Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, was a Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the author of one of the first modern novels to treat of same-sex love. He was the maternal grandfather of consort of Queen Victoria, he was born on 23 November 1772 in Gotha, the second son of Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen. In 1779 the death of his older brother Ernst made. In his youth he was well educated, his environment—sympathetic to the Jacobins—impressed on him the ideals of freedom and fraternity, he was a supporter of Napoleon Bonaparte when he succeeded his father in 1804, an advantage in the Napoleonic wars. Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg joined the Rhine Confederation in 1806; when the French Army marched into his duchy in this year, August remained in Gotha and thus prevented a potential escalation. He stood up for the imprisoned critical journalist Rudolph Zacharias Becker and persuaded the military commander to swiftly set him free. Napoleon Bonaparte, who always started his letters to Augustus with mon cousin and ended them with votre cousin, visited the Duke several times in Gotha as a sign of his appreciation, but never stayed the night at Friedenstein Castle.
The following visits by Napoleon to the town and meetings with Duke Augustus are known: 23 July 1807 27 September 1808 14 October 1808 15 December 1812 25 October 1813. From 1811 to 1813 the Duke celebrated Napoleon's birthday on 15 August with a gala reception at Schloss Friedenstein. In 1807 he had acquired one of Napoleon's bicorn hats from his servant Louis Constant Wairy, displayed to this day at Friedenstein. On Napoleon's visit on 23 July 1807, August gave the French Emperor an extravagant black carriage, which Napoleon however declined to use, due to its similarity with a death's head. Augustus' Napoleon-fandom peaked when he built a Napoleon room in Schloss Friedenstein in the Empire style, which he had designed — still a highlight of the museum today; the room's ceiling shows a starry sky with sun and moon, while the sun shows features of Napoleon, the moon shows Augustus' face. Augustus had an aversion to hunting or riding. Carl Maria von Weber dedicated his 2nd piano concerto to him out of gratitude.
He was seen as an eccentric, with a penchant for shocking or provocative appearances. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe described him as "pleasant and distasteful at the same time" and noted: "I can not complain about him, but it was always a nervous matter accepting an invitation to his table, as one could not predict which of the guests of honour he might decide on a whim to treat mercilessly", his tendency towards transvestism is characteristic: he liked to appear in women's clothing and thereby shock the court of Gotha. The well-known painter Caroline Louise Seidler, at the court of Gotha in the winter of 1811 to paint the Duke's family, described him as the "greatest original of his time," whose appearance had something "lady-like" about it, he had a preference for dancing, wearing silk socks and feminine clothes. He called himself "Emilie" among his friends. There are references to a possible homosexuality in his literary works. In 1805 he published anonymously the poetic novel Ein Jahr in Arkadien: Kyllenion.
This is a pastoral idyll, set in ancient Greece, in which several couples fall in love, overcome various obstacles and live ever after. It is unique in that one of the couples is homosexual and their love affair is treated no differently from that of any of the others; this is the first novel since antiquity in which same-sex love is so treated. A man of great culture, Augustus was in correspondence with Jean Paul, Madame de Stäel and Bettina von Arnim. After Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo, the Vienna Congress, Augustus became a persona non grata in aristocratic and diplomatic circles, was unpopular with the nationalist-inclined public, he died on 17 May 1822 in Gotha. The circumstances of his sudden death after a brief illness are unclear. Succeeded by his brother Frederick as Duke, Augustus was buried on an island in the lake of the Schlosspark on a crypt specially decorated for him, where his second wife Karoline Amalie was buried in 1848. Like the other graves of the Duke's family, his tomb is not marked with any monument.
The simple floral oval, which once marked the tomb, has not been recognisable for decades, thus the exact burial location of the couple is unknown. In Ludwigslust on 21 October 1797 Augustus married firstly Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, they had a daughter: Louise Dorothea Pauline Charlotte Fredericka Auguste. She married firstly on 31 July 1817 Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg, but they divorced in 1826. Louise was to become the mother of Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, husband of Queen Victoria, through him, Augustus is the ancestor of all British monarchs beginning with Edward VII, of numerous reigning monarchs across Europe. Duchess Louise Charlotte died on 4 January 1801, two weeks after giving birth to Louise. Fifteeen months la
Bernhard von Lindenau
Baron Bernhard August von Lindenau was a German lawyer, astronomer and art collector. Lindenau was born in Altenburg, where he died. In 1830 he was the Minister of the Interior during a turbulent period in the history of Saxony. Late in the year he oversaw measures to calm violent protests demanding political reform, he created a collection of Italian artwork from the 14th and 15th centuries by Florentine painters in an effort to create artistic awareness. He gave his art collection to the city of Altenburg on the condition that they create a museum to display the pieces; this museum was finished in 1875, became the Lindenau-Museum. Lindenau edited the Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmels-Kunde starting in 1807; the Journal was founded by Franz Xaver von Zach in 1800 and existed until 1813. In 1809 he became correspondent of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands, when that became the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1851 he joined as foreign member. Lindenau was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1822.
He died in Windischleuba. Asteroid 9322 Lindenau was named for him. Lindenau on the Moon was named for him. Lindenau Museum in Altenburg was named after him
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language. It was published by the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences between 1875 and 1912 in 56 volumes, printed in Leipzig by Duncker & Humblot; the ADB contains biographies of about 26,500 people who died before 1900 and lived in the German language Sprachraum of their time, including people from the Netherlands before 1648. Its successor, the Neue Deutsche Biographie, was started in 1953 and is planned to be ready in 2019. Reinert, Schrott, Ebneth, Rehbein, Team Deutsche Biographie et al. From Biographies to Data Curation - The Making of www.deutsche-biographie.de, in: BD2015. Biographical Data in a Digital World. Proceedings of the First Conference on Biographical Data in a Digital World 2015. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 9, 2015, ed. by. Serge ter Braake, Antske Fokkens, Ronald Sluijter, Thierry Declerck, Eveline Wandl-Vogt, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol-1399.
P. 13-19. Ebneth, Neue Deutsche Biographie, Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - full-text articles at German Wikisource. German Biography - complete full-text articles and further information
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Ernest I was the last sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and, from 1826, the first sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was the father of Albert, Prince Consort of Queen Victoria and is thus a patrilineal ancestor and great-great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II. Ernest fought against Napoleon Bonaparte, through construction projects and the establishment of a court theatre, he left a strong imprint on his residence town, Coburg. Ernest was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, his youngest brother, Leopold Georg Christian Frederick, was elected the first King of the Belgians. On 10 May 1803, aged 19, Ernest was proclaimed an adult because his father had become gravely ill, he was required to take part in the government of the duchy; when his father died in 1806, he succeeded in the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld as "Ernest III". However, he could not take over the formal government of his lands, because the duchy was occupied by Napoleonic troops and was under French administration.
The following year, after the Peace of Tilsit, the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was reunited and restored to Ernest. This occurred through Russian pressure, since his sister Juliane was married to the brother of the Russian Tsar. Ernest married Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg in Gotha on 3 July 1817, they had two children: Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who married Princess Alexandrine of Baden on 3 May 1842. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who married Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom on 10 February 1840, they had nine children. The marriage was unhappy because both wife were promiscuous; as the biographer Lytton Strachey put it: "The ducal court was not noted for the strictness of its morals. There were scandals: one of the Court Chamberlains, a charming and cultivated man of Jewish extraction, was talked of. Ernest and Louise were separated in 1824 and were divorced on 31 March 1826; as heirs to Coburg, the children remained with their father. Seven months after the divorce, in October 1826, Louise secretly married one of her lovers.
She died in 1831. In Coburg on 23 December 1832, Ernest married his niece Duchess Marie of Württemberg, the daughter of his sister Antoinette, they had no children. This marriage made his stepmother. Ernest had three illegitimate children: Berta Ernestine von Schauenstein, born to Sophie Fermepin de Marteaux, she married her first cousin Eduard Edgar Schmidt-Löwe von Löwenfels, the illegitimate son of her father's sister, Juliane. Ernst Albert and Robert Ferdinand, twins born in 1838 to Margaretha Braun, they were created Freiherren von Bruneck in 1856. After 1813, Ernest participated in military actions against Napoleon, he fought in the battles of Lützen and Leipzig, drew in 1814 into the French fortress of Mainz. After the battle of Leipzig, he commanded the 5. Armeekorps. After the defeat of Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo, the Congress of Vienna on 9 June 1815 gave him an area of 450 square kilometres with 25,000 inhabitants around the town of St. Wendel. In 1816, this estate received the name of Principality of Lichtenberg.
Ernest sold it to Prussia in 1834. In 1825, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the uncle of Ernest's first wife Louise, died without an heir; this resulted in a rearrangement of the Ernestine duchies. It was only as a member of the Ernestine dynasty. However, he was at that time in the process of divorcing Louise, the other branches used this as a leverage to drive a better bargain for themselves by insisting that he should not inherit Gotha, they reached a compromise on 12 November 1826: Ernest did receive Gotha, but had to cede Saalfeld to Saxe-Meiningen. He subsequently became "Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha". At Coburg, Ernest was responsible for various construction projects, including the establishment of the Hoftheater in its new building; the Schlossplatz as it appears today is due to work under his rule. Ernest died on 29 January 1844 and was buried in the Morizkirche but reinterred in the newly built mausoleum in Friedhof am Glockenberg. Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold in 1835.
August Beck: Ernst I.: Herzog Ernst Anton Karl Ludwig von Sachsen-Koburg-Gotha. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Band 6, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1877, p. 313–317. Carl-Christian Dressel: Die Entwicklung von Verfassung und Verwaltung in Sachsen-Coburg 1800–1826 im Vergleich. Duncker & Humblot Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-12003-1. Friedrich Knorr: Ernst I. Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Band 4, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1959, ISBN 3-428-00185-0, pp. 620. Heide Schulz: Freue Dich, Coburg. Die Ode H. C. A. Eichstädts zum Royal Wedding 1840, in: Coburger Geschichtsblätter 20, 2012, p. 25–54, ISSN 0947-0336
Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. He was the eldest son of Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Magdalene Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst. After the death of his father, in 1732, Frederick III assumed the duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. In 1734 he began a flourishing soldier trade with the Emperor, to the Prince of Waldeck and to the King of Prussia, which put him into the position to create a tax in his own duchy; the duchy had to suffer for Frederick with difficulty in the Seven Years' War and he forced the duchy into a war with his neighbour, duke Anton Ulrich of Saxe-Meiningen. In Gotha on 17 September 1729, Frederick married Luise Dorothea of his first cousin, they had nine children: Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Louis. Stillborn son, twin of Louis. Stillborn twin sons. Fredericka Louise. Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Sophie. August. From 1748 to 1755 he was regent of the duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach on behalf of Ernst August II Konstantin.
From 1750, he acted as regent alongside Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Beck, August, "Friedrich II.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 8, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 3–5 Christian Ferdinand Schulze, Leben des Herzogs von Sachsen-Gotha und Altenburg Friedrich II. Digitaliat
Bernhard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
Bernhard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen was a duke of Saxe-Meiningen. He was the sixth but third surviving son of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg and Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg. After the death of his father, in 1675, the duchy was jointly governed by his brothers. Bernhard became the founder of the Saxe-Meiningen line; the building of an official residence in Meiningen began immediately. The residence was finished in 1692 and was called Schloss Elisabethenburg, in honor of Bernhard's second wife. Like his brother Ernst, Bernhard's financial stability in his duchy was remarkable; the sales of chamber goods and the additional charge of taxes to the population were the result. Bernhard's will ordered the indivisibility of the duchy, but not Primogeniture; this allowed his sons to govern the duchy jointly after his death. He married in Gotha, on 20 November 1671 Marie Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt, they had seven children: Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Bernhard. Johann Ernst. Marie Elisabeth. Johann Georg.
Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Georg Ernst, he married secondly in Schöningen on 25 January 1681 Elisabeth Eleonore of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel daughter of Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. They had five children: Abbess of Gandersheim Abbey. Eleonore Frederika, a nun at Gandersheim. Anton August. Wilhelmine Luise, married on 20 December 1703 to Charles, Duke of Württemberg-Bernstadt. Anton Ulrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Hannelore Schneider, Das Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen unter seinen ersten Herzögen. In: 300 Jahre Schloss Elisabethenburg. Südthüringer Research, vol. 27, Meiningen 1994. L. Hertel, Meiningische Geschichte von 1680 bis zur Gegenwart. In: Schriften des Vereins für Sachsen-Meiningische Geschichte und Landeskunde, vol. 47, Hildburghausen 1904
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012