Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
The Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts is the first in the line to discharge the powers and duties of the office of governor following the incapacitation of the Governor of Massachusetts. The constitutional honorific title for the office is His, or Honor; the Massachusetts Constitution provides that when a governor dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the office of governor remains vacant for the rest of the 4-year term. The lieutenant governor discharges powers and duties as Acting Governor and does not assume the office of governor; the first time this came into use was five years after the constitution's adoption in 1785, when Governor John Hancock resigned his post five months before the election and inauguration of his successor, James Bowdoin, leaving Lieutenant Governor Thomas Cushing as acting governor. Most Jane Swift became acting governor upon the resignation of Paul Cellucci; the lieutenant governor serves in place of the governor when he or she is outside the borders of Massachusetts.
A one-year term, the office of lieutenant governor now carries a four-year term, the same as that of the governor. The lieutenant governor is not on a ticket with the governor; the 1780 constitution required a candidate for either office to have lived in Massachusetts for at least seven years preceding election, own at least £1,000 worth of real property and to "declare himself to be of the Christian religion". However, only the residency requirement remains in effect, both men and women have served in the office. Amendment Article LXIV changed the election from every year to every two years, Amendment Article LXXXII changed it again to every four years; the office is held by Karyn Polito, inaugurated in January 2015. Part the Second, Chapter II, Section II, Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution reads, There shall be annually elected a lieutenant governor of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, whose title shall be, His Honor and who shall be qualified, in point of religion and residence in the commonwealth, in the same manner with the governor: and the day and manner of his or her election, the qualifications of the electors, shall be the same as are required in the election of a governor.
The Lieutenant Governor serves ex officio as a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Massachusetts law provides for the lieutenant governor to serve as the chairman of the award selection committee for the Madeline Amy Sweeney Award for Civilian Bravery; the lieutenant governor is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, ensuring that they have the same political party affiliation. When the state constitution was first enacted in 1780, elections for the two offices were independent, were held annually. Constitutional amendments enacted in 1918 extended the terms of both offices to two years, with elections in even-numbered years. In 1964 the constitution was amended again to extend the terms to four years, in 1966 to allow for the grouping of governor and lieutenant governor on the ballot by political party. Elections are held in even-numbered years. Lieutenant governors who acted as governor during a portion of their terms are marked by asterisks. Parties Democratic Democratic-Republican Federalist Know Nothing Republican Whig As of January 2017, there are eight former lieutenant governors of Massachusetts who are living at this time, the oldest lieutenant governor of Massachusetts being Francis X. Bellotti.
The most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of Massachusetts was that of Paul Cellucci, on June 8, 2013. List of Governors of Massachusetts Government of Massachusetts Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2006 Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2002 Office of the Governor CNN.com 2006 election results OurCampaigns.com
Kevin White (politician)
Kevin Hagan White was an American politician best known as the Mayor of Boston, an office he was first elected to at the age of 38, which he held for four terms amounting to 16 years, from 1968 to 1984. He presided as mayor during racially turbulent years in the late 1960s and 1970s, the start of desegregation of schools via court-ordered busing of school children in Boston. White won the mayoral office in the 1967 general election in a hard-fought campaign opposing the anti-busing and anti-desegregation Boston School Committee member Louise Day Hicks, he was earlier elected Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth in 1960 at the age of 31, resigned from that office after his election as Mayor. White is credited with revitalizing the waterfront and financial districts of Boston, transforming Quincy Market into a metropolitan and tourist destination. In his first term he implemented local neighborhood "Little City Halls" but ended them after narrowly winning the 1975 election during the Boston school desegregation busing crisis, subsequently constructed a classic and centralized city political machine.
He was unsuccessful in his efforts to obtain higher office. His mayoral administration was subject to decades-long federal investigations into corruption, which led to the conviction of more than 20 city hall employees and nearly as many businessmen, he himself was never indicted for wrongdoing. Kevin H. White was born in Jamaica Plain, Boston, on September 25, 1929 to Joseph and Patricia Hagan White. White's father, Joseph C. White, maternal grandfather, Henry E. Hagan, both served as Boston City Council presidents. Kevin White married Kathryn Galvin in 1956, the daughter of William J. Galvin, another Boston City Council president. White was educated at Tabor Academy, Williams College, Boston College Law School and the Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration. White was first elected to the open statewide office of Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth in 1960 at the age of 31; the incumbent secretary, Joseph D. Ward, decided to run for governor that year. White won the Democratic Party nomination at the state convention with the crucial assistance of his father and father in law, who called in political debts in order to obtain enough votes to win the nomination.
He was nominated on the third ballot of the convention, thus becoming the Democratic candidate in the general election in November, in which he defeated a rising Republican, Edward W. Brooke. In 1962 White was reelected to a second two-year term, in 1966 reelected to a four-year term, he served in office through 1967, resigning on December 20, 1967, after winning the Boston mayoral election that November. White ran for the open mayoral office in 1967, winning his first election with a coalition of Italian and black voters, he campaigned for rent control. This was implemented in Boston in 1970, after a Massachusetts enabling law for municipalities was enacted in 1970. White succeeded mayor John F. Collins, who stepped down after eight years that included urban renewal projects including the planning and building of Boston City Hall, thus paving the way for the future rebuilding and rehabilitation of the waterfront and business districts of the city center that White undertook; the Boston mayoral election of 1967 had a general election.
In a ten-candidate non-party primary election for the open office on September 26, 1967, White was second, drawing 19.83% of the vote with 30,789 votes, Boston School Board member Louise Day Hicks was first, with 28.16% of the vote and 43,722 votes. For the general election on November 7, 1967, only White and Hicks were on the ballot in a runoff contest. White narrowly defeated Hicks, who had taken a staunchly anti-busing position as a member of the Boston School Committee, her slogan was the coded "You know where I stand."Hicks's campaign against more progressive fellow Democrat Kevin White was so acrimonious that the Boston Globe, under the editorship of Thomas Winship, broke a 75-year tradition of political neutrality to endorse White. White won the general election with 53.25 percent of the vote. Two years in 1969, Hicks was elected to the Boston City Council by large majorities, in 1970 to Congress, winning the open district held by retiring U. S. House Speaker John W. McCormack after defeating Joseph Moakley by 10% in the multi-candidate Democratic primary.
In the 1971 mayoral election White won a second term, again defeating Hicks, this time by 40,000 votes. Hicks in 1972 would lose her congressional seat by two percentage points and 3,428 votes in a post-census revised district and a four-candidate general election that included a rematch with Moakley running as an Independent. Hicks was re-elected to the Boston City Council in 1973, remaining there until she retired from public office in 1981. In the 1975 mayoral election, White defeated State Senator Joe Timilty, the year after the start of court-ordered school desegregation and busing; the 1979 mayoral election was close, against the same opponent. White did not run again in the 1983 mayoral election, won by then-city coun
Alewife is an intermodal transit station in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is an MBTA Bus hub. Alewife is the northern terminus of the Red Line. Alewife station is located in the North Cambridge neighborhood, adjacent to the interchange between Alewife Brook Parkway and the Massachusetts Route 2 freeway, with ramps providing direct access to and from the expressway portion of Route 2, its facilities include a multi-level parking garage with 2,733 spaces, three secured bicycle cages, a busway with an enclosed shelter serving several MBTA Bus routes, connections to the Minuteman Bikeway, Cambridge Linear Park, the Fitchburg Cutoff Path. Alewife opened on March 30, 1985. Only to be a temporary terminus during construction of the Arlington section of the Red Line, Alewife became the regular terminus when the further extension was canceled; the station is named after Alewife Brook, a nearby tributary of the Mystic River, which in turn is named after the alewife fish which inhabits the Mystic River system.
Alewife features six pieces of public art which were built as part of the first stage of the Arts on the Line program. Boston transportation planners expected to build an Inner Belt Expressway within the Route 128 corridor in the 1960s. MA Route 2 was designed with eight lanes to carry large volumes of radial traffic, east from Alewife Brook Parkway, through Cambridge and Somerville to the Inner Belt at the border of eastern Somerville and eastern Cambridge; when the Inner Belt was canceled, Route 2 became an overbuilt highway that terminated at what was little more than major city streets. When the westward extension of the Red Line was being designed, building a station near the end of Route 2 with a large parking garage seemed like a way to capitalize on the original Route 2 investment; until the late 1960s, there was little near the site of the Alewife station besides a abandoned industrial park, a chemical factory and a protected wetlands. Following principles that came to be known as transit-oriented development, the City of Cambridge zoned the area near the station for high rise buildings, leading to the construction of the three massive Rindge Towers in 1971.
Over the next several decades, a mini-city developed with office and research and development buildings in addition to the high rise housing. A state law required planning the Red Line Extension so it could be brought out to Route 128 to Lexington, via Arlington, along the route of the former Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad; the Red Line tracks extend past the station, under Route 2, terminate in a small underground storage yard. Alewife Station was designed with a future extension of the Red Line to points north in mind using the MBTA's Lexington Branch right-of-way; when the adjacent chemical plant closed and was replaced by an office and hotel development, the rail spur to the plant was no longer needed and its underpass was converted to an access ramp from the station to Route 2. This design was criticized by local residents, since it forced many pedestrians to cross the fast-moving parkways on foot. In April 2008, the MBTA said that they do not have funds to add two levels to the parking garage to add capacity, which would cost $30 million to $35 million and add about 1300 spaces.
The structure was designed to have two more levels, but whether the condition of the structure and building codes would allow that today is not clear. Seven MBTA Bus routes terminate at the ground-level busways at Alewife: 62 Bedford V. A. Hospital - Alewife Station via Lexington Center & Arlington Heights 67 Turkey Hill - Alewife Station via Arlington Center 76 Hanscom/Lincoln Labs - Alewife Station via Lexington Center & Civil Air Terminal 79 Arlington Heights - Alewife Station via Massachusetts Avenue 84 Arlmont Village - Alewife Station 350 North Burlington - Alewife Station via Burlington Mall 351 Oak Park/Bedford Woods - Alewife Station via Middlesex TurnpikeThe 83 Rindge Avenue - Central Square, Cambridge via Porter Square Station terminates nearby at Russell Field, it is not possible to turn left from Alewife Brook Parkway onto Rindge Avenue, preventing the bus from serving Alewife directly. The bus stop is connected to Alewife by a short spur of the Cambridge Linear Park. Alewife station is served by several private-carrier routes: The Route 128 Business Council provides daily shuttle bus services from Alewife to many companies along the Route 2 and Route 128 corridor.
Five routes are open to all riders: A, B, C, D, The REV. Two private routes to Windsor Village and Vox on Two are run. Go Bus provides intercity motorcoach bus service between Alewife and New York City; the service began in October 2010. There is one island platform serving two tracks; the tracks extend past the station to store terminating trains. On September 18, 2008, two bike parking cages opened at the Alewife station; the cages can hold up to 150 bikes each. Access to these cages required a free special Bike CharlieCard. Beginning in 2013, the MBTA allowed any CharlieCard to be registered for bike cage access; the cages are covered, enclosed with security fences, watched by security cameras. As a part of the Red Line Northwest Extension, Alewife was included as one of the stations involved in the Arts on the Line program. Arts on the Line was devised to bring art into the MBTA's subway stations in the late 1970s and early 1980s, it was the first program of its kind in the United States and became the model for similar drives for art across the countr
Brighton is a dissolved municipality and current neighborhood of Boston, United States, is located in the northwestern corner of the city. It is named after the town of Brighton in the English city of Hove. For its first 160 years, Brighton was part of Cambridge, was known as "Little Cambridge." Throughout much of its early history, it was a rural town with a significant commercial center at its eastern end. Brighton separated from Cambridge in 1807 after a bridge dispute, was annexed to Boston in 1874; the neighborhood of Allston was formerly part of the town of Brighton, but is now considered separately, leading to the moniker Allston–Brighton for the combined area. This historic center of Brighton is the Brighton Center Historic District. In 1630, land comprising present-day Allston–Brighton and Newton was assigned to Watertown. In 1634, the Massachusetts Bay Colony transferred ownership of the south side of the Charles River, including present-day Allston–Brighton and Newton, from Watertown to Newetowne renamed Cambridge.
In 1646, Reverend John Eliot established a "Praying Indian" village on the present Newton–Brighton boundary, where resided local natives converted to Christianity. The first permanent English settlement came as settlers crossed the Charles River from Cambridge, establishing Little Cambridge, the area's name before 1807. Before the American Revolutionary War, Little Cambridge became a small, prosperous farming community with fewer than 300 residents, its inhabitants included wealthy Boston merchants such as Benjamin Faneuil. A key event in the history of Allston–Brighton was the establishment in 1775 of a cattle market to supply the Continental Army. Jonathan Winship I and Jonathan Winship II established the market, in the post-war period that followed, the Winships became the largest meat packers in Massachusetts; the residents of Little Cambridge resolved to secede from Cambridge when the latter's government made decisions detrimental to the cattle industry and failed to repair the Great Bridge linking Little Cambridge with Cambridge proper.
Legislative approval for separation was obtained in 1807, Little Cambridge renamed itself Brighton. In 1820, the horticulture industry was introduced to the town. Over the next 20 years, Brighton blossomed as one of the most important gardening neighborhoods in the Boston area; the businessmen, did not neglect the cattle industry. In 1834, the Boston & Worcester Railroad was built, solidifying the community's hold on the cattle trade. By 1866, the town contained 41 slaughterhouses, which were consolidated into the Brighton Stock Yards and Brighton Abattoir. In October 1873, the Town of Brighton, in Middlesex County, voted to annex itself to the City of Boston in Suffolk County, in January 1874 Brighton became a neighborhood of the City of Boston. Allston–Brighton's population grew tremendously in the next half century, rising from 6,000 in 1875 to 47,000 by 1925. Brighton is accessible via the "B" Branch of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's Green Line light rail service, which has 11 stops along Commonwealth Avenue in Brighton.
Cleveland Circle on the "C" Branch is located in the southern tip of Brighton, the "D" Branch is nearby. The former "A" Branch, had served the community. Brighton is served by several local and inner express MBTA Bus routes: 57 Watertown Yard – Kenmore Station via Newton Corner & Brighton Center 64 Oak Square – University Park, Cambridge or Kendall/MIT via North Beacon St. 65 Brighton Center – Kenmore Station via Washington Street, Brookline Village & Brookline Avenue 66 Harvard Square – Dudley Station via Allston & Brookline Village 70 and 70A Cedarwood, North Waltham or Watertown Square – University Park via Central Square, Arsenal Street & Western Avenue 86 Sullivan Square Station – Reservoir via Harvard/Johnston Gate 501 Brighton Center – Downtown via Oak Square & Mass. Turnpike 503 Brighton Center – Copley Square via Oak Square & Mass. Turnpike Forty-seven percent of the population of Brighton drive alone to work and 36% use mass transit, compared with 71% and 2% for the United States as a whole.
On June 7, 2012, MassDOT announced a plan to build a commuter rail station at Everett Street in Brighton. The new station, Boston Landing, will be served by the Framingham/Worcester Line. Brighton is connected to the rest of the city by the Allston neighborhood, it is otherwise surrounded by Cambridge, Watertown and Brookline. The Charles River separates Brighton from Watertown. According to the Census Bureau, defined by zip code 02135, has a population of 43,887 and a land area of 2.78 square miles. Brighton is administered jointly with the adjacent neighborhood of Allston; the two are referred to together as "Allston–Brighton ", have a combined population of 65,276 and a land area of 4.12 square miles. Brighton is to the west of Everett and Kelton streets; the current city councilor of Allston-Brighton is Mark Ciommo, who has held this position since 2007. As of 2007, the estimated population of Brighton is a 2.81 % loss from the 2000 Census. The population density is 14,797 per mi2 higher than the citywide average of 12,166 per mi2.
The median age is 32.2. The largest measured. Fifty-nine percent of the population have never been married; the population was 78% white, 12% Asian American, 3.5% black or African American, nearly 7%
Thomas P. O'Neill III
Thomas Phillip O'Neill III leads a public relations and government affairs firm called O'Neill and Associates in Boston. He is the son of Mildred Anne Miller and Thomas Phillip "Tip" O'Neill Jr. who served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1977 to 1987. From 1975 to 1983, O'Neill served as Lieutenant Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. During his term of office, O'Neill created and administered the Office of Federal-State Relations in Boston and Washington, D. C.. During this time he served on the U. S. State Department Ambassadorial Screening Committee. Prior to becoming lieutenant governor, O’Neill served as a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. O'Neill is known for his work on behalf of the Big Dig, a project with which his father was instrumentally involved. O'Neill declined to seek a third term in 1982 in order to run for Governor of Massachusetts, though he would fall foul of the state Democratic Party's rule changes and failed to make the ballot.
O'Neill sits on the Board of Trustees for Boston College and chairs the Board of Trustees of Cristo Rey Boston High School, having graduated from both. He is on the board of Catholic Democrats, a national advocacy organization dealing with faith and politics. O'Neill received his bachelor's degree from Boston College and earned his Master of Public Administration from Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. O'Neill and Associates
Boston Latin School
The Boston Latin School is a first build public exam school in Boston, Massachusetts. It was established on April 23, 1635, making it both the oldest school in America and the first public school in the United States; the Public Latin School was a bastion for educating the sons of the Boston "Brahmin" elite, resulting in the school claiming many prominent New Englanders as alumni. Its curriculum follows that of the 18th century Latin school movement, which holds the classics to be the basis of an educated mind. Four years of Latin are mandatory for all pupils who enter the school in the 7th grade, three years for those who enter in the 9th. In 2007, the school was named one of the top 20 high schools in the United States by U. S. News & World Report magazine, it was named a 2011 "Blue Ribbon School of Excellence", the Department of Education's highest award. As of 2018, it is listed under the "gold medal" list, ranking 48 out of the top 100 high schools in the United States by U. S. News & World Report.
The Puritans placed a strong emphasis on education for their children. Puritan leaders themselves were accustomed to the highest educational standards, with most of their ministers having graduated from Oxford or Cambridge University in England, they established Boston Latin School in Massachusetts Bay Colony and modeled it after the European Latin schools which emphasized religion and classical literature. They were not funded by taxes but by donations and land rentals. A school established in nearby Dedham was the first tax-supported public school. Latin was an educational priority in the 17th century; the ability to read at least Cicero and Virgil was a requirement of all colonial colleges, to write and speak Latin in verse and prose was the first of the Harvard laws of 1642. Boston Latin prepared many students for admission to Harvard, with a total of seven years devoted to the classics. However, most graduates of Boston Latin did not go on to college, since business and professions did not require college training.
In 2015, Boston Latin School had 2,400 pupils drawn from Boston. It has produced four Harvard University presidents, four Massachusetts governors, five signers of the United States Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin and Louis Farrakhan are among its well-known dropouts; the School began as the South Grammar School and was modeled after the Boston Grammar School in Lincolnshire, England. The Latin School admitted only male students and hired only male teachers from its founding in 1635 into the 19th century. Helen Magill White was the school's first female graduate and the first American woman to earn a doctorate; the Girls' Latin School was founded in 1877, Boston Latin admitted its first co-educational class in 1972. The school appointed Marie Frisardi Cleary and Juanita Ponte as the first two women in its academic faculty in 1967. Cornelia Kelley was the school's first female headmaster, serving from 1998 until her retirement in 2007, after which Lynne Mooney Teta became headmaster.
A cadet corps was founded during the American Civil War. Boston Latin's motto is Sumus Primi, Latin; this is a double entendre, referring both to the school's date of its academic stature. Boston Latin has a history of pursuing the same standards as elite New England prep schools while adopting the egalitarian attitude of a public school. Academically, the school outperforms public schools in affluent Boston suburbs as measured by the yearly MCAS assessment required of all Massachusetts public schools. In 2006, Brooklyn Latin School was founded in New York City, explicitly modeled on Boston Latin, borrowing much from its traditions and curriculum. Admission is determined by a combination of a student's score on the Independent School Entrance Examination and recent grades, is limited to residents of the city of Boston. Although Boston Latin runs from the 7th through the 12th grade, it admits students only into the 7th and 9th grades; the higher grades have fewer students than the lower grades, as a large number of students transfer out.
The school has been described as having a sink-or-swim environment, but in recent years there have been notable efforts to create a more supportive atmosphere. Because it is a high-performing and well-regarded school, Boston Latin has been at the center of controversy concerning its admissions process. Admissions are competitive, it is not uncommon for fewer than 20% of applicants to be admitted. Before the 1997 school year, Boston Latin set aside a 35% quota of places in its incoming class for under-represented minorities; the school was forced to drop this policy after a series of lawsuits involving non-minority girls who were not admitted despite ranking higher than admitted minorities. Boston Latin subsequently defeated a legal effort to do away with its admissions process and conduct admissions by blind lottery. Since 1997, the percentage of under-represented minorities at Boston Latin has fallen from 35% to under 19% in 2005, despite efforts by Boston Latin, the Boston Public Schools, the Boston Latin School Association to recruit more minority applicants and retain more minority students.
Some advocate instituting a quota for the number of students that must be admitted from Boston's public middle schools. Declamation is the most time-honored of the school's traditions. Pupils in the 7th to 10th grade are required to give an oration, known as'Declamation', in their English class three times during the year. There is Public Declamation, where pupils from all grades, or classes, are welcomed to try out for the chance to declaim a memorized piece in front of an asse