Furnivall Sculling Club
Furnivall Sculling Club is a rowing club based on the Tideway in Hammersmith, London. It was founded as Hammersmith Sculling Club in 1896 by Dr Frederick James Furnivall, after whom riverside gardens, Furnivall Gardens, in Hammersmith are named. For its initial five years, in the reign of Queen Victoria, the club was for women only and hosted the world's first female rowing team. Furnivall extended membership to men in 1901; the club colours are a precise pallette: old gold. The club is named after Dr Frederick Furnivall, it was at the time called the Hammersmith Sculling Club for Girls. Given his passionate opposition to discrimination, he wanted to break into the man's world of river sport, by building a club for women. In 1901, men were admitted to full membership, the name was changed to Furnivall Sculling Club for Girls and Men. However, at least until after the 2nd World War the captaincy was restricted to female members in honour of the original purpose of Dr Furnivall in founding the Club.
Following his death in 1910, the Club honoured his memory by celebrating'The Doctor's Birthday' for many years. Furnivall has over 100 members, of whom some 80 are full, active members; the club underwent a major refurbishment in 2009 that resulted in the construction of the club's ergometer training facility, the John Robbins Room. The club is one of three non-academic clubs along the brief Hammersmith bend and in the Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham as a whole, excluding the small, closed'Nautilus Club' who are based at British Rowing Headquarters and who use Great Britain-ressemblent blades; the three clubs have a close rivalry and enjoy subtly different emphases on age and abilities within their squads. Rowing on the River Thames Frederick James Furnivall Notes References Official website
The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in London to which barristers of England and Wales belong and where they are called to the Bar. Lincoln's Inn is recognised to be one of the world's most prestigious professional bodies of judges and lawyers. Lincoln's Inn is situated in Holborn, in the London Borough of Camden, just on the border with the City of London and the City of Westminster, across the road from London School of Economics and Political Science, Royal Courts of Justice and King's College London's Maughan Library; the nearest tube station is Chancery Lane. Lincoln's Inn is the largest Inn, it is believed to be named after 3rd Earl of Lincoln. During the 12th and early 13th centuries, the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy. Two events happened which ended this form of legal education: firstly, a papal bull in 1218 that prohibited the clergy from teaching the common law, rather than canon law; the secular lawyers migrated to the hamlet of Holborn, near to the law courts at Westminster Hall and outside the City.
As with the other Inns of Court, the precise date of founding of Lincoln's Inn is unknown. The Inn can claim the oldest records – its "black books" documenting the minutes of the governing Council go back to 1422, the earliest entries show that the Inn was at that point an organised and disciplined body; the third Earl of Lincoln had encouraged lawyers to move to Holborn, they moved to Thavie's Inn, one of the Inns of Chancery expanding into Furnival's Inn as well. It is felt that Lincoln's Inn became a formally organised Inn of Court soon after the Earl's death in 1310. At some point before 1422, the greater part of "Lincoln's Inn", as they had become known, after the Earl, moved to the estate of Ralph Neville, the Bishop of Chichester, near Chancery Lane, they retained Thavie's and Furnival's Inn, using them as "training houses" for young lawyers, purchased the properties in 1550 and 1547 respectively. In 1537, the land Lincoln's Inn sat on was sold by Bishop Richard Sampson to a Bencher named William Suliard, his son sold the land to Lincoln's Inn in 1580.
The Inn became formally organised as a place of legal education thanks to a decree in 1464, which required a Reader to give lectures to the law students there. During the 15th century, the Inn was not a prosperous one, the Benchers John Fortescue, are credited with fixing this situation. Lincoln's Inn had no constitution or fundamental form of governance, legislation was divided into two types. A third method used was to have individual Fellows promise to fulfill a certain duty; the increase of the size of the Inn led to a loss of its democratic nature, first in 1494 when it was decided that only Benchers and Governors should have a voice in calling people to the Bar and, by the end of the sixteenth century, Benchers were entirely in control. Admissions were recorded in the black books and divided into two categories: Clerks who were admitted to Clerks' Commons. All entrants swore the same oath regardless of category, some Fellows were permitted to dine in Clerks' Commons as it cost less, making it difficult for academics to sometimes distinguish between the two – Walker, the editor of the Black Books, maintains that the two categories were one and the same.
During the 15th century, the Fellows began to be called Masters, the gap between Masters and Clerks grew, with an order in 1505 that no Master was to be found in Clerks' Commons unless studying a point of law there. By 1466, the Fellows were divided into Benchers, those "at the Bar", those "not at the Bar". By 1502, the extra barram Fellows were being referred to as "inner barristers", in contrast to the "utter" or "outer" barristers. In Lord Mansfield's time, there was no formal legal education, the only requirement for a person to be called to the Bar was for him to have eaten five dinners a term at Lincoln's Inn, to have read the first sentence of a paper prepared for him by the steward. A Bencher, Benchsitter or Master of the Bench is a member of the Council, the governing body of the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn; the term referred to one who sat on the benches in the main hall of the Inn, which were used for dining and during moots, the term had no significance. In Lincoln's Inn, the idea of a Bencher was believed to have begun far earlier than elsewhere.
William Holdsworth and the editor of the Black Books both concluded that Benchers were, from the earliest times, the governors of the Inn, unlike other Inns who started with Readers. A. W. B. Simpson, writing at a date, decided based on the Black Books that the Benchers were not the original governing body, that the Inn was instead ruled by Governors, sometimes called Rulers, who led the Inn; the Governors were elected to serve a year-long term, with between four and six sitting at any one time. The first record of Benchers comes from 1478, when John Glynne was expelled from the Society for using "presumptious and unsuitable words" in front
Algernon Charles Swinburne
Algernon Charles Swinburne was an English poet, playwright and critic. He wrote several novels and collections of poetry such as Poems and Ballads, contributed to the famous Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Swinburne wrote about many taboo topics, such as lesbianism, sado-masochism, anti-theism, his poems have many common motifs, such as the ocean and death. Several historical people are featured in his poems, such as Sappho, Anactoria and Catullus. Swinburne was born at 7 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, on 5 April 1837, he was the eldest of six children born to Captain Charles Henry Swinburne and Lady Jane Henrietta, daughter of the 3rd Earl of Ashburnham, a wealthy Northumbrian family. He grew up at East Dene in Bonchurch on the Isle of Wight; as a child, Swinburne was "nervous" and "frail," but "was fired with nervous energy and fearlessness to the point of being reckless."Swinburne attended Eton College, where he started writing poetry. At Eton, he won first prizes in Italian.
He attended Balliol College, Oxford with a brief hiatus when he was rusticated from the university in 1859 for having publicly supported the attempted assassination of Napoleon III by Felice Orsini. He returned in May 1860. Swinburne spent summer holidays at Capheaton Hall in Northumberland, the house of his grandfather, Sir John Swinburne, 6th Baronet, who had a famous library and was president of the Literary and Philosophical Society in Newcastle upon Tyne. Swinburne considered Northumberland to be his native county, an emotion reflected in poems like the intensely patriotic "Northumberland", "Grace Darling" and others, he enjoyed riding his pony across the moors, he was a daring horseman, "through honeyed leagues of the northland border", as he called the Scottish border in his Recollections. In the period 1857–60, Swinburne became a member of Lady Pauline Trevelyan's intellectual circle at Wallington Hall. After his grandfather's death in 1860, he stayed with William Bell Scott in Newcastle.
In 1861, Swinburne visited Menton on the French Riviera, staying at the Villa Laurenti to recover from the excessive use of alcohol. From Menton, Swinburne travelled to Italy. In December 1862, Swinburne accompanied Scott and his guests including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, on a trip to Tynemouth. Scott writes in his memoirs that, as they walked by the sea, Swinburne declaimed the as yet unpublished "Hymn to Proserpine" and "Laus Veneris" in his lilting intonation, while the waves "were running the whole length of the long level sands towards Cullercoats and sounding like far-off acclamations". At Oxford, Swinburne met several Pre-Raphaelites, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, he met William Morris. After leaving college, he lived in London and started an active writing career, where Rossetti was delighted with his "little Northumbrian friend" a reference to Swinburne's diminutive height—he was just five foot four. Swinburne was an alcoholic and algolagniac and excitable, he liked to be flogged. His health suffered, in 1879 at the age of 42, he was taken into care by his friend, lawyer Theodore Watts, who looked after him for the rest of his life at The Pines, 11 Putney Hill, Putney.
His friend, named Theodore Watts-Dunton by WG Sebald, took him to the Suffolk coast at the lost town of Dunwich on several occasions in the 1870s Thereafter, he lost his youthful rebelliousness and developed into a figure of social respectability. It was said of Watts that he killed the poet. Swinburne died at the Pines on 10 April 1909 at the age of 72 and was buried at St. Boniface Church, Bonchurch on the Isle of Wight. Swinburne is considered a poet of the decadent school, although he professed to more vice than he indulged in to advertise his deviance – he spread a rumour that he had had sex with eaten, a monkey. Common gossip of the time reported that he had a deep crush on the explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton, despite the fact that Swinburne himself hated travel. Many critics consider his mastery of vocabulary and metre impressive, although he has been criticised for his florid style and word choices that only fit the rhyme scheme rather than contributing to the meaning of the piece.
He is the virtual star of the third volume of George Saintsbury's famous History of English Prosody, A. E. Housman, a more measured and somewhat hostile critic, had great praise for his rhyming ability: possessed an altogether unexampled command of rhyme, the chief enrichment of modern verse; the English language is comparatively poor in rhymes, most English poets, when they have to rhyme more than two or three words together, betray their embarrassment. They betray it, for instance, when they write sonnets after the strict Petrarchian rule: the poetical inferiority of most English sonnets, if compared with what their own authors have achieved in other forms of verse, is though not the result of this difficulty. To Swinburne the sonnet was child’s play: the task of providing four rhymes was not hard enough, he wrote long poems in which each stanza required eight or ten rhymes, wrote them so that he never seemed to be saying anything for the rhyme’s sake. Swinburne's work was once popular among undergraduates at Oxford and Cambridge, though today it has
Early English Text Society
The Early English Text Society is a text publication society founded in 1864, dedicated to the editing and publication of early English texts those only available in manuscript. Most of its volumes contain editions of Old English texts, it is known for being the first to print many important English manuscripts, including Cotton Nero A.x, which contains Pearl, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, other poems. The Society was founded in England in 1864 by Frederick James Furnivall, its stated goal was "on the one hand, to print all, most valuable of the yet unprinted MSS. in English, and, on the other, to re-edit and reprint all, most valuable in printed English books, which from their scarcity or price are not within the reach of the student of moderate means."As of 2016, the Society had published 347 volumes in its Original Series. The Society keeps the majority of its older publications in print, except those which have been superseded by subsequent editions. Volumes are now published on behalf of the Society by Oxford University Press.
The Society emblem is a modified representation of the Anglo-Saxon Alfred Jewel, incorporating a scroll bearing the name of the Society. Notable members of the society when it was formed in 1864 included Furnivall himself, Alfred Tennyson, Warren de la Rue, Richard Chenevix Trench, the Rev. Richard Morris, others. Anne Hudson was the director from 2006 to 2013; the current director is Vincent Gillespie. Aelfric Society, London publisher of Anglo-Saxon texts, 1842–1856 Official website EETS texts at Project Gutenberg List of Early English Text Society publications with brief descriptions
The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages known as the Rolls Series, is a major collection of British and Irish historical materials and primary sources published as 99 works in 253 volumes between 1858 and 1911. All the great medieval English chronicles were included: most existing editions, published by scholars of the 17th and 18th centuries, were considered to be unsatisfactory; the scope was extended to include legendary and hagiographical materials, archival records and legal tracts. The series was government-funded, takes its unofficial name from the fact that its volumes were published "by the authority of Her Majesty's Treasury, under the direction of the Master of the Rolls", the official custodian of the records of the Court of Chancery and other courts, nominal head of the Public Record Office; the publication of the series was undertaken by the British Government in accordance with a scheme submitted in 1857 by the Master of the Rolls Sir John Romilly.
A previous undertaking of the same kind, the Monumenta Historica Britannica, had failed after the publication of the first volume. The principal editor, Henry Petrie had died, its form was cumbrous. Representations were made by Joseph Stevenson, the scheme of 1857 was the direct outcome of this appeal. Alongside Romilly and Stevenson, another key figure in shaping the direction of the project in its early years was Thomas Duffus Hardy, who served as Deputy Keeper of the Public Records from 1861 to 1878; the first two volumes were published in February 1858: they were the first volume of Stevenson's own edition of the Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis, a 12th-century chronicle written at Abingdon Abbey. Hingeston's edition of John Capgrave's fifteenth-century Historia de Illustribus Henricis. Hingeston's work was slapdash, reviews were unfavourable. Prolific and well-regarded editors for the series included William Stubbs, H. R. Luard, H. T. Riley. Editors were handsomely paid. However, although editorial standards were high, there was little supervision or opportunity for enforcing editorial quality, little incentive for dilatory editors to bring their work to fruition.
In some quarters the project came to be regarded as providing an easy source of income for little work. Although at the beginning of the project Romilly insisted on a print run of 1,500 for each volume, this proved over-optimistic in terms of sales, 750 became the normal figure; the retail price per volume was 8s. 6d. Rising to 10s. Initial sales figures for each volume reached something over 200 copies: this left considerable surplus stock, so in the 1880s William Hardy, as Deputy Keeper, introduced the practice of presenting free copies to reputable public and university libraries, with a label inserted stating that "in the event of the Library being broken up", the volume should be returned to the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Funding for the project began to be reduced from the mid-1880s following the appointment as Deputy Keeper in 1886 of Henry Maxwell Lyte, concerned about the scholarly quality and pace of production, the funds being paid to unproductive editors, who felt that his office's priorities should lie elsewhere.
Thereafter, although work continued on editions in progress, few new works were initiated. One of the final works in the series was the 13th-century legal compilation known as the Red Book of the Exchequer, edited by Hubert Hall of the Public Record Office and published in three volumes in 1897; this became the occasion of a virulent and intemperate scholarly feud between Hall and J. H. Round: Round described the eventual edition as "so replete with heresy and error as to lead astray for all students of its subject", "probably the most misleading publication in the whole range of the Rolls series"; the last volume to be commissioned was the Memoranda de Parliamento, edited by F. W. Maitland, which appeared in 1893. Chronicles published in the series included the edition of the Chronica Majora of Matthew Paris by H. R. Luard. However, the scope of the series was not limited to conventional chronicles, it encompassed materials of a more or less legendary character relating to Ireland and Scotland, such as Whitley Stokes's edition of The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, the Icelandic sagas edited by Guðbrandur Vigfússon and G.
W. Dasent. Archival records and legal tracts, such as the Year Books of Edward I and Edward III, the Black Book of the Admiralty, the Red
Geoffrey Chaucer was an English poet and author. Considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages, he is best known for The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer has been styled the "Father of English literature" and was the first writer buried in Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey. Chaucer achieved fame in his lifetime as a philosopher and astronomer, composing the scientific A Treatise on the Astrolabe for his 10-year-old son Lewis, he maintained an active career in the civil service as a bureaucrat and diplomat. Among Chaucer's many other works are The Book of the Duchess, The House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women, Troilus and Criseyde, he is seen as crucial in legitimising the literary use of the Middle English vernacular at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were still French and Latin. Chaucer was born in London sometime around 1343, though the precise date and location remain unknown, his father and grandfather were both London vintners, several previous generations had been merchants in Ipswich.
His family name is derived from the French chausseur, meaning "shoemaker". In 1324, his father John Chaucer was kidnapped by an aunt in the hope of marrying the 12-year-old to her daughter in an attempt to keep property in Ipswich; the aunt was imprisoned and fined £250, equivalent to £200,000 today, which suggests that the family was financially secure. John Chaucer married Agnes Copton who inherited properties in 1349, including 24 shops in London from her uncle Hamo de Copton, described in a will dated 3 April 1354 and listed in the City Hustings Roll as "moneyer", said to be moneyer at the Tower of London. In the City Hustings Roll 110, 5, Ric II, dated June 1380, Chaucer refers to himself as me Galfridum Chaucer, filium Johannis Chaucer, Londonie. While records concerning the lives of his contemporary friends, William Langland and the Pearl Poet, are non-existent, since Chaucer was a public servant, his official life is well documented, with nearly five hundred written items testifying to his career.
The first of the "Chaucer Life Records" appears in 1357, in the household accounts of Elizabeth de Burgh, the Countess of Ulster, when he became the noblewoman's page through his father's connections, a common medieval form of apprenticeship for boys into knighthood or prestige appointments. The countess was married to Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of the king, Edward III, the position brought the teenage Chaucer into the close court circle, where he was to remain for the rest of his life, he worked as a courtier, a diplomat, a civil servant, as well as working for the king from 1389 to 1391 as Clerk of the King's Works. In 1359, in the early stages of the Hundred Years' War, Edward III invaded France and Chaucer travelled with Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, Elizabeth's husband, as part of the English army. In 1360, he was captured during the siege of Rheims. Edward paid £16 for his ransom, a considerable sum, Chaucer was released. After this, Chaucer's life is uncertain, but he seems to have travelled in France and Flanders as a messenger and even going on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela.
Around 1366, Chaucer married Philippa Roet. She was a lady-in-waiting to Edward III's queen, Philippa of Hainault, a sister of Katherine Swynford, who became the third wife of John of Gaunt, it is uncertain how many children Chaucer and Philippa had, but three or four are most cited. His son, Thomas Chaucer, had an illustrious career, as chief butler to four kings, envoy to France, Speaker of the House of Commons. Thomas's daughter, married the Duke of Suffolk. Thomas's great-grandson, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, was the heir to the throne designated by Richard III before he was deposed. Geoffrey's other children included Elizabeth Chaucy, a nun at Barking Abbey, Agnes, an attendant at Henry IV's coronation. Chaucer's "Treatise on the Astrolabe" was written for Lewis. According to tradition, Chaucer studied law in the Inner Temple at this time, he became a member of the royal court of Edward III as a valet de chambre, yeoman, or esquire on 20 June 1367, a position which could entail a wide variety of tasks.
His wife received a pension for court employment. He travelled abroad at least some of them in his role as a valet. In 1368, he may have attended the wedding of Lionel of Antwerp to Violante Visconti, daughter of Galeazzo II Visconti, in Milan. Two other literary stars of the era were in attendance: Petrarch. Around this time, Chaucer is believed to have written The Book of the Duchess in honour of Blanche of Lancaster, the late wife of John of Gaunt, who died in 1369 of the plague. Chaucer travelled to Picardy the next year as part of a military expedition. Numerous scholars such as Skeat and Rowland suggested that, on this Italian trip, he came into contact with Petrarch or Boccaccio, they introduced him to medieval the forms and stories of which he would use later. The purposes of a voyage in 1377 are mysterious, as details within the historical record conflict. Documents suggest it was a mission, along with Jean Froissart, to arrange a marriage between the future King Richard II and a French princess, thereby ending the Hundred Years War.
If this was the purpose of their trip, they seem to have been unsuccessful. In 1378, Richard II sent Chaucer as an envoy to the Visconti and to Sir John Hawkwood, English condottiere in Milan, it has been specu