Reformation Memorial, Copenhagen
The Reformation Memorial is a memorial to the Reformation of Denmark located on Bispetorv in central Copenhagen, Denmark. A committee chaired by bishop Hans Fuglsang-Damgaard was set up in 1936 in connection with the 400 years anniversary of Denmarks transition from Catholicism to the Evangelical-Lutheran faith, the sculptor Max Andersen and the architect Harald Lønborg-Jensen was charged with the design of the monument. It was unveiled on 5 June 1943, the monument consists of an obelisk featuring a bronze relief on each of its four sides. The relief on the front side depicts the event on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen on 30 October 1536 when Christian II confirmed the Reformation of Denmark. The relief on the hand side depicts the interruption of Hans Tavsens service in Greyfriars Church in Viborg by a group of armed men who comes for his arrest. The relief on the rear depicts the ordination of the first eight Evangelical-Lutheran bishops in Church of Our Lady on 2 September 1537. The relief on the hand side depicts Peder Paladius first service after the Reformation
Frederick V of Denmark
Frederick V was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1746 until his death. He was the son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Frederick was born on 31 March 1723 at Copenhagen Castle. He was the grandson of King Frederick IV of Denmark and the son of Crown Prince Christian, on 12 October 1730, King Frederick IV died and Fredericks father ascended the throne as King Christian VI. Christian VI and Sophia Magdalene were deeply devoted to Pietism, although not unfamiliar with religious sentiments, Frederick grew into a hedonist who enjoyed the pleasures of life such as wine and women. His mother ironically referred to him as Der Dänische Prinz because he occasionally spoke Danish, Fredericks propensity for debauchery accelerated his marriage negotiations. He was married at Altona, Holstein, on 11 December 1743 to Princess Louise of Great Britain, daughter of King George II and they were the parents of six children, but one was stillborn.
Meanwhile, Frederick continued to enjoy liaisons with others. During the years 1746-51, the king had a favorite named Madam Hansen who bore him five children, the Norwegian Masonic historian Karl Ludvig Tørrisen Bugge claims that Frederik V as crown prince was included in the Copenhagen Masonic Lodge St. Martin. This was probably third June 1744, and inspired by the Prussian king Frederick the Great who was included in a masonic lodge in his youth. They both had fathers who were opposed to the Masons, but unlike the Prussian king. As an active Freemason, he set up on 24 June 1749 the first Masonic lodge in Norway, on 6 August 1746 – the day before his parentss silver marriage festivities– his father died at Hirschholm Palace, the royal familys summer retreat. Christian VI was interred in Roskilde Cathedral and Louise immediately ascended Denmark-Norways throne, being anointed in Frederiksborg Palaces Chapel the following year. The personal influence of Frederick was limited, making him one of absolute rulers who least made for the states strength and these men marked his reign by the progress of commerce and the emerging industry of gunpowder plant and cannon foundry in Frederiksværk, built by Johan Frederik Classen.
They avoided involving Denmark in the European wars of his time, in the same period the Royal Frederiks Hospital and the Royal Orphanage was created, a school intended for poor boys that still exists today, opened in Christianshavn on 1 October 1753. On 29 June 1753 Frederick V created Denmarks first lottery, called the Royal Copenhagen Lottery - a lottery that exists to this day as Klasselotteriet, one of his main tasks was to take care that his dissolute Majesty didnt damage the Royal households reputation with his constant orgies. Frederick purchased what would become known as the Danish West Indies from the Danish West India Company in 1754. Louise died suddenly on 19 December 1751 at Christiansborg Palace, predeceasing her husband by fourteen years and causing great impact on the family and the courts life. She was buried with great pomp at Roskilde Cathedral, at the time of her death, she was pregnant with her sixth child, who died
These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in use is known as the Bronze Age. In the ancient Near East this began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, with India and China starting to use bronze around the same time, everywhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than previously possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone. It was only that tin was used, becoming the major ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC. Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the process could be more easily controlled. Also, unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic, the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BCE in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik.
Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Africa and some ancient sites in China, ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not often found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artefacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value, in Europe, large hoards of bronze tools, typically socketed axes, are found, which mostly show no signs of wear. With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources and these were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, and used by the living for ritual offerings. Pure iron is soft, and the process of beating and folding sponge iron to wrought iron removes from the metal carbon. Careful control of the alloying and tempering eventually allowed for wrought iron with properties comparable to modern steel, Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, and has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day.
Among other advantages, it does not rust, the weaker wrought iron was found to be sufficiently strong for many uses. Archaeologists suspect that a disruption of the tin trade precipitated the transition. The population migrations around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean, limiting supplies, there are many different bronze alloys, but typically modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Place de la Concorde
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France. Measuring 8.64 hectares in area, it is the largest square in the French capital and it is located in the citys eighth arrondissement, at the eastern end of the Champs-Élysées. The place was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755 as a moat-skirted octagon between the Champs-Elysées to the west and the Tuileries Garden to the east, decorated with statues and fountains, the area was named Place Louis XV to honor the king at that time. At the north end, two magnificent identical stone buildings were constructed, separated by the rue Royale, these structures remain among the best examples of Louis Quinze style architecture. Initially, the building served as the French Naval Ministry. Shortly after its construction, the building became the opulent home of the Duc dAumont. It was purchased by the Comte de Crillon, whose family resided there until 1907, the famous luxury Hôtel de Crillon, which currently occupies the building, took its name from its previous owners.
During the French Revolution the statue of Louis XV of France was torn down, the new revolutionary government erected the guillotine in the square, and it was here that King Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793. In 1795, under the Directory, the square was renamed Place de la Concorde as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the French Revolution. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, the name was changed back to Place Louis XV, after the July Revolution of 1830 the name was returned to Place de la Concorde and has remained that way since. To the west of the Place is the famous Champs-Élysées, to the east of the Place are the Tuileries Gardens. The Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume and the Musée de lOrangerie, the eastern one houses the French Naval Ministry, and the western one is the Hôtel de Crillon. The Rue Royale leads to the de la Madeleine. The center of the Place is occupied by a giant Egyptian obelisk decorated with hieroglyphics exalting the reign of the pharaoh Ramesses II and it is one of two the Egyptian government gave to the French in the 19th century.
The other one stayed in Egypt, too difficult and heavy to move to France with the technology at that time, in the 1990s, President François Mitterrand gave the second obelisk back to the Egyptians. The obelisk once marked the entrance to the Luxor Temple, the self-declared Khedive of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha, offered the 3, 300-year-old Luxor Obelisk to France in 1829. It arrived in Paris on 21 December 1833, three years later, on 25 October 1836, King Louis Philippe had it placed in the center of Place de la Concorde. The obelisk, a granite column, rises 23 metres high, including the base
Equestrian statue of Absalon
The equestrian statue of Absalon on Højbro Plads in Copenhagen was unveiled in 1902 to mark the 700 years anniversary of the death of Bishop Absalon, the citys legendary founder. The depicts Absalon as a commander, mounted on a rearing horse, wearing a mail and helmet. The statue faces Christiansborg Palace on Slotsholmen, where Absalons bishops castle once stood, the lower part of the plinth is made of granite and designed for seating. The upper part is built in red brick, on the front side is a coat of arms with a rosy cross and two intersecting Keys of Heaven, a reference to Absalons status as Bishop of Roskilde. At the top of the plinth is another frieze with lettering in relief, on the front side, it reads,1128 ABSALON1201. Beginning on the hand side, a scroll around the three other sides reads, He was brave and visionary / a lower of learning / with a clean will the loyal son of Denmark. The statue was a gift to the City of Copenhagen from Axel Heide, vilhelm Bissen was charged with the design of the statue while Martin Nyrop designed the plinth.
Heide originally wanted the statue to be unveiled on Absalons birthday,21 March, situated above the main entrance on the façade of the new city hall. The statue was unveiled on 30 November 1902. Heide wanted Georg Brandes to give a speech at the unveiling ceremony, Heide proposed that the bishop of Zealand could speak at the ceremony but this compromise was rejected. When Crown Princess Louise threatened to close her accounts in Privatbanken, Heide finally accepted to cancel Brandes
For its Antillian namesake, see Charlotte Amalie, U. S. Virgin Islands Amalienborg is the home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Amalienborg was originally built for four families, when Christiansborg Palace burned on 26 February 1794. Over the years various kings and their families have resided in the four different palaces, the Frederiksstaden district was built on the former grounds of two other palaces. The first palace was called Sophie Amalienborg, other parts of the land were used for Rosenborg Castle and the new Eastern fortified wall around the old city. Work on the began in 1664, and the castle was built 1669-1673. The King died in 1670, and the Queen Dowager lived there until her death on 20 February 1685, the presentation was a great success, and it was repeated a few days on 19 April. However, immediately after the start of the performance a stage decoration caught fire, causing the theatre and the palace to burn to the ground. The King planned to rebuild the palace, whose church, Royal Household, ole Rømer headed the preparatory work for the rebuilding of Amalienborg in the early 1690s.
In 1694, the King negotiated a deal with the Swedish building master Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and his drawing and model were completed in 1697. The King, found the plans too ambitious, and instead began tearing down the buildings that same year. The second Amalienborg was built by Frederick IV at the beginning of his reign, the second Amalienborg consisted of a summerhouse, a central pavilion with orangeries, and arcades on both side of the pavilion. On one side of the buildings was a French-style garden, the pavilion had a dining room on the groundfloor. On the upper floor was a salon with an out to the harbour, the garden. This development is thought to have been the brainchild of Danish Ambassador Plenipotentiary in Paris. Heading the project was Lord High Steward Adam Gottlob Moltke, one of the most powerful and influential men in the land, with Nicolai Eigtved as royal architect and supervisor. The project consisted of four identical mansions, built to house four distinguished families of nobility from the royal circles and these mansions form the modern palace of Amalienborg, albeit much modified over the years.
The noblemen who owned them were willing to part with their mansions for promotion and money, and the Moltke and Schack Palaces were acquired in the course of a few days. A colonnade, designed by royal architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, was added 1794-1795 to connect the recently occupied King’s palace, Moltke Palace, with that of the Crown Prince, Schack’s Palace
Danish sculpture as a nationally recognized art form can be traced back to 1752 when Jacques Saly was commissioned to execute a statue of King Frederick V of Denmark on horseback. More recently, Danish sculpture has been inspired by European trends, especially those from Paris, from roughly the same period, there are sculpted figures in the granite reliefs depicting the Removal from the Cross in the tympanum above the so-called Cats Head Door of Ribe Cathedral. However the Reformation in 1536 brought such work to an almost total stop. During the Renaissance period, sculptors from abroad were the source of work in Denmark, the Flemish sculptor Cornelis Floris from Antwerp produced tombs for Herluf Trolle and Birgitte Gøye in Herlufsholm and for Christian III in Roskilde Cathedral. Gert van Groningen was one of the leading Dutch artists to participate in the design of Kronborgs main entrance, another Flemish sculptor active towards the end of the 16th century in Denmark was Gert van Egen who designed Frederik IIs tomb in Roskilde Cathedral.
Shortly after the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts was founded in March 1754, Saly was appointed as its director and it has been called one of the finest equestrian statues in Europe. Soon after his return to Denmark in 1758, he was commissioned to sculpt a monument to the long deceased King Christian VI by his widowed wife. Completed in 1768, the monument was not installed in Roskilde Cathedral until 1777. The sarcophagus with two figures and Berømmelsen is considered to be Denmarks first Neoclassical work. Wiedewelt went on to large collections of sculptures for gardens such as those at Fredensborg Palace. The memorial chapel was the result of collaboration between Wiedewelt and the architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, Wiedewelt was chosen for eight annual periods as Director of the Academy between 1772 and 1794. Bertel Thorvaldsen is the most famous Danish sculptor, recognised across Europe as one of the leading Neoclassical sculptors, after entering the Art Academy in Copenhagen when he was only 11, he went on to win all four of the institutions medals.
In 1796, he received a stipend for a short study tour to Italy but, apart from a short visit to Denmark in 1819. After a model for his statue of Jason and the Golden Fleece received recognition from the leading Italian sculptor of the day, Antonio Canova, his success was ensured. Thorvaldsen gradually employed numerous assistants, extending his work to be executed in five studios in Rome, among his most important works are the colossal series of statues of Christ and the twelve Apostles for the rebuilding of Vor Frue Kirke in Copenhagen. His works can be seen in many European countries, but there is a large collection at the Thorvaldsen Museum in Copenhagen. During his stay in Rome, Thorvaldsen played an important role in encouraging young Danish artists spending time in the city and his masterpiece, the Ragnarok Freize, which occupied him for many years, was completed by Bissen after his death but was destroyed by the Christianborg fire. There is a plaster cast of part of the freize in Statens Museum for Kunst, herman Wilhelm Bissen, initially a Neoclassicist, is remembered for the Realism of his monumental works celebrating Danish military victories while reflecting the nationalistic trend of the times
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Ivar Huitfeldt Column
The monument was constructed in 1886 to a design by Vilhelm Dahlerup. Ferdinand Edvard Ring was responsible for the statue of Victoria and for the reliefs, on 4 October 1710, the ship-of-the-line Dannebrog, which Huitfeldt commanded, was set on fire during an encounter with the Swedes. He gave orders to continue the battle, which came to an end when the ship blew up. Huitfeldt and 497 crew members were killed, between 1872 and 1875 various artifacts were brought up from the wreck, including cannons and the ships anchor. It was won by Vilhelm Dahlerup, the original plan was to erect the monument at the small churchyard attached to the naval Church of Holmen, close to the main entrance in Havnegade, but it was ultimately deemed too big. The monument consists of a column topped by a statue of Victoria. Four bronze reliefs at its foot feature Huitfeldt s portrait, his coat of arms, a ship, the design incorporates the cannonballs barrels and the ship’s anchor is attached to the plinth