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Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858. Nelson City is close to the geographical centre of New Zealand and bordered to the west and south-west by Tasman District Council and to the north-east and south-east by Marlborough District Council; the city does not include the area's second-largest settlement. Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealand's 12th most populous city; when combined with the town of Richmond, which has 15,000 residents, the whole conurbation is ranked as New Zealand's 9th largest urban area by population. Nelson is well known for its thriving local arts and crafts scene, Each year, the city hosts events popular with locals and tourists alike, such as the Nelson Arts Festival; the annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, World of Wearable Art now showcases winning designs alongside a collection of classic cars.
Nelson was named in honour of the Admiral Horatio Nelson who defeated both the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Many roads and public areas around the city are named after people and ships associated with that battle and Trafalgar Street is the main shopping axis of the city. Inhabitants of Nelson are referred to as Nelsonians. Nelson's Māori name, Whakatū, means'build','raise', or'establish'. In an article to The Colonist newspaper on 16 July 1867, Francis Stevens described Nelson as "The Naples of the Southern Hemisphere". Today, Nelson has the nicknames of "Sunny Nelson" due to its high sunshine hours per year or the "Top of the South" because of its geographic location. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by putting the index and middle fingers together which are raised to the nose until the fingertips touch the nose move the hand forward so that the fingers point forward away from oneself. Settlement of Nelson began about 700 years ago by Māori. There is evidence.
The earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri, Ngāti Apa and Rangitāne tribes. Raids from northern tribes in the 1820s, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population and displaced them; the New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson. They intended to buy cheaply from the Māori some 200,000 acres which they planned to divide into one thousand lots and sell to intending settlers; the Company earmarked future profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers and their families, for the construction of public works. However, by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold. Despite this the Colony pushed ahead, land was surveyed by Frederick Tuckett. Three ships, the Arrow and Will Watch, sailed from London under the command of Captain Arthur Wakefield. Arriving in New Zealand, they discovered that the new Governor of the colony, William Hobson, would not give them a free hand to secure vast areas of land from the Māori or indeed to decide where to site the colony.
However, after some delay, Hobson allowed the Company to investigate the Tasman Bay area at the north end of the South Island. The Company selected the site now occupied by Nelson City because it had the best harbour in the area, but it had a major drawback: it lacked suitable arable land. The Company secured a vague and undetermined area from the Māori for £800 that included Nelson, Motueka and Whakapuaka; this allowed the settlement to begin, but the lack of definition would prove the source of much future conflict. The three colony ships sailed into Nelson Haven during the first week of November 1841; when the four first immigrant ships – Fifeshire, Mary-Ann, Lord Auckland and Lloyds – arrived three months they found the town laid out with streets, some wooden houses and rough sheds. Within 18 months the Company had sent out 18 ships with 872 women and 1384 children. However, fewer than ninety of the settlers had the capital to start as landowners; the early settlement of Nelson province included a proportion of German immigrants, who arrived on the ship Sankt Pauli and formed the nucleus of the villages of Sarau and Neudorf.
These were Lutheran Protestants with a small number of Bavarian Catholics. In 1892 the New Zealand Church Mission Society was formed in a Nelson church hall. After a brief initial period of prosperity, the lack of land and of capital caught up with the settlement and it entered a prolonged period of relative depression; the labourers had to accept a cut in their wages. Organised immigration ceased. By the end of 1843, artisans and labourers began leaving Nelson; the pressure to find more arable land became intense. To the south-east of Nelson lay the wide and fertile plains of the Wairau Valley; the New Zealand Company tried to claim. The Māori owners stated adamantly that the Wairau Valley had not formed part of the original land sale and made it clear they would resist any attempts by the settlers to occupy the area; the Nelson settlers led by Arthur Wakefield and Henry Thompson attempted to do just that. This resulted in the Wairau Affray; the subsequent Government enquiry exonerated the Māori and
Frenchay is a village and suburb of Bristol, England, to the north east of the city, but located in South Gloucestershire and the Civil Parish of Winterbourne. Frenchay was first recorded in 1257 as Fromscawe and as Fromeshaw, meaning the wood on the Frome; the village is situated between the B4058 road, which runs parallel to the M32 motorway, the wooded River Frome valley. Frenchay's largest place of worship is the Anglican Church of St John the Baptist, adjacent to the large village common, overlooked by a number of 18th Century houses principally built by wealthy Quaker families; these include the fine former Rectory, Bradford's House and the adjacent Frenchay Common House. Overlooking the common is the village school which dates from 1842; the village contains a Catholic church, a Quaker Meeting House and a Unitarian chapel. Cricket was played on Frenchay Common from early in the nineteenth century on the initiative of the Wadham family who lived at Frenchay Manor House, owned farms locally at Doynton, Mangotsfield and Frenchay, many of whom are buried in the graveyard of St John the Baptist Church.
W. G. Grace, the famous Victorian cricketer, whose family lived in the next village of Downend, was captain of the village cricket team; the Frenchay Cricket Club, said to have been the first village club in the county, was established in 1846. Frenchay gives its name to the Frenchay Campus of the University of the West of England, though the campus itself is situated in the neighbouring parish of Stoke Gifford. Frenchay was the home to Frenchay Hospital expanded during World War II for the US Army, which treated wounded soldiers returning from the D-Day landings in Normandy. Facilities merged with Southmead Hospital, further towards the centre of the city in 2014. A&E services closed on 19 May 2014; the closure of Frenchay Hospital will make way for a new housing development. Frenchay village has lots of green space, including the common, walks along the River Frome, a moor owned by The National Trust. One of the hubs of the village is the Village Hall, there is an annual village flower show. Frenchay's earliest place of worship was the Quaker Meeting House.
The present one dates from 1809, it replaced an earlier one of 1670. Many Quaker merchants from nearby Bristol made their homes here, including Joseph Storrs Fry, the Quaker chocolate manufacturer, who styled his company J S Fry & Sons, which manufactured the first commercially available chocolate bar in the world, he moved to Grove House in 1800. He died in 1835 and is buried in the burying ground behind the Meeting House along with his wife and daughter, Pricilla. John Wadham of Frenchay Manor House, was from 1789, a co-owner and director of Wadham, Ricketts & Co Wadham, Fry & Co, which manufactured Bristol blue glass at the Phoenix Glassworks near Temple Gate, examples of which can be seen in Bristol Museum, was a director of the Bristol Floating Harbour Company in 1820, his son Thomas Wadham was High Sheriff of Bristol in 1843, the year that Isambard Kingdom Brunel launched his ship SS Great Britain in Bristol Harbour. Thomas Wadham and his son the Rev. John Wadham were active in setting up the Winterbourne National School and his daughters were involved on the school's women's committee.
Thomas's son Edward Wadham, Mineral Agent to Walter Montagu Douglas Scott, 5th Duke of Buccleuch took his skills as a civil engineer who had worked under Brunel and his love of cricket to Barrow-in-Furness where, from 1851 until his death in 1913, he played an important part in the development of what had been a tiny hamlet into the biggest iron and steel centre in the world, a major ship-building force, in just forty years Frenchay Park, an adjacent suburb, is situated within Bristol city limits
The New Zealand Company, chartered in the United Kingdom, was a company that existed in the first half of the 1800s on a business model focused on the systematic colonisation of New Zealand. The company was formed to carry out the principles devised by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who envisaged the creation of a new-model English society in the southern hemisphere. Under Wakefield’s model, the colony would attract capitalists who would have a ready supply of labour—migrant labourers who could not afford to be property owners, but who would have the expectation of one-day buying land with their savings; the New Zealand Company established settlements at Wellington, Nelson and Dunedin and became involved in the settling of New Plymouth and Christchurch. The original New Zealand Company started in 1825, with little success rose as a new company when it merged with Wakefield's New Zealand Association in 1837, received its royal charter in 1840, reached the peak of efficiency about 1841, encountered financial problems from 1843 from which it never recovered, returned its charter in 1850 and wound up all remaining business with a final report in 1858.
The company’s board members included aristocrats, members of Parliament and a prominent magazine publisher, who used their political connections to ceaselessly lobby the British government to achieve its aims. The company indulged in many questionable land purchases from Māori, in many cases reselling land it did not own, launched elaborate and sometimes fraudulent advertising campaigns, it vigorously attacked those it perceived as its opponents—chiefly the British Colonial Office, successive governors of New Zealand, the Church Missionary Society and prominent missionary the Rev. Henry Williams—and it stridently opposed the Treaty of Waitangi, an obstacle to the company obtaining the greatest possible amount of New Zealand land at the cheapest price; the company, in turn, was criticised by the Colonial Office and New Zealand Governors for its "trickery" and lies. Missionaries in New Zealand were critical of the company, fearing its activities would lead to the “conquest and extermination” of Maori inhabitants.
The company viewed itself as a prospective quasi-government of New Zealand and in 1845 and 1846 proposed splitting the colony in two, along a line from Mokau in the west to Cape Kidnappers in the east—with the north reserved for Māori and missionaries, while the south would become a self-governing province, known as "New Victoria" and managed by the company for that purpose. Britain's Colonial Secretary rejected the proposal. Only 15,500 settlers arrived in New Zealand as part of the company's colonisation schemes, but three of its settlements would—along with Auckland—become and remain the country's "main centres" and provide the foundation for the system of provincial government introduced in 1853; the earliest organised attempt to colonise New Zealand came in 1825, when the New Zealand Company was formed in London, headed by the wealthy John George Lambton, MP. The company unsuccessfully petitioned the British Government for a 31-year term of exclusive trade and for command over a military force, anticipating that large profits could be made from New Zealand flax, kauri timber and sealing.
Undeterred by the lack of government support for its plan to establish a settlement protected by a small military force, the company dispatched two ships to New Zealand the following year under the command of Captain James Herd, given the task of exploring trade prospects and potential settlement sites in New Zealand. On 5 March 1826 the ships and Rosanna, reached Stewart Island, which Herd explored and dismissed as a possible settlement, before sailing north to inspect land around Otago Harbour. Herd was unconvinced that area was the ideal location and sailed instead for Te Whanganui-a-Tara, which Herd named Lambton Harbour. Herd explored the area and identified land at the south-west of the harbour as the best place for a European settlement, ignoring the presence of a large pā, home to members of Te Āti Awa tribe; the ships sailed up the east coast to explore prospects for trade, stopping at the Coromandel Peninsula and the Bay of Islands. In January 1827 Herd surveyed parts of the harbour at Hokianga, where either he or the company's agent on board negotiated the "purchase" of tracts of land from Māori in Hokianga and Paeroa.
The price for the land was "five muskets, fifty three pounds powder, four pair blankets, three hundred flints and four musket cartridge boxes". After several weeks Herd and the New Zealand Company agent decided the cost of exporting goods was too high to be of economic value and they sailed to Sydney, where Herd paid off the crew and sold the stores and equipment returned to London; the venture had cost the New Zealand Company ₤20,000. The failure of Lambton's project came to the attention of 30-year-old aspiring politician Edward Gibbon Wakefield, serving three years in jail for abducting a 15-year-old heiress. Wakefield, who had grown up in a family with roots in philanthropy and social reform showed an interest in proposals by Robert Wilmot-Horton, Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies for state-assisted emigration programmes that would help British paupers escape poverty by moving to any of Britain's colonies. In 1829 Wakefield began publishing pamphlets and writing newspaper articles that were reprinted in a book, promoting the concept of systematic emigration to Australasia through a commercial profit-making enterprise.
Wakefield's plan entailed a company buying land from the indigenous residents of Australia or New Zealand cheaply selling it to speculators and "gentleman settlers" for a much higher sum. The immigrants w
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; the urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean. Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland with the formation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans; the province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngai Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour, which became a whaling station in the 1830s. In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland.
Between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin became wealthy beginning in the 1860s. In the mid-1860s, between 1878 and 1881, it was New Zealand's largest urban area; the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic and geographic reasons. Dunedin has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing and technology-based industries as well as education and tourism; the city's most important activity centres around tertiary education—Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature. Archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast.
A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied in the 14th century; the population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were Maori settlements at Whareakeake, Purakaunui and Huriawa to the north, at Taieri Mouth and Otokia to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical; the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid-17th century. These migration waves have been represented as'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that.
They were migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the'Kaika Otargo' were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill, he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin; the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the ch