since the early 1950s, the results were broadcast live on the BBC; the British economy had been in recession at the time of the 1992 election, which the Conservatives had won, although the recession had ended within a year, events such as Black Wednesday had tarnished the Conservative government's reputation for economic management. Labour had elected John Smith as its party leader in 1992, but his death from a heart attack in 1994 led the way for Tony Blair to become Labour leader. Blair brought the party closer to the political centre and abolished the party's Clause IV in their constitution, which had committed them to mass nationalisation of industry. Labour reversed its policy on unilateral nuclear disarmament and the events of Black Wednesday allowed Labour to promise greater economic management under the Chancellorship of Gordon Brown. A manifesto, entitled New Labour, New Life For Britain was released in 1996 and outlined five key pledges: Class sizes to be cut to 30 or under for 5-, 6- and 7-year-olds by using money from the assisted places scheme.
Fast track punishment for persistent young offenders, by halving the time from arrest to sentencing. Cut NHS waiting lists by treating an extra 100,000 patients as a first step by releasing £100 million saved from NHS red tape. Get 250,000 under-25-year-olds off benefit and into work by using money from a windfall levy on the privatised utilities. No rise in income tax rates, cut VAT on heating to 5%, keeping inflation and interest rates as low as possible. Disputes within the Conservative government over European Union issues, a variety of "sleaze" allegations had affected the government's popularity. Despite the strong economic recovery and substantial fall in unemployment in the four years leading up to the election, the rise in Conservative support was only marginal with all of the major opinion polls having shown Labour in a comfortable lead since late 1992. Following the 1992 general election, the Conservatives held government with 336 of the 651 H
Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and other English-speaking countries it is called chairmanship, the law of meetings, procedure at meetings or the conduct of meetings. In the United States, parliamentary procedure is referred to as parliamentary law, parliamentary practice, legislative procedure or rules of order. At its heart is the rule of the majority with respect for the minority, its object is to allow deliberation upon questions of interest to the organization and to arrive at the sense or the will of the assembly upon these questions. Self-governing organizations follow parliamentary procedure to debate and reach group decisions—usually by vote—with the least possible friction. Rules of order consist of rules written by the body itself, but usually supplemented by a published parliamentary authority adopted by the body.
National, state/provincial and other full-scale legislative assemblies have extensive internally written rules of order, whereas non-legislative bodies write and adopt a limited set of specific rules as the need arises. The term gets its name from its use in the parliamentary system of government. In the 16th and 17th century, there were rules of order in the early Parliaments of England. In the 1560s Sir Thomas Smyth began the process of writing down accepted procedures and published a book about them for the House of Commons in 1583. Early rules included One subject should be discussed at a time Personal attacks are to be avoided in debate Debate must be limited to the merits of the question Division of a question when some seem to be for one part but not the other The Westminster parliamentary procedures are followed in several Commonwealth countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In Canada, for example, the House of Commons uses House of Commons Procedure and Practice as its primary procedural authority.
Others include Arthur Beauchesne’s Parliamentary Rules and Forms of the House of Commons of Canada, Sir John George Bourinot’s Parliamentary Procedure and Practice in the Dominion of Canada, Erskine May’s The Law, Privileges and Usage of Parliament from Britain. The rules of the United States Congress were developed from the parliamentary procedures used in Britain; the American parliamentary procedures are followed in many nations, including Indonesia, the Philippines and South Korea. The procedures of the Diet of Japan have moved away from the British parliamentary model. In Occupied Japan, there were efforts to bring Japanese parliamentary procedures more in line with American congressional practices. In Japan, informal negotiations are more important than formal procedures. Written codes of rules govern in Italy the life of the Houses of the Parliament: the Constitutional Court is judge on the limits beyond which these regulations cannot go, exceeding the parliamentary or political function, on their bad application when a law is passed through.
Parliamentary procedure is based on the principles of allowing the majority to make decisions and efficiently, while ensuring fairness towards the minority and giving each member or delegate the right to voice an opinion. Voting determines the will of the assembly. While each assembly may create their own set of rules, these sets tend to be more alike than different. A common practice is to adopt a standard reference book on parliamentary procedure and modify it through special rules of order that supersede the adopted authority. A parliamentary structure conducts business through motions. Members bring business before the assembly by introducing main motions, or dispose of this business through subsidiary motions and incidental motions. Parliamentary procedure allows for rules in regards to nomination, disciplinary action, appeals and the drafting of organization charters and bylaws; the most common procedural authority in use in the United States is Robert's Rules of Order. Other authorities include The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure and Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law and Procedure.
A common text in use in the UK within trade unions, is Lord Citrine's ABC of Chairmanship. In English-speaking Canada, popular authorities include Kerr & King's Procedures for Meeting and Organizations; the Conservative Party of Canada uses Wainberg's Society meetings including rules of order to run its internal affairs. In French-speaking Canada used rules of order for ordinary societies include Victor Morin's Procédures des assemblées délibérantes and the Code CSN. Legislative assemblies in all countries, because of their nature, tend to have a specialized set of rules that differ from parliamentary procedure used by clubs and organizations. In the United Kingdom, Thomas Erskine May's Treatise on the Law, Privileges and Usage of Parliament is the accepted authority on the powers and procedures of the Westminster parliament. There are the Standing Orders for each House. Of the 99 state legislative chambers in the United States, Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure governs parliamentary procedures in 70.
The United States Senate follows the Standing Rules of the United States Senate, whil
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of 2019 there are 814 hereditary peers; the numbers of peers – of England, Ireland, Great Britain, the UK – whose titles are the highest they hold are: dukes, 24. Not all hereditary titles are titles of the peerage. For instance and baronetesses may pass on their titles, but they are not peers. Conversely, the holder of a non-hereditary title may belong to the peerage, as with life peers. Peerages may be created by means of letters patent, but the granting of new hereditary peerages has dwindled. From 1963 to 1999, all peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, but since the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, only 92 are permitted to do so, unless they are life peers. Peers are called to the House of Lords with a writ of summons; the hereditary peerage, as it now exists, combines several different English institutions with analogous ones from Scotland and Ireland. English Earls are an Anglo-Saxon institution. Around 1014, England was divided into shires or counties to defend against the Danes.
When the Normans conquered England, they continued to appoint earls, but not for all counties. Earldoms began with a perquisite of a share of the legal fees in the county. Like most feudal offices, earldoms were inherited, but the kings asked earls to resign or exchange earldoms. There were few Earls in England, they were men of great wealth in the shire from which they held title, or an adjacent one, but it depended on circumstances: during the civil war between Stephen and the Empress Matilda, nine Earls were created in three years. William the Conqueror and Henry II did not make Dukes, but when Edward III of England declared himself King of France, he made his sons Dukes, to distinguish them from other noblemen, much as Royal Dukes are now distinguished from other Dukes. Kings created Marquesses and Viscounts to make finer gradations of honour: a rank something more than an Earl and something less than an Earl, respectively; when Henry III or Edward I wanted money or advice from his subjects, he would order great churchmen and other great men to come to his Great Council.
The English Order of Barons evolved from those men who were individually ordered to attend Parliament, but held no other title. This order, called a writ, was not hereditary, or a privilege. Which men were ordered to Council varied from Council to Council. Under Henry VI of England, in the 15th century, just before the Wars of the Roses, attendance at Parliament became more valuable; the first claim of hereditary right to a writ comes from this reign. The five orders began to be called Peers. Holders of older peerages began to receive greater honour than Peers of the same rank just created. If a man held a peerage, his son would succeed to it. If he had a single daughter, his son-in-law would inherit the family lands, the same Peerage. Customs changed with time. In the 13th century, the husband of the eldest daughter inherited the Earldom automatically. After Henry II became the Lord of Ireland, he and his successors began to imitate the English system as it was in their time. Irish Earls were first created in the 13th century, Irish Parliaments began in the same century.
A writ does not create a peerage in Ireland. After James II left England, he was King of Ireland alone for a time; the Irish peers were in a peculiar political position: because they were subjects of the King of England, but peers in a different kingdom, they could sit in the English House of Commons, many did. In the 18th century, Irish peerages became rewards for English politicians, limited only by the concern that they might go to Dublin and i
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth; this environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished as components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, soil, rocks and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air and climate, as well as energy, electric charge, magnetism, not originating from civilized human actions. In contrast to the natural environment is the built environment. In such areas where man has fundamentally transformed landscapes such as urban settings and agricultural land conversion, the natural environment is modified into a simplified human environment.
Acts which seem less extreme, such as building a mud hut or a photovoltaic system in the desert, the modified environment becomes an artificial one. Though many animals build things to provide a better environment for themselves, they are not human, hence beaver dams, the works of Mound-building termites, are thought of as natural. People find natural environments on Earth, naturalness varies in a continuum, from 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other. More we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform. If, for instance, in an agricultural field, the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil are similar to those of an undisturbed forest soil, but the structure is quite different. Natural environment is used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the natural environment of giraffes is the savanna. Earth science recognizes 4 spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere as correspondent to rocks, water and life respectively.
Some scientists include, as part of the spheres of the Earth, the cryosphere as a distinct portion of the hydrosphere, as well as the pedosphere as an active and intermixed sphere. Earth science, is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. There are four major disciplines in earth sciences, namely geography, geology and geodesy; these major disciplines use physics, biology and mathematics to build a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of Earth. The Earth's crust, or lithosphere, is the outermost solid surface of the planet and is chemically and mechanically different from underlying mantle, it has been generated by igneous processes in which magma cools and solidifies to form solid rock. Beneath the lithosphere lies the mantle, heated by the decay of radioactive elements; the mantle though solid is in a state of rheic convection. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly; the resulting process is known as plate tectonics.
Volcanoes result from the melting of subducted crust material or of rising mantle at mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes. Most water is found in another natural kind of body of water. An ocean is a major body of saline water, a component of the hydrosphere. 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water, customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand, nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though recognized as several'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean; the deep seabeds are more than half the Earth's surface, are among the least-modified natural environments. The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, other criteria: these divisions are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.
A river is a natural watercourse freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. A few rivers flow into the ground and dry up before reaching another body of water; the water in a river is in a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is a wider floodplain shaped by waters over-topping the channel. Flood plains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. Rivers are a part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge and the release of water stored in glaciers and snowpacks. Small rivers may be termed by several other names, including stream and brook, their current is confined within a stream banks. Streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology. A lake is a terrain feature, a body of water, localized to the bottom of basin.
A body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, is not part
Edward Curzon, 6th Earl Howe
Edward Richard Assheton Penn Curzon, 6th Earl Howe, styled Viscount Curzon from 1929 to 1964, was a British peer. Curzon was born in St George Hanover Square, the eldest son of Francis Curzon, 5th Earl Howe and his wife, Mary Curzon, Lady Howe, he was educated at Eton College, graduated from Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Curzon joined the London Division of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as a probationary midshipman on 18 September 1928, was appointed an acting sub-lieutenant on 21 July 1931, receiving promotion to sub-lieutenant on 7 November 1932, with seniority from 21 July 1932, he left the RNVR in 1936 or 1937, but returned to RNVR service after the outbreak on the Second World War, being appointed a probationary temporary sub-lieutenant on 23 February 1940. He was promoted to lieutenant on 20 May 1940, served aboard the cruiser HMS Cairo from June 1940 to December 1941 the battleship HMS Howe from May 1942 to July 1945, serving in the rank of acting temporary lieutenant commander from December 1943 until April 1944.
He left the navy in April 1946. Curzon had an active career in public service, he was first elected Member of the London County Council for South Battersea in 1937, serving until 1946. In November 1940 he was appointed a Sheriff for Buckinghamshire in the King's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice, his career continued post-war. Curzon was appointed a Justice of the Peace in 1946, was elected as an alderman of Buckinghamshire in 1958, was a county councillor from 1973, serving as Vice Chairman of Buckinghamshire County Council from 1976, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Buckinghamshire on 1 February 1960, was again appointed a Sheriff for Buckinghamshire in November 1963. Curzon succeeded to the title of Earl Howe on 1 September 1964, taking his seat in the House of Lords, making his maiden speech on 13 December 1965, during a debate on transport issues in Greater London, he was a campaigner for road safety — which did not prevent him from suggesting that the speed limit on motorways should be raised from 70 to 100 mph.
He served as the President of the South Buckinghamshire Conservative and Unionist Association from 1965 to 1972 President of the Chesham and Amersham Conservative Association. In addition he served as Commissioner for the St John Ambulance Brigade for Buckinghamshire, 1953–1955, was a trustee of the King William IV Naval Asylum in Penge, he served as President of the British Automobile Racing Club, the Institute of Road Safety Officers, the Fiat Motor Club. He was a Steward and Vice-Chairman of the Royal Automobile Club, a director of Automobile Proprietary Ltd. and Motoring Services Ltd. and a member of the RAC Public Policy Committee, the British Motor Sport Council, the Royal National Lifeboat Institution Committee of Management. He was an Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Road Transport Engineers. In 1973 Curzon and his wife Grace appeared in Nick Broomfield's short film Proud to Be British. On 26 June 1953 Curzon was made an Officer of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, was promoted to Commander of the Order on 20 June 1956.
He was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1961 Birthday Honours for "political and public services in Buckinghamshire." Lord Howe married Priscilla Weigall, only daughter of Sir Archibald Weigall, on 23 July 1935 and they were divorced in 1943. They have two daughters, nine grandchildren and two great-grandchildren: Lady Priscilla Mary Rose Curzon she married Charles Keen on 21 July 1962, they have four children and two grandchildren: Laura Mary Catherine Keen she married Hon. Nicholas Beatty on 29 September 1990, they have one son: David Brin Charles Beatty Eleanor Margaret Keen Alice Priscilla Lyle Keen she married Peter C. P. Oswald in 1994. William Walter Maurice Keen he married Maria Fernandez Ache on 10 August 2002, they have one daughter: Dafne Keen Fernández Lady Jennifer Jane Curzon she married Alan Joseph Ponté, son of Captain Leo Ponté, on 6 September 1962. They have five children: David Joseph Marcus Blundell Ponté Gideon Léo FitzRoy Ponté Rebecca Kate Priscilla Clara Ponté she married David H. Kirton on 1 May 1995 Joshua Albert Coriat Ponté Luke Antony Archibald Ponté He married Grace Lilian Barker Wakeling, daughter of Stephan Frederick Wakeling, on 30 April 1946.
They have two daughters, six grandchildren and five great-grandchildren: Lady Mary-Gaye Georgiana Lorna Curzon she married Kevin Esmond Peter Cooper-Key on 18 December 1971 and they were divorced in 1976. They have two grandchildren, she remarried John Anstruther-Gough-Calthorpe on 27 May 1977 and they were divorced in 1986. They have three grandchildren, she remarried, Jeffrey Bonas in 1988 and they were divorced in 1994. They have one daughter, she married lastly was Christopher Shaw on 17 December 1996 and they were divorced. Pandora Lorna Mary Cooper-Key she married Matthew Mervyn-Jones in 2006, they have two children. Georgiana Moireach Gay Anstruther-Gough-Calthorpe, they have a daughter, born in 2007. Isabella Calthorpe she married Sam Branson on 6 March 2013, they have two children. Jacobi Richard Penn Anstruther-Gough-Calthorpe Cressida Bonas Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Anne Curzon she married Captain John Barry Dinan in 1988, they have one son: Richard Assheton Dermot Dinan He was succee