Newton D. Baker
Newton Diehl Baker Jr. was an American lawyer, Georgist and government official. He served as the 37th mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1912 to 1915; as U. S. Secretary of War from 1916 to 1921, Baker presided over the United States Army during World War I. Born in Martinsburg, West Virginia, Baker established a legal practice in Cleveland after graduating from Washington and Lee University School of Law, he became progressive Democratic ally of Mayor Tom L. Johnson. Baker served as city solicitor of Cleveland from 1901 to 1909 before taking office as mayor in 1912; as mayor, he sought public transit reform, hospital improvement, city beautification. Baker supported Woodrow Wilson at the 1912 Democratic National Convention, helping Wilson win the votes of the Ohio delegation. After leaving office, Baker accepted appointment as Secretary of War under President Wilson, he was one of several prominent Georgists appointed to positions in the Wilson Cabinet. Baker presided over the U. S. military's participation in World War I.
He selected General John J. Pershing to command the American Expeditionary Forces, which he insisted act as an independent unit, he returned to BakerHostetler, the legal practice he co-founded. He served as an attorney in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. a landmark case that established the constitutionality of zoning laws. He was a strong supporter of the League of Nations and continued to advocate American participation in the League during the 1920s. Beginning in 1928, he served as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, he was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1932 Democratic National Convention, but the convention chose Franklin D. Roosevelt. Newton Diehl Baker was born on December 3, 1871, in Martinsburg, West Virginia, the son of Newton Diehl Baker Sr. and Mary Ann Baker. Baker's grandfather, Elias Baker, was a staunch unionist, his father, on the contrary, joined the Confederate Army, served as a cavalryman, was wounded and became a northern prisoner of war.
After returning home in 1865, he obtained a medical degree from the University of Maryland Medical School and worked as a physician in Martinsburg until his death in 1906. Baker attended the village schools in Martinsburg through his second year in high school and finished his preparatory training at Episcopal High School in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1892, Baker graduated with bachelor's degree from Johns Hopkins University, where he was a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, he attended lectures of Woodrow Wilson, a visiting professor at the time. After receiving his law degree from Washington and Lee University School of Law in 1894, he tried for a year to establish law practice in Martinsburg, became private secretary to Postmaster General William L. Wilson, who served in the Confederate cavalry with Baker's father, he stayed in Washington, D. C. until June 1897 took a vacation in Europe, returned to Martinsburg. In January 1899, he became a junior partner at McTigne and Baker in Cleveland.
Baker was thin. He was rejected for military service in the Spanish–American War because of poor eyesight; when Baker moved to Cleveland, his political sympathies belonged to the Democratic Party. He became involved in local politics, he helped the Democratic candidate Tom L. Johnson to become the mayor of Cleveland, under his mentorship started his own public career. Johnson was a passionate advocate of Georgist political progressivism. Baker became exposed to Johnson's politics and became a Georgist, he assisted Johnson in his fights against city's utility monopolies, e.g. Cleveland Electric Railway Company owned by Mark Hanna, which made Baker popular among Clevelanders. After serving as city solicitor from 1901 to 1909, he became mayor of the city in 1911; as a city official, Baker's main interests were providing Cleveland with electricity, public transit reform, hospital improvement, city beautification. He was a strong backer of Cleveland College, now a part of Case Western Reserve University.
His crowning achievement as a mayor was the passage of the home rule amendment to the Ohio's constitution, approved by voters in 1912. It granted Cleveland a right to draw its own charter and conduct the city business without state interference; when Baker worked on Wilson's behalf at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore in 1912, he was considered as a possible vice-presidential contender. He and Wilson had been acquaintances since they were both at Johns Hopkins in the 1890s, Baker played a vital role during Wilson's Democratic nomination for president at the convention by securing votes from Ohio delegates. Wilson wanted to bring him to Washington D. C. Though offered the post twice, Baker declined to serve as United States Secretary of the Interior during President Wilson's first term. In 1916, following his tenure as mayor of Cleveland and two other partners founded the law firm of Baker Hostetler; as the United States considered whether to enter World War I, President Woodrow Wilson named Baker Secretary of War, because Baker was acceptable to advocates and opponents of American participation in the conflict.
The post required legal expertise because of the War Department's role in administering the Philippines, the Panama Canal, Puerto Rico. The New York Times called him a "warm supporter" of the President. At 44, he was the youngest member of the Cabinet. One historian described his relationship to the military: A civilian's civilian, Baker saw the military as a necessity, but he had no awe of people in uniform, no romantic f
William R. Hopkins
William Rowland Hopkins was an American politician of the Republican Party who served as the first city manager of Cleveland, Ohio from 1924 to 1929, during the brief period that Cleveland had a council-manager government instead of a mayor-council government. Hopkins was born in Johnstown, the son of David J. and Mary Jeffreys Hopkins. In 1874, the family moved to Cleveland. Hopkins attended Western Reserve Academy by working in the Cleveland Rolling Mills to pay his way through and graduated in 1892. At Western Reserve University, he earned a Bachelor of Arts in 1896. In 1897, he began studying law at Case, while serving in Cleveland City Council as a Republican. In 1899, he left city council. Hopkins laid out new industrial plant developments and promoted construction of the Cleveland Short Line Railroad in 1905; the following year, he went into business. Hopkins entered local politics by becoming chairman of the Republican county committee and a member of the election board. By 1924, Cleveland had seen several controversial political figures in office such as Frederick Kohler and Harry L. Davis.
Voters decided to try to extricate municipal government from partisan politics by adopting the city manager plan. Hopkins was selected by local Republican boss Maurice Maschke, former postmaster William J. Murphy, business manager of the news George Moran as the man who could hold the job as the city's manager, he was elected to the position by a coalition. As city manager, Hopkins brought new development to Cleveland, he pushed for the development of parks, improved welfare institutions, wider boulevards, more playgrounds, air pollution control, the construction of both the Van Sweringen brothers' Terminal Tower and Cleveland Stadium. However, because the balance between city council and the city's central government was outweighed due to Hopkins' efficiency, council was always at war with the city manager the newly elected Peter Witt. Now with the city manager plan, council's role was diminished to such an extent and it became irrelevant. This, did not stop Hopkins' ambition for development.
His first plan was to fill behind jetties. When first announced, the idea seemed incomprehensible. By the time he left office, the land saw development and today the landfill is occupied by Cleveland Browns Stadium, its predecessor Cleveland Stadium, much of the eastern portion of Cleveland Memorial Shoreway and the Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport. Hopkins was recognized as being charismatic. An excellent speaker, he was nicknamed by Witt as "Chautauqua Bill." He won support of Cleveland's large ethnic population, receiving praise in Hebrew, Hungarian, Czech and other foreign-language papers. In 1925, Hopkins proposed a bold new initiative. At the time, the idea seemed like a pipe dream with the introduction of the airplane being new. Still, Hopkins was fascinated by aviation and felt that if Cleveland were to modernize itself, an airport would be a solid starting point; when Hopkins urged the purchase of piece of land from Brook Park, sounding off ideas of planes flying from Cleveland to Paris and London with thousands of people on board, Witt ridiculed the idea.
The rest of council, avoided opposing it so the land was purchased. However, council still felt that Hopkins had acquired too much control and removed him from office in January 1930, his replacement was the second and final city manager of Cleveland. In 1931, Hopkins became a member of council again and fought unsuccessfully to keep the city manager system. However, it was soon overturned and the city returned to a mayor-council government. In 1933, Hopkins retired from politics. In his honor, the Cleveland Municipal Airport was renamed Cleveland Hopkins International Airport in 1951. Hopkins suffered from declining health in his last years, he died at the Wade Park Manor apartments in Cleveland on February 9, 1961. He was buried at Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland; the Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History by Cleveland Bicentennial Commission, David D. Van Tassel, John J. Grabowski ISBN 0-253-33056-4 The Cleveland 200: The Most Noted and Notorious in the First 200 Years of a Great American City by Thomas Kelly ISBN 0-9644509-2-5 Cleveland: Confused City on a Seesaw by Philip W. Porter ISBN 0-8142-0264-0 Vigil, Vicki Blum.
Cemeteries of Northeast Ohio: Stones, Symbols & Stories. Cleveland, OH: Gray & Company, Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59851-025-6
Tom L. Johnson
Tom Loftin Johnson was an American industrialist, Georgist politician, important figure of the Progressive Era and a pioneer in urban political and social reform. He was a U. S. Representative from 1891 to 1895 and Mayor of Cleveland for four terms from 1901 to 1909. Johnson was one of the most well known and dedicated admirers of Henry George's views on political economy and anti-monopoly reform. Johnson's father, a wealthy cotton planter with lands in Kentucky and Arkansas, served in the Confederate Army in the Civil War; the war ruined the family financially, they were forced to move to several locations in the South in search of work. By age 11, Johnson was selling newspapers on the railroads in Staunton and providing a substantial part of the family's support, he worked all through his youth, never had more than one complete year of formal education. Johnson's break came through an old family connection with the industrial du Pont dynasty. In 1869, the brothers A. V. and Bidermann du Pont gave him a clerk's job on the street railway business they had acquired in Louisville.
Johnson rose in the business, discovered a taste for the mechanical side of it. He patented several inventions, including an improved type of streetcar rail, the glass-sided farebox still used on many buses today. By 1876, thanks to royalties from his farebox, Johnson was able to strike out on his own, purchasing a controlling share in the street railways of Indianapolis. In the 1880s and 90s he expanded his interests to lines in Cleveland, St. Louis and Detroit, entered the steel business, building mills in Lorain and Johnstown, Pennsylvania to provide rails for streetcar tracks, he moved to Cleveland in 1883 and soon afterwards bought a mansion on the'Millionaire's Row' of Euclid Avenue. Two chance events helped spark Johnson's interest in politics and social questions, convert him from a conventional business tycoon to a radical reformer; the first was reading, on the suggestion of a train conductor, Henry George's Social Problems, in which the political philosopher expounded his belief that poverty and misery were a result of society's newly created wealth becoming locked up in increasing land values, advocating a Single Tax on land in place of wastefully taxing the productive activity of capital and labor.
Johnson became consumed by the arguments George made in Progress and Poverty. Johnson took the book to his lawyer and said, "I must get out of the business, or prove that this book is wrong. Here, Russell, is a retainer of five hundred dollars. I want you to read this book and give me your honest opinion on it, as you would on a legal question. Treat this retainer as you would a fee." Johnson sought out George in New York at the first possible opportunity, the two became close friends and political collaborators. Johnson abandoned his business of rail monopoly and spent much of his fortune promoting the ideas of Henry George; the second event was being present to witness the terrible Johnstown Flood of 1889. Johnson and his business partner Arthur Moxham organized the immediate relief activities in the stricken, leaderless city. Interpreting the events through a Georgist lens, the experience left him with a deep resentment of what he called'Privilege'; the disaster had been caused by the improper maintenance of a dam holding a private recreational lake, owned by Henry Clay Frick and other Pittsburgh industrialists, who escaped all responsibility for it.
More than that, to Johnson, the flood exemplified the inadequacy of charity and weak'remedial measures' to solve society's problems. Johnson mounted an unsuccessful campaign for the U. S. House of Representatives in 1888, won the seat in 1890, serving two terms, he promoted free trade and the Single Tax idea, was a useful moderate on the divisive currency question. The issue of privilege made Johnson reconsider his own business career.'Traction' companies depended on route franchises granted by city councils. In an era when most everyone rode the cars, the stakes were high, battles for franchises were the hidden issue behind cities' factional strife. Johnson knew the game intimately. In Cleveland, he came into conflict early with Mark Hanna, the powerful local businessman who by 1894 would be the leading power broker of the Republican Party, the man credited with putting fellow Ohioan William McKinley in the White House. Johnson's streetcar fights with Hanna and his allies make a colorful part of Cleveland political folklore.
In a time when companies with a monopoly of transport on a route were able to charge five cents for a ride, he made the'three-cent fare' a cornerstone of his populist philosophy, he would come out in favor of complete public ownership. Through the 1890s Johnson divested himself of most of his transit and steel holdings, to devote himself to the politics of reform. In 1901, pressed on by influential citizens and a public petition, he decided to run for mayor of Cleveland, his campaign electrified the city. Johnson liked to rent large circus tents and set them up on neighborhood lots, attracting big crowds for whom he would deliver a powerful speech, banter cheerfully with hecklers, finish with a stereopticon show with a political moral. On April 1, 1901, he was elected with 54% of the vote. Johnson's entry into office would
Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Cuyahoga County is a county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2016 United States Census estimates, the population was 1,249,352, making it the second most populous county in the state, its county seat is Cleveland. The county is named after the Iroquoian word Cuyahoga, which means'crooked river'; the name is assigned to the Cuyahoga River, which bisects the county. Cuyahoga County is included in OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. Former U. S. President James A. Garfield was born in. After the discovery of the New World, the land that became Cuyahoga County was part of the French colony of Canada, ceded in 1763 to Great Britain and renamed Province of Quebec. In the late 18th century the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795. Cuyahoga County was created on June 7, 1807 and organized on May 1, 1810, it was reduced by the creation of Huron and Lorain Counties. It was named after the Cuyahoga River. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,246 square miles, of which 457 square miles is land and 788 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in Ohio by area. A portion of Cuyahoga Valley National Park is in the county's southeastern section. Lake County Geauga County Summit County Medina County Lorain County Portage County As of the 2010 census, there were 1,280,122 people, 571,457 households, 319,996 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,800 people per square mile. There were 621,763 housing units at an average density of 1,346 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.6% White, 29.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. 4.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.5% were of German, 12.8% Irish, 8.8% Italian, 8.1% Polish, 5.9% English, 3.7% Slovak and 3.1% Hungarian, ancestries. There are sizable numbers of Russians, Arabs and Greeks.
88.4% spoke English, 3.7% Spanish, 4.9% some other Indo-European language. 7.3% of the population were foreign-born. There were 571,457 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.40% were married couples living together, 15.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.90% were non-families. 32.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 89.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,603, the median income for a family was $58,631; the per capita income for the county was $26,263.
About 10.30% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,280,122 people, 545,056 households, 319,996 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,800.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 621,763 housing units at an average density of 1,360.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 63.6% white, 29.7% black or African American, 2.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.4% were German, 13.0% were Irish, 9.2% were Italian, 8.6% were Polish, 6.3% were English, 2.8% were American. Of the 545,056 households, 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families, 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age was 40.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,603 and the median income for a family was $58,064. Males had a median income of $47,182 versus $36,683 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,263. About 12.4% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.7% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. The Cuyahoga County Council and Executive exercise direct government over unincorporated areas of Cuyahoga County; as of 2012, this consisted of two small areas: Olmsted Township. Cuyahoga County had long been led by a three-member Board of County Commissioners. In July 2008, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents began raiding the offices of Cuyahoga County Commissioners and those of a wide range of cities and villages across Cuyahoga County; the investigation revealed extensive bribery and corruption across the area, affecting hundreds of millions of dollars in county contracts and business.
The investigation led to the arrest of county commissioner Jimmy Dimora.
William S. Fitzgerald
William Sinton FitzGerald, Sr. was an American politician of the Republican Party who served as the 39th mayor of Cleveland, Ohio. FitzGerald was born in Washington, D. C, he received public education and attended George Washington University, graduating with a Master of Laws degree in 1903. The following year, he moved to Cleveland, was admitted to the Ohio State Bar Association, began practicing law. In 1911 he was elected as a Republican city councilman for Ward 11. Under Mayor Harry L. Davis, FitzGerald was appointed law director; when Davis resigned in 1920 to campaign for governor, FitzGerald became mayor. In the 1921 mayoral election, FitzGerald was defeated by Frederick Kohler and returned to private practice. FitzGerald was a bachelor, he married Margaret Chilton Tucker of Chicago, Illinois, on January 14, 1920. He'd met her while on a business trip to Washington, D. C. and courted her. Fitzgerald kept his marriage a secret from the public until August 27, 1921; the couple had William Sinton FitzGerald, Jr..
The FitzGeralds divorced in 1922. The birth of their son was kept secret from the public until his existence was revealed in the divorce proceedings. FitzGerald married Carolina Granger of Cleveland on March 23, 1933. FitzGerald died unexpectedly of a heart attack at his home in North Royalton, Ohio, at 5:25 AM on October 3, 1937, his place of burial is not known. The Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History by Cleveland Bicentennial Commission, David D. Van Tassel, John J. Grabowski ISBN 0-253-33056-4 William Sinton Fitzgerald entry at The Political Graveyard
Nathan P. Payne
Nathan Perry Payne was the mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1875 to 1876. He was a Democrat. Payne was born in Cleveland, Ohio on August 13, 1837, he was the oldest son of Mary Payne and Henry B. Payne, a former U. S. Representative and U. S. Senator from Ohio, he attended local schools, Pierce Academy in Middleborough, Massachusetts. Ill health caused him to return home before entering Brown University. In 1855, he took charge of McIntosh nurseries, in 1857 he went to work for a coal dealer as an accountant. In 1860, he formed Cross, Payne & Co. which became known as Payne, Newton & Co. At the outbreak of the U. S. Civil War, Payne enlisted in the Cleveland Grays, towards the end of the War, he reenlisted as one of the "Hundred Day Men" volunteers. Payne served two terms on the Cleveland Board of Education and served several times, for a total of six years, on the Cleveland City Council between 1862 and 1872. In 1875, he was elected Mayor of Cleveland as a Democrat in the Republican city, after serving two terms on the board of education and six years on city council.
Payne, like his younger brother Oliver Hazard Payne, never married. In his years, he lived with his maternal grandmother, Mrs. Nathan Perry, Jr.. Perry died at his home in Cleveland on May 11, 1885 as "one of the most prominent and popular men in Cleveland." His funeral was held at his residence, 664 Euclid Avenue, the service was conducted by Dr. Bolles, the Rector of Trinity Church, the pallbearers were Amos Townsend, John H. Farley, Gen. James A. Barnett, Jacob Mueller, Charles Otis, L. M. Coe, John Tod, W. J. McKinnie, he was buried at Lake View Cemetery. Nathan P. Payne at Find a Grave
St. Petersburg, Florida
St. Petersburg is a city in Pinellas County, United States; as of the 2015 census estimate, the population was 257,083, making it the fifth-most populous city in Florida and the largest in the state, not a county seat. St. Petersburg is the second-largest city in the Tampa Bay Area, after Tampa. Together with Clearwater, these cities comprise the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area, the second-largest in Florida with a population of around 2.8 million. St. Petersburg is located on the Pinellas peninsula between Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, is connected to mainland Florida to the north. St. Petersburg was founded in 1888 by John C. Williams, who purchased the land, by Peter Demens, who brought the railroad industry into the area; as a part of a coin toss bet, the winner, Peter Demens, named the land after Saint Petersburg, while Williams opted to name the first hotel built, named the Detroit Hotel, both named after their home towns respectively. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town on February 29, 1892 and re-incorporated as a city on June 6, 1903.
The city is referred to by locals as St. Pete. Neighboring St. Pete Beach formally shortened its name in 1994 after a vote by its residents. St. Petersburg is governed by a city council. With an average of some 361 days of sunshine each year, a Guinness World Record for logging the most consecutive days of sunshine, it is nicknamed "The Sunshine City". Due to its good weather and low cost of living, the city has long been a popular retirement destination, although in recent years the population has moved in a much more youthful direction. American Style magazine ranked St. Petersburg its top mid-size city in 2011, citing its "vibrant" arts scene; the city was co-founded by John C. Williams of Detroit, who purchased the land in 1875, by Peter Demens, instrumental in bringing the terminus of the Orange Belt Railway there in 1888; the first major newspaper to debut in Tampa Bay was the St. Petersburg Times which established in 1884. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town on February 29, 1892, when it had a population of only some 300 people.
A local legend says that John C. Williams and Peter Demens flipped a coin to see who would have the honor of naming the city; when Demens won the coin toss the city was named after Saint Petersburg, where Peter Demens had spent half of his youth, while John C. Williams named the first hotel after his birthplace, Detroit; the Detroit Hotel still has been turned into a condominium. The oldest running hotels are the historic Pier Hotel, built in 1921, formally Hotel Cordova and The Heritage Hotel, built in 1926. Philadelphia publisher F. A. Davis turned on St. Petersburg's first electrical service in 1897; the city's first major industry was born in 1899 when Henry W. Hibbs, a native of Newport, North Carolina, established his wholesale fish business at the end of the railroad pier, which extended out to the shipping channel. Within a year, Hibbs Fish Company was shipping more than 1,000 pounds of fish each day. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a city in June 1903. With this transition, the development of the downtown waterfront had dredging of a deeper shipping channel from 1906 to 1908 which opened St. Petersburg to larger shipping.
Further dredging improved the port facilities through the 1910s. By the city's population had quadrupled to a population of 4,127 citizens. F. A. Davis was instrumental to bringing the first trolley service in 1904. In 1914, the Tampa Bay area was one of the first Floridian cities that fell in love with baseball tracing its roots from Tampa and St. Petersburg; the former mayor of St. Petersburg, Al Lang, had invited the St. Louis Browns to move their spring training into the city. St. Petersburg's first library opened on December 1, 1915 which still operates till this day as the Mirror Lake Library. In 1914 an airplane service across Tampa Bay from St. Petersburg to Tampa and back was initiated considered the first scheduled commercial airline flight; the company name was the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, the pilot was Tony Jannus, flying a Benoist XIV flying boat; the Tony Jannus Award is presented annually for outstanding achievement in the airline industry. The 1920s in St. Petersburg was big due to its major growth brought by tourists.
Tourists came from all over by automobile and railroad. Travel time from across the bay was cut due to the Gandy Bridge's opening in 1924, helping St. Petersburg increase in tourist numbers and helped grow it into the largest city in Pinellas County; the city adopted the Mediterranean-style architecture brought by Snell Isles founder Perry Snell. An attraction that brought on a great number of tourists and citizens was the Million Dollar Pier, built in 1926. Tourism declined by early 1930s due to the Great Depression; the city recovered in the 1930s with the help of the Public Works Administration, including a $10 million investment plan in 1939 which helped build the St. Petersburg City Hall. By the 1940s the city received a large population growth due to World War II. St. Petersburg was a training ground area for the U. S. Coast Guard which had a training base and used the city's Bayboro Harbor, for the Army Air Force, selected by the War Department to use the city as their technical service training station.
With both stations occupying the city, more than 100,000 troops occupied all hotels in St. Petersburg. After the war, most troops who were stationed in St. Petersburg returned as tourists. In the 1950s, St. Petersburg experienced another population increase with residen