Copenhagen Central Station
Copenhagen Central Station is the main railway station in Copenhagen and the largest railway station in Denmark, although Nørreport Station has a larger passenger throughput if urban S-train and Metro services are included. It is situated between the districts of Indre By and Vesterbro with entrances from Bernstorffsgade, Banegårdspladsen and access to platforms from Tietgensgade. Copenhagen Central Station is the hub of the DSB railway network serving Denmark and international destinations, it offers InterCity and Express trains services across Denmark, as well as services to several international destinations and frequent regional train services to and from Zealand and southern Sweden. The station services the Copenhagen S-train network, but the S-train system in Copenhagen doesn't use any kind of hub at all, it is an urban transit which differs from most Metro systems by being a type of railway. At the station are two platforms with four tracks that are used by the S-trains only. All other trains use the other four platforms and eight tracks.
In addition to the original 6 island-platforms and their 12 tracks, has one additional track constructed much later. The single spare track, called track 26, was built for trains to southern Sweden, while Malmö C still was a terminus, it has occasionally been used for express trains to or from Sweden or to or from Norway. After the introduction of border controls and mandatory identity checks for travel to Sweden this track was fenced and used for X2000 and intercity trains to Sweden; the extra track 26 is located 200 metres south of the main building and is reachable only by walking along the platform for track 4 and 5 or from a staircase from the Tietgensgade street. The platforms begin under the main passenger hall. A hotel is built above the S-train tracks in the Northern end, but the remaining tracks are uncovered below street level.. In the opposite end, all platforms are covered with the typical railway arched roof; this roof is shorter than the platforms, but all tracks remain below street level and can be accessed from the street Tietgensgade.
The main hall isn't just a waiting hall, but a market place where most things can be bought. From fresh fruit sellers to super market, postal office, currency exchanges, coffee shops and pubs etc. There are travel center for information and manual sale of tickets and two large toilet sections which are under manual supervision and clean. Shower rooms are available for a smaller fee; the current station building is the work of architect Heinrich Wenck. The station has 13 tracks. On the station concourse there are many small shops and fast food outlets. All public transport within Greater Copenhagen are divided into close to 100 ticket fare zones; the Central station is located in fare zone 1, which together with zones 2 and 3 constitute Copenhagen municipality and the "exclave" of Frederiksberg municipality. As the cheapest single ticket always is valid in two zones, a single ticket bought at the station is valid within the entire city centre and its inner boroughs. A ticket to Copenhagen Airport Kastrup, demands the payment for three zones since it is located in zone 4.
From July 2019 the Central station will be served by the new Copenhagen Metro line M3, which will be a circular line with 17 stations. It is planned that the metro will expand less than a year after the M3 service start to include line M4; the first railway station in Copenhagen was built in 1847 at the present station location. It served Roskildebanen, it was made of wood because it was built outside the fortifications where buildings with foundations were not allowed. An expansion was soon necessary due to plans to extend the railway network in Denmark. A new larger station, designed by H. J. Herholdt, opened in 1864; the second station proved too small because there was only one track leading out of the city. It was decided to build a new station, including a tunnel to Østerport station, with tracks out of the city to the south. Designed by Heinrich Wenck, the present station was finished on 1 December 1911; the tunnel was opened in 1917. The station was overhauled in 1980. Escalators and lifts were established to the platforms, the station concourse, split into arrival and freight sections, was redone completely.
The station was overhauled again from 2004 to 2008. This overhaul replaced the roof, lowered platforms 3 to 6 to international standards and lengthened them; the towers and the bridge over the platforms, upon which the main station building is placed, were reconditioned. Copenhagen Central Station provides Copenhagen with Intercity and Express trains across Denmark, as well as services to several international destinations. Direct international trains connect to Hamburg several times a day. Intercity trains run half-hourly from Copenhagen during daytime and serve as a link between the major cities and towns in Denmark, including Odense, Aalborg, Thisted and Sønderborg. Regional trains connect the main parts of Zealand to the capital. Veolia Transport trains on the Oresundtrain regional rail network depart to southern and
Forum Station is a rapid transit station on the Copenhagen Metro in Frederiksberg, Denmark. The station opened in 2003, it connects with bus services. The station lies adjacent to Forum Copenhagen, a large special events venue, which has given the station its name; the station is in fare zone 1. The station has bicycle parking facilities. Forum station on www.m.dk Forum station on www.m.dk
M2 is a line of the Copenhagen Metro, colored yellow on the map. It runs from Vanløse to Lufthavnen through the center of Copenhagen, sharing track with the M1 from Vanløse to Christianshavn; the line was built along with M1 as part of the redevelopment of Ørestad. The principle of the line was passed in 1992, construction commenced in 1998; the line opened in several stages between 2002 and 2007. It is owned by Metroselskabet and operated by Metro Service, operates with a headway between four and twenty minutes; the line is 14.2 kilometers long, runs in a tunnel through the city center between Lindevang and Amager Strand. It connects the eastern borough of Vanløse and the municipality of Frederiksberg to the city center of Copenhagen, as well as the western parts of Amager and Copenhagen Airport, it provides transfer to DSB trains at two stations. Its southern end, in the district of Amager Øst follows the same route as a disused railway line, along the coast of Øresund; the background for the metro was the urban development of the Ørestad area of Copenhagen.
The principle of building a rail transit was passed by the Parliament of Denmark on 24 June 1992, with the Ørestad Act. The responsibility for developing the area, as well as building and operating the metro, was given to the Ørestad Development Corporation, a joint venture between Copenhagen Municipality and the Ministry of Finance. Three modes of transport were considered: a tramway, a light rail and a rapid transit. In October 1994, the Development Corporation chose a light rapid transit system; the decision to build stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse, stage 3 to the airport, was made by parliament on 21 December 1994. Stage 2 involved the establishment of the company Fredriksbergbaneselskapet I/S in February 1995, owned 70% by the Ørestad Development Corporation and 30% by Fredriksberg Municipality; the third stage would be built by Østamagerbaneselskapet I/S, established in September 1995 and owned 55% by the Ørestad Development Corporation and 45% by Copenhagen County. In October 1996, a contract was signed with the Copenhagen Metro Construction Group for building the lines, with Ansaldo for delivery of the trains and operate the system the first five years.
COMET was a consortium comprised Astaldi, Bachy, SAE, Ilbau, NCC Rasmussen & Schiøtz Anlæg and Tarmac Construction. Construction started in November 1996, with the moving of underground pipes and wires around the station areas. In August 1997, work commenced at the depot, in September, COMET started the first mainline construction work. In October and November, the two tunnel boring machines, christened Liva and Bette, were delivered, they started digging each barrel of the tunnel from Islands Brygge in February 1998. The same month, the Public Transport Authority gave the necessary permits to operate a driverless metro; the section between Fasanvej and Frederiksberg is a former S-train line, was last operated as such on 20 June 1998. The first section of tunnel was completed by September 1998, after which the TMBs moved to Havnegade. By December 1998, work had started on all the initial nine stations. Plans for M2 were presented to the public in April 1999, with a debate emerging if the proposed elevated solution was the best.
In May, the first trains were delivered, trial runs began at the depot. In December, the tunnels were completed to Strandlodsvej, the TMBs were moved to Havnegade, where they started to grind towards Frederiksberg. From 1 January 2000, the S-train service from Solbjerg to Vanløse was terminated, work to rebuild to metro started. By February 2001, all tunnels were finished. In March 2001, the Copenhagen County Council decided to start construction of stage 3. On 6 November 2001, the first train operates through a tunnel section and on 28 November, laying of tracks along stage 1 and stage 2A completed. An agreement about financing stage 3 was reached on 12 April. By 22 May, the 18 delivered; the section from Nørreport to Lergravsparken and Vesterport was opened on 19 October 2002. The system had a 12-minute headway on each of the two services. From 3 December this was reduced to 9 minutes, from 19 December to 6 minutes. Operation of the system was subcontracted to Ansaldo, who again subcontracted it to Metro Service, a subsidiary of Serco.
The contract had a duration of five years, with an option for extension for another three. Trial runs on the next section of metro, stage 2A from Nørreport to Frederiksberg, began on 24 February, it opened on 29 May 2003. All changes to bus and tin schedules in Copenhagen took place on 25 May, but to allow Queen Margrethe II to open the line, the opening needed to be adapted to her calendar; this caused four days without a bus service along the line. Stage 2B, from Frederiksberg to Vanløse, opened on 12 October. Forum Station was nominated for the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture in 2005. In 2007, the Ørestad Development Corporation was discontinued, the ownership of the metro was transferred to Metroselskabet I/S; the 4.5-kilometre stage 3 opened on 28 September 2007, from Lergravsparken to the airport. It followed for the most part the route of the former Amager Line of the Danish State Railways. With this stage complete, 34 trains had been delivered. However, the line had caused a heated debate, several locals had organized themselves in the Amager Metro Group.
They demanded that the line instead be tunneled, arguing that it caused a physical barrier in Amager and that it created noise pollution. M2 starts at Vanløse, which serves a residential area, where there is transfer to the S-train's lines C and H; the line starts elevated and is located in fare zone 2. The
City Circle Line
The City Circle Line or M3 is a future loop line of the Copenhagen Metro. It has been claimed by COWI A/S that the City Circle Line is the largest construction project to have taken place in Copenhagen during the last 400 years. Upon its completion, the network's total length shall have 17 stations, its completion has been anticipated to occur around the summer of 2019. Plans for its construction were approved by the Danish Parliament on 1 June 2007. Preferred bidders were announced during November 2010; the total cost was estimated at 15 billion kroner but had risen to 21.3 billion kroner when the contractors were announced in late 2010. It shall be a automated line, using driverless trains and capable of routine 24/7 operations. Italian rolling stock manufacturer AnsaldoBreda is to provide the trains for the new line; the stations are intentionally similar to the Copenhagen Metro's existing ones. The transit agency Movia has projected that up to 34 million passengers will switch from buses to using the Metro during each year.
During 2002, the Copenhagen Metro, a automated driverless metro system, was opened. It became known for its high level of reliability, attaining an operational punctuality in excess of 98 per cent of on-time arrivals. Due to its success, during 2005, plans were mooted for further expansion of Copenhagen Metro in the form of the City Circle Line; as proposed, it involved the construction of a new 15.5km underground circular route, on which a total of 17 new stations along with two new underground lines, designated as M3 and M4, complete with emergency shafts would be constructed. The City Circle Line is to connect into the Kongens Nytorv and Frederiksberg stations of the preexisting metro network. During the summer of 2007, the Danish Parliament gave its approval to the construction of the proposed line, although it would be another four years before construction activity would commence. At the time of its approval, the project had an projected cost of DKK21.3 billion along with an anticipated date of completion by July 2019.
Transport group Metroselskabet held overall responsibility for the City Circle Line. On 7 January 2011, the civil engineering contract for the City Circle Line was awarded to the Copenhagen Metro Team, a joint venture comprising Salini Impregilo, SELI. Another joint venture between COWI A/S, Arup Group and SYSTRA were separately awarded the civil works contract. Engineering company MT Højgaard was awarded the contract for the construction of the line's stations and the operations and maintenance centre. Italian rail equipment specialist Ansaldo STS was selected to supply the trains, electrical infrastructure and communications systems, supervisory control and data acquisition, platform-edge doors, the signalling system; the route's tunnels and many of the underground structures were constructed by SYSTRA, who provided substantial project management work on the programme. Consultancy services regarding rolling stock and the automated train depot were sourced from Ramboll and WS Atkins. MJ Eriksson was subcontracted to undertake the construction of 21 shafts for the 17 stations, along with four other related facilities.
The line incorporates various live data feeds for the purpose of to highlighting hazards and recording any accidents using project compliance software ComplyPro, produced by software company Comply Serve. During 2013, boring of a pair of 15.5km parallel tunnels commenced using a total of four tunnel boring machines. These tunnels were bored with an inner diameter of 4.9 meters and at a depth varying between 35 meters and 20 meters. The interior walls of the tunnel have been coated with concrete and multiple emergency shafts have been installed for the purpose of providing ventilation and maintenance access; the extracted earth produced by the construction effort was used to fill the Nordhavn reclamation project in Øresund. During the construction process, it was commonplace for geological sensors to be deployed in the general vicinity to monitor ground movements for the purpose of protecting buildings and other structures in the city. During 2014, the line's control and maintenance centre buildings were completed.
The final construction activity was centered upon the refurbishment of the surrounding areas around the new stations. The 15.5 km City Circle Line will serve 17 stations. It will intersect the M1 and M2 lines at Kongens Nytorv and Frederiksberg stations, suburban train services at København H, Østerport and Nørrebro, it will extend the Metro network to the Nørrebro and Østerbro areas and København H. The City Circle Line shall services to many of the major areas of Copenhagen, including the Danish Parliament, the Central Station, City Hall, multiple stations of the S-train and existing metro stops. Access to the region and commuter heavy rail network is deliberately provision for at several places along its route. Just as M1 and M2 share a section of the existing metro, the City Circle Line will share a 6-station section with the future M4 line. Two possible routes were considered, after an bigger screening of ideas. During December 2005, it was announced that the Copenhagen and Frederiksberg municipalities had selected the Frederiksberg route.
The finished City Circle Line has been promoted as playing a heavy influence upon much of Copenhagen's cur
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Lergravsparken Station is a deep-level Copenhagen Metro station in the East Amager district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located on Øresundsvej in a corner of the public park Lergravsparken from which it takes its name, it opened in 2002. Servicing the M2 line, it was the eastern terminus until the extension of the line to Copenhagen Airport was finished in late 2007, it is located in fare zone 1. The station has bicycle parking facilities. Lergravsparken station on www.m.dk Lergravsparken station on www.m.dk