Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick Barbarossa known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152, he was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years the term sacrum first appeared in a document in connection with his empire, he was formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian. Before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia, he was the son of Duke Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Judith, daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, from the rival House of Welf. Frederick, descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors. Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empire's greatest medieval emperors.

He combined qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries: his longevity, his ambition, his extraordinary skills at organization, his battlefield acumen and his political perspicacity. His contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilis, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy. Frederick died in 1190 in Asia Minor while leading an army in the Third Crusade. Frederick was born in 1122. In early 1147, Frederick joined the Second Crusade, his uncle, King Conrad III, had taken the crusader vow in public on 28 December 1146. Frederick's father objected to his son's crusade. According to Otto of Freising, the duke berated his brother, Conrad III, for permitting his son to go; the elder Frederick, dying, expected his son to look after his widow and young half-brother. In preparation for his crusade, Frederick married Adelaide of Vohburg sometime before March 1147.

His father died on 4 or 6 Frederick succeeded to the Duchy of Swabia. The German crusader army departed from Regensburg seven weeks later. In August 1147, while crossing the Byzantine Empire, an ill crusader stopped in a monastery to recuperate. There he was killed. Conrad ordered Frederick to avenge him; the duke of Swabia razed the monastery and executed the robbers and demanded a return of the stolen money. The intervention of the Byzantine general Prosuch prevented a further escalation. A few weeks on 8 September and Welf VI were among the few German crusaders spared when flash flooding destroyed the main camp, they had encamped on a hill away from the main army. The army reached Constantinople the following day. Conrad III attempted to lead the army overland across Anatolia. Finding this too difficult in the face of constant Turkish attacks near Dorylaeum, he turned back; the rearguard was subsequently annihilated. Conrad sent Frederick ahead to ask for help; the two armies and German advanced together.

When Conrad fell ill at Christmas in Ephesus, he returned to Constantinople by ship with his main followers, including Frederick. With Byzantine ships and money, the Germany army left Constantinople on 7 March 1148 and arrived in Acre on 11 April. After Easter and Frederick visited Jerusalem, where Frederick was impressed by the charitable works of the Knights Hospitaller, he took part in the council, held at Palmarea on 24 June, where it was decided to attack Damascus. The Siege of Damascus ended in ignominious defeat. Gilbert of Mons, writing fifty years recorded that Frederick "prevailed in arms before all others in front of Damascus". On 8 September, the German army sailed out of Acre. On the route home, Conrad III and Frederick stopped in Thessaloniki where they swore oaths to uphold the treaty that Conrad had agreed with Emperor Manuel I Komnenos the previous winter; this treaty obligated the Germans to attack King Roger II of Sicily in cooperation with the Byzantines. After confirming the treaty, Frederick was sent ahead to Germany.

He passed through Bulgaria and Hungary and arrived in Germany in April 1149. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that Frederick, rather than Conrad's own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, succeed him as king. Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdom's princely electors designated him as the next German king, he was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days on 9 March 1152. Frederick's father was from the Hohenstaufen family, his mother was from the Welf family, the two most powerful families in Germany; the Hohenstaufens were called Ghibellines, which derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia. The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, its power waning under the weight of the Investiture controversy.

For a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was a nominal title with no real power. The king was chosen by the princes, was given no resources outside those of his own duchy, he was prevented from exercising any real au

Shepherd Neolithic

Shepherd Neolithic is a name given by archaeologists to a style of small flint tools from the Hermel plains in the north Beqaa Valley, Lebanon. The Shepherd Neolithic industry has been insufficiently studied and was provisionally named based on a limited typology collected by Jesuit archaeologist "Père" Henri Fleisch. Lorraine Copeland and Peter J. Wescombe suggested it was "of quite late date". Shepherd Neolithic material can be found dispersed over a wide area of the north Beqaa Valley in low concentrations. M. Billaux and Henri Fleisch suggested that the flints were of a higher quality than the brittle flint in the nearby conglomerates indicating origin from elsewhere. Three groups of flint could be determined. Characteristics of the industry include smallness in size between 2.5 cm and 4 cm and being quite thick, unlike geometric microliths. The small number of tools within the assemblage is another distinguishable characteristic, including short denticulated or notched blades, end scrapers, transverse racloirs on thin flakes and borers with strong points.

They display a lack of recognizable typology although Levallois technique was observed to have been used. They show signs of having been worked with cores being re-used and turned into scrapers. Fleisch suggested the industry was Epipaleolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Pottery Neolithic, he further suggested. The relationship and dividing line between the related Heavy Neolithic zone of the south Beqaa Valley could not be defined but was suggested to be in the area around Douris and Qalaat Tannour. Not enough exploration had been carried out to conclude whether the bands of Neolithic surface sites continues south into the areas around Zahle and Rayak; the type sites of the Shepherd Neolithic are at Qaa and Maqne I, with other sites with Shepherd Neolithic finds include Douris, Hermel II, Hermel III, Kamouh el Hermel, Qalaat Tannour, Wadi Boura I and at Rayak North, Riha Station and Serain

Vernon Rudolph

Vernon Carver Rudolph was an American businessman who founded Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc.. Vernon Carver Rudolph was born in Kentucky, he was the oldest of four children born to Rethie Rudolph. His siblings included Lewis Rudolph, who would help found Krispy Kreme; as he grew older, Vernon Rudolph began to help in the general store. When he graduated high school, he went to Kentucky with his uncle. In 1933, Rudolph's uncle bought a doughnut shop and recipe for yeast-raised donuts from a French federal employee and chef named Joe LeBeau; this all occurred during the middle of the Great Depression, so they moved to Nashville, Tennessee to see if they could get better business there and secure their financial future. Things did not work out for them in Nashville, so they moved back to Kentucky where Rudolph's uncle sold his business to his brother, Rudolph's father, his son, started working for the shop. In 1936, his father opened another shop in Charleston, West Virginia and a few years a third shop in Atlanta, Georgia.

In the summer of 1937, determined to own his own Krispy Kreme shop, Rudolph decided to move to Winston-Salem, North Carolina, home to the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, as he was smoking a Camel cigarette, he rented a building across from Salem College and Academy, on July 13, 1937, using that original recipe. His first customers were local grocery stores, but people began to stop by the store asking if they could buy hot doughnuts. In the 1940s, he sold franchises and in 1947, he founded the Krispy Kreme Corporation, becoming Chairman and President. In 1939, he married Ruth Ayers, from Atlanta, Georgia, they adopted a baby girl, Patricia Ann, in 1943. In 1944, his wife died in a car accident in South Carolina. In 1946, he got married again, to Lorraine Flynt of Winston-Salem, NC, they had four children, Vernon Carver Jr. Sanford and Beverly