Lady Caroline Lamb (film)
Lady Caroline Lamb is a 1972 film based on the life of Lady Caroline Lamb, lover of Lord Byron and wife of William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. The film was written and directed by Robert Bolt and starred his wife, Sarah Miles, as Lady Caroline; the fim stars Jon Finch, Richard Chamberlain, Laurence Olivier, Ralph Richardson, John Mills, Margaret Leighton and Michael Wilding. Sarah Miles as Lady Caroline Lamb Jon Finch as William Lamb Richard Chamberlain as Lord Byron John Mills as Canning Margaret Leighton as Lady Melbourne Pamela Brown as Lady Bessborough Silvia Monti as Miss Millbanke Ralph Richardson as King George IV. Laurence Olivier as Duke of Wellington Michael Wilding as Lord Holland Peter Bull as Minister Charles Carson as Potter Sonia Dresdel as Lady Pont Nicholas Field as St. John Caterina Boratto Felicity Gibson as Girl in Blue The film was the directorial debut of screenwriter Robert Bolt and stars his wife Sarah Miles in the title role. Bolt did not direct another film; the film is notable because it is the last film in which Michael Wilding appeared, in a cameo with his last wife, Margaret Leighton, who played Lady Melbourne.
The film score was composed by Richard Rodney Bennett, who based a concert work, Elegy for Lady Caroline Lamb for viola and orchestra, on some of the material. Praise came for Laurence Olivier's cameo as the Duke of Wellington, with Philip French of The Times writing that "... Olivier's brief appearance as the Duke of Wellington is a beautifully witty and rounded characterisation, worth the price of the admission in itself". Lady Caroline Lamb on IMDb
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary and Prime Minister. He is best known for being prime minister in Queen Victoria's early years and her coaching in the ways of politics. Historians have concluded that Melbourne does not rank as a Prime Minister, for there were no great foreign wars or domestic issues to handle, he lacked major achievements, he enunciated no grand principles, his involvement in several political scandals as Victoria's private secretary. Melbourne was Prime Minister on two occasions; the first occasion ended when he was dismissed by King William IV in 1834, the last British prime minister to be dismissed by a monarch. Six months he was re-appointed and served for six years. Born in London in 1779 to an aristocratic Whig family, William Lamb was the son of the 1st Viscount Melbourne and Elizabeth, Viscountess Melbourne. However, his paternity was questioned, being attributed to George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont, to whom it was considered he bore a considerable resemblance, at whose residence, Lamb was a visitor until the Earl's death.
Lamb stated that Egremont being his father was'all a lie'. He was educated at Eton, Trinity College and the University of Glasgow. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Lamb served at home as captain and major in the Hertfordshire Volunteer Infantry, he succeeded his elder brother as heir to his father's title in 1805, married Lady Caroline Ponsonby, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat. The following year, he was elected to the British House of Commons as the Whig MP for Leominster. For the election in 1806 he moved to the seat of Haddington Burghs, for the 1807 election he stood for Portarlington. Lamb first came to general notice for reasons he would rather have avoided: his wife had a public affair with Lord Byron—she coined the famous characterisation of Byron as "mad and dangerous to know"; the resulting scandal was the talk of Britain in 1812. Lady Caroline published a Gothic novel, Glenarvon, in 1816; the two were reconciled, though they separated in 1825, her death in 1828 affected him considerably.
In 1816, Lamb was returned for Peterborough by Whig grandee Lord Fitzwilliam. He told Lord Holland that he was committed to the Whig principles of the Glorious Revolution but not to "a heap of modern additions, interpolations and fictions", he therefore spoke against parliamentary reform, voted for the suspension of habeas corpus in 1817 when sedition was rife. Lamb's hallmark was finding the middle ground. Though a Whig, he accepted the post of Chief Secretary for Ireland in the moderate Tory governments of George Canning and Lord Goderich. Upon the death of his father in 1828 and his becoming the 2nd Viscount Melbourne, of Kilmore in the County of Cavan, he moved to the House of Lords, he had spent 25 years in the Commons as a backbencher, was not politically well known. In November 1830, the Whigs came to power under Lord Grey. Melbourne was Home Secretary. During the disturbances of 1830–32 he "acted both vigorously and sensitively, it was for this function that his reforming brethren thanked him heartily".
In the aftermath of the Swing Riots of 1830–31, he countered the Tory magistrates' alarmism by refusing to resort to military force. He appointed a special commission to try 1,000 of those arrested, ensured that justice was adhered to: one-third were acquitted and most of the one-fifth sentenced to death were instead transported. There remains controversy regarding the hanging of Dic Penderyn, a protester in the Merthyr Rising, is now judged to have been innocent, he appears to have been executed on the word of Melbourne, who sought a victim in order to'set an example'. The disturbances over reform in 1831–32 were countered with the enforcement of the usual laws. After Lord Grey resigned as Prime Minister in July 1834, the King was forced to appoint another Whig to replace him, as the Tories were not strong enough to support a government. Melbourne was the man most to be both acceptable to the King and hold the Whig party together. Melbourne hesitated after receiving from Grey the letter from the King requesting him to visit him to discuss the formation of a government.
Melbourne thought he would not enjoy the extra work that accompanied the office of Premier, but he did not want to let his friends and party down. According to Charles Greville, Melbourne said to his secretary, Tom Young: "I think it's a damned bore. I am in many minds as to what to do". Young replied: "Why, damn it all, such a position was never held by any Greek or Roman: and if it only lasts three months, it will be worth while to have been Prime Minister of England." "By God, that's true," Melbourne said, "I'll go!"Compromise was the key to many of Melbourne's actions. As an aristocrat, he had a vested interest in the status quo, he was opposed to the Reform Act 1832 proposed by the Whigs, arguing that Catholic emancipation had not ended in the tranquility expected of it, but reluctantly agreed that it
Victoria, Princess Royal
Victoria, Princess Royal was German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. She was the eldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was created Princess Royal in 1841, she was the mother of German Emperor. Educated by her father in a politically liberal environment, she was betrothed at the age of sixteen to Prince Frederick of Prussia and supported him in his views that Prussia and the German Empire should become a constitutional monarchy on the British model. Criticised for this attitude and for her English origins, Victoria suffered ostracism by the Hohenzollerns and the Berlin court; this isolation increased after the arrival of Otto von Bismarck to power in 1862. Victoria was empress and queen of Prussia for only a few months, during which she had opportunity to influence the policy of the German Empire. Frederick III died in 1888 – just 99 days after his accession – from laryngeal cancer and was succeeded by their son William II, who had much more conservative views than his parents.
After her husband's death, she became known as Empress Frederick. The empress dowager settled in Kronberg im Taunus, where she built Friedrichshof, a castle, named in honour of her late husband. Isolated after the weddings of her younger daughters, Victoria died of breast cancer a few months after her mother in 1901; the correspondence between Victoria and her parents has been preserved completely: 3,777 letters from Queen Victoria to her eldest daughter, about 4,000 letters from the empress to her mother are preserved and catalogued. These give a detailed insight into the life of the Prussian court between 1858 and 1900. Princess Victoria was born on 21 November 1840 at London, she was her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. When she was born, the doctor exclaimed sadly: "Oh Madame, it's a girl!" And the Queen replied: "Never mind, next time it will be a prince!". She was baptised in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace on 10 February 1841 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley.
The Lily font was commissioned for the occasion of her christening. Her godparents were Queen Adelaide, the King of the Belgians, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Duke of Sussex, the Duchess of Gloucester and the Duchess of Kent; as a daughter of the sovereign, Victoria was born a British princess. On 19 January 1841, she was made Princess Royal, a title sometimes conferred on the eldest daughter of the sovereign. In addition, she was heir presumptive to the throne of the United Kingdom, before the birth of her younger brother Prince Albert Edward on 9 November 1841. To her family, she was known as "Vicky"; the royal couple decided to give their children as complete an education as possible. In fact, Queen Victoria, who succeeded her uncle King William IV at the age of 18, believed that she herself had not been sufficiently prepared for the government affairs. For his part, Prince Albert, born in the small Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had received a more careful education, thanks to his uncle King Leopold I of Belgium.
Shortly after the birth of Victoria, Prince Albert wrote a memoir detailing the tasks and duties of all those involved with the royal children. Another 48-page document, written a year and a half by the Baron Stockmar, intimate of the royal couple, details the educational principles which were to be used with the little princes; the royal couple, had only a vague idea of the proper educational development of a child. Queen Victoria, for example, believed that the fact that her baby sucked on bracelets was a sign of deficient education. According to Hannah Pakula, biographer of the future German empress, the first two governesses of the princess were therefore well chosen. Experienced in dealing with children, Lady Lyttelton directed the nursery through which passed all royal children after Victoria's second year; the diplomatic young woman managed to soften the unrealistic demands of the royal couple. Sarah Anne Hildyard, the children's second governess, was a competent teacher who developed a close relationship with her students.
Precocious and intelligent, Victoria began to learn French at the age of 18 months, she began to study German when aged four. She learned Greek and Latin. From the age of six, her curriculum included lessons of arithmetic and history, her father tutored her in politics and philosophy, she studied science and literature. Her school days, interrupted by three hours of recreation, began at 8:20 and finished at 18:00. Unlike her brother, whose educational program was more severe, Victoria was an excellent student, always hungry for knowledge. However, she showed an obstinate character. Queen Victoria and her husband wanted to remove their children from court life as much as possible, so they acquired Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Near the main building, Albert built for his children a Swiss-inspired cottage with a small kitchen and a carpentry workshop. In this building, the royal children learned practical life. Prince Albert was involved in the education of their offspring, he followed the progress of his children and gave some of their lessons himself, as well as spending time playing with them.
Victoria is described as having "idolised" her father and having inherited his li
Frederick Ponsonby, 3rd Earl of Bessborough
Frederick Ponsonby, 3rd Earl of Bessborough, was an Anglo-Irish peer. Ponsonby was the eldest son of Viscount Duncannon and Lady Caroline Cavendish, daughter of The 3rd Duke of Devonshire, he succeeded to his father's titles in 1793. He was educated at Christ Church and obtained the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Civil Law, he sat in the House of Commons as member for Knaresborough from 1780 until his succession to the peerage and was a Lord of the Admiralty in 1782–83 Bessborough made a favourable first impression: quiet, but with "the most mild and amiable manner". On the other hand, he was a notoriously bad husband, alternating between neglecting Henrietta and insulting her in public. While there were arguably faults on both sides- she was addicted to gambling and had numerous love affairs- society in general judged him to be the greater offender. On 27 November 1780, he had married Lady Henrietta Spencer, second daughter of John Spencer, 1st Earl Spencer; the marriage was notoriously unhappy and Bessborough began divorce proceedings in 1790 but under intense pressure from his relatives dropped them.
They had four children: John Ponsonby, 4th Earl of Bessborough he married Lady Maria Fane on 16 November 1805. They had fourteen children. Major General Sir Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby he married Lady Emily Bathurst, on 16 March 1825, they had six children. Lady Caroline Lamb she married 2nd Viscount Melbourne, the Prime Minister in 1805, they had two children. William Francis Spencer, 1st Baron de Mauley he married Lady Barbara Ashley-Cooper on 8 August 1814, they had three children. Lady Bessborough died in 1821 of a chill caught while travelling abroad, her husband outlived her by more than 20 years, dying at Canford House, Dorset in 1844. 1758: The Honourable Frederick Ponsonby 1758-1777: Viscount Duncannon 1777-1779: Viscount Duncannon MA 1779-1780: Viscount Duncannon MA DCL 1780-1793: Viscount Duncannon MA DCL MP 1793-1844: The Right Honourable The Earl of Bessborough MA DCL thePeerage.com Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Bessborough
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
Sarah Miles is an English theatre and film actress. Her best-known films include The Servant, Ryan's Daughter and Hope and Glory. Sarah Miles was born in the small town of Essex, in south east England. Miles's parents were Clarice Vera John Miles, of a family of engineers. Through her maternal grandfather Francis Remnant, Miles claims to be the great-granddaughter of Prince Francis of Teck, thus a second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II. Unable to speak until the age of nine because of a stammer and dyslexia, she attended Roedean, three other schools, but was expelled from all of them. Miles enrolled at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art at the age of 15. Shortly after finishing at RADA, Miles debuted as Shirley Taylor, a "husky wide-eyed nymphet" in Term of Trial, which featured Laurence Olivier. Soon afterwards, Miles had a role as Vera from Manchester in Joseph Losey's The Servant, "thrust sexual appetite into British films" according to David Thomson, she gained this time as Best Actress.
She had a "peripheral" part in Michelangelo Antonioni's Blowup. At Antonioni's death in 2007, she referred to him as "a rogue and a tyrant and a brilliant man". After acting in several plays from 1966 to 1969, Miles was cast as Rosy in the leading title role of David Lean's Ryan's Daughter, it was critically savaged, which discouraged Lean from making a film for some years, despite her performance gaining her an Oscar nomination and an Oscar win for John Mills, the film making a substantial profit. In Terence Pettigrew's biography of Trevor Howard, Miles describes the filming of Ryan's Daughter in Ireland in 1969, she recalls, "My main memory is of sitting on a hilltop in a caravan at six in the morning in the rain. There was no other member of the crew around me. I would sit there waiting for either the rain to stop or someone to arrive. Film-acting is so horrifically belittling."On 11 February 1973, while filming The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing, aspiring screenwriter David Whiting one of her lovers, was found dead in her motel room.
She was acquitted of culpability in his death. Miles commented: "It went on for six months. Murder? Suicide? Murder! Suicide! Murder! Suicide! And the truth came out, which I'm not going to speak about, but it wasn't me. I had saved the man from three suicide attempts, so why would I want to murder him? I can't imagine."Her performance as Anne Osborne in The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea was nominated for a Golden Globe. Interviewer Lynn Barber wrote of Miles' appearances in Hope and Glory, White Mischief, her two earliest films that she "has that Vanessa Redgrave quality of seeming to have one skin fewer than normal people, so that the emotion comes over unmuffled and bare."Filming White Mischief on location in Kenya in 1987, Miles worked for the second and last time with Trevor Howard, who had a supporting role, but was by seriously ill from alcoholism. The company wanted to fire him, but Miles was determined that Howard's distinguished film career would not end that way. In an interview with Terence Pettigrew for his biography of Howard, she describes how she gave an ultimatum to the executives, threatening to quit the production if they got rid of him.
The gamble worked. Howard was kept on, it was his last major film. She most appeared in Well at the Trafalgar Studios and the Apollo Theatre opposite Natalie Casey. Miles was married twice to the British playwright Robert Bolt, 1967–1975 and 1988–1995, he wrote and directed the film Lady Caroline Lamb, in which Miles played the eponymous heroine, wrote Ryan's Daughter, as well. After his stroke, the couple reunited and Miles cared for him. "I would be dead without her", Bolt said in 1987, "When she's away, my life takes a nosedive. When she returns, my life soars." The couple had a son, now a watch dealer. Miles stated, in 2012, that she has been drinking her own urine for over 30 years, as she feels it improves her health in a variety of ways. Sarah Miles has written the following books: A Right Royal Bastard. Pan Book. 1994. P. 368. ISBN 0-330-33142-6. 1st part of memoirs Serves Me Right. Macmillan. 1994. P. 384. ISBN 0-333-60141-6. 2nd part of memoirs Bolt from the Blue. Phoenix. 1997. P. 272. ISBN 0-7538-0229-5.
Beautiful Mourning. Orion. 1998. P. 352. ISBN 0-7528-0140-6. Sarah Miles on IMDb Interview with Sarah Miles
Keeper of the Privy Purse
The Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to the King/Queen is responsible for the financial management of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. He or she is assisted by the Deputy Treasurer to the King/Queen for the management of the Sovereign Grant, he or she is assisted by the Deputy Keeper of the Privy Purse for semi-private concerns, such as racing stables, the Royal Philatelic Collection, Royal Ascot, the Chapel Royal, Page of Honour, Military Knights of Windsor, Royal Maundy, the Royal Victorian Order and favour apartments, the Duchy of Lancaster. These are funded from the Privy Purse, drawn from the Duchy of Lancaster; the Keeper of the Privy Purse meets the Sovereign at least weekly. The current Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to The Queen is Sir Michael Stevens. At coronations in recent centuries the holders of this office have invariably carried a ceremonial purse, embroidered with the royal coat of arms. Henry Norris by 1526–?1536 Anthony Denny c.1536 Peter Osborne 1551–1552 John Tamworth, 1559-1569 Henry Seckford 1559–1603 Sir Richard Molyneux, 1st Baronet, 1607–?
George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar, c.1610–1611 John Murray, 1st Earl of Annandale 1611–1616 Richard Molyneux, 1st Viscount Molyneux, PC 1616?–1636 Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Ancram, PC 1636?–1639 Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, KG, PC Charles Berkeley, 1st Earl of Falmouth, PC 1662–1665 Baptist May 1665–1685 James Graham, 1685–1689 William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, KG, PC 1689–1700 Caspar Frederick Henning, 1700–1702 Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough 1702–1711 Abigail Masham, Baroness Masham 1711–1714 Caspar Frederick Henning, 1714–1727 Augustus Schutz, 1727–1757 The Honourable Edward Finch, 1757–1760 John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, KG, PC 1760–1763 William Breton, 1763–1773 James Brudenell, 5th Earl of Cardigan, PC 1773–1811 The Right Honourable Colonel Sir John McMahon, 1st Baronet, 1812–1817 Lieutenant-General Benjamin Bloomfield, 1st Baron Bloomfield, GCB GCH PC 1817–1822 The Right Honourable Sir William Knighton, 1st Baronet, GCH 1821–1830 Major-General Sir Henry Wheatley, 1st Baronet, GCH, CB 1830–1846 George Edward Anson 1847–1849 Colonel The Honourable Sir Charles Beaumont Phipps KCB 1849–1866 General The Honourable Sir Charles Grey 1866–1867 Colonel Thomas Myddleton-Biddulph KCB 1866–1878 Major-General Sir Henry Ponsonby GCB 1878–1895 The Right Honourable Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Fleetwood Edwards GCVO, KCB, ISO 1895–1901 The Right Honourable General Sir Dighton Probyn, VC, GCB, GCSI, GCVO, ISO 1901–1910 The Right Honourable Lieutenant-Colonel Sir William Carington GCVO KCB JP 1910–1914 Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Ponsonby, 1st Baron Sysonby GCB GCVO PC 1914–1935 Colonel Clive Wigram, 1st Baron Wigram GCB GCVO CSI PC 1935–1936 Major Sir Ulick Alexander 1936–1952 Brigadier-General Charles George Vivian Tryon, 2nd Baron Tryon, GCVO, KCB, DSO, DL, OStJ 1952–1971 Major Sir Rennie Maudslay, GCVO KCB MBE 1971–1981 Sir Peter Miles, KCVO 1981–1987 Major Sir Shane Blewitt, GCVO 1988–1996 Sir Michael Peat, GCVO 1996–2002 Sir Alan Reid, GCVO 2002–2017 Sir Michael Stevens KCVO 2018– Treasurer of the Household "The Privy Purse and Treasurer's Office".
Monarchy Today. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. "Keeper of the Privy Purse 1660–1837". Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 11, Court Officers, 1660-1837. London: University of London. 2006 – via British History Online. "The Civil List". BBC News Online