Eadgifu of Wessex
Eadgifu or Edgifu known as Edgiva or Ogive was a daughter of Edward the Elder, King of Wessex and England, his second wife Ælfflæd. She was born in Wessex. Eadgifu was one of three West Saxon sisters married to Continental rulers: the others were Eadgyth, who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great. Eadgifu became the second wife of King Charles III of France, whom she married in 919 after the death of his first wife, Frederonne. Eadgifu was mother to Louis IV of France. In 922 Charles III was deposed and, after being defeated at the Battle of Soissons in 923, he was taken prisoner by Count Herbert II of Vermandois, an ally of the current king. To protect her son's safety Eadgifu took him to England in 923 to the court of her half-brother, King Æthelstan of England; because of this, Louis IV of France became known as Louis d'Outremer of France. He stayed there until 936. Eadgifu accompanied him, she retired to a convent in Laon. In 951, Heribert the Old, Count of Omois and married her, to the great anger of her son.
Dunbabin, Jean. "West Francia: The Kingdom". In Reuter, Timothy; the New Cambridge Medieval History. III. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36447-7. Lappenberg, Johann. A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. Benjamin Thorpe, translator. J. Murray. Schwennicke, Detlev Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band III Teilband 1, Tafel 49 Williams, Ann. P.. A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England and Wales. Routledge. ISBN 1-85264-047-2. Eadgifu 3 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Goslar and located on the northwestern slopes of the Harz mountain range; the Old Town of Goslar and the Mines of Rammelsberg are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Goslar is situated in the middle of the upper half of Germany, about 40 kilometres south of Braunschweig and about 70 km southeast of the state capital Hannover; the Schalke mountain is the highest elevation within the municipal boundaries at 762 metres. The lowest point of 175 m is near the Oker river. Geographically, Goslar forms the boundary between the Hildesheim Börde, part of the Northern German Plain, the Harz range, the highest, northern-most extension of Germany's Central Uplands; the Hildesheim Börde is characterised by plains with rich clay soils – used agriculturally for sugar beet farming – interlaced with several hill ranges known as the Hildesheim Forest and Salzgitter Hills. In the northeast the Harly Forest stretches down to the Oker river, in the east Goslar borders on the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
To the south, the Harz range rise above the historic borough at a height of 636 m at Mt. Rammelsberg. Extended forests dominate the landscape; the major rivers crossing the municipal boundaries is the Oker with its Gose/Abzucht and Radau tributaries. The eponymic Gose River originates 9 kilometres south-west of Goslar at the Auerhahn Pass east of the Bocksberg mountain. At the northern foot of the Herzberg it meets the smaller Abzucht stream, before it flows into the Oker; the Dörpke and Gelmke streams flow from the Harz foothills to the south into the Goslar municipal area, where they discharge into the Abzucht.: Liebenburg, Schladen-Werla, Bad Harzburg, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Langelsheim. The township comprises 18 districts: Iron ore mining was common in the Harz region since Roman times. Ancient burial objects made of Harz ore have been discovered during excavations in England; the settlement on the Gose creek was first mentioned in a 979 deed issued by Emperor Otto II. It became more important when extensive silver deposits were discovered at the nearby Rammelsberg, today a mining museum.
When Otto's descendant Henry II began to convene Imperial synods at the Goslar palace from 1009 onwards, Goslar replaced the Royal palace of Werla as a central place of assembly in the Saxon lands. Conrad II, once elected King of the Romans, celebrated Christmas 1024 in Goslar and had the foundations laid for the new Imperial Palace the next year. Goslar became the favourite residence of Conrad's son Henry III who stayed at the palace about twenty times. Here he received King Peter of Hungary as well as the emissaries of Prince Yaroslav of Kiev, here he appointed bishops and dukes, his son and successor Henry IV was born here on 11 November 1050. Henry had Goslar Cathedral erected and consecrated by Archbishop Herman of Cologne in 1051, his heart was buried in his body in the Salian family vault in Speyer Cathedral. Of the cathedral only the northern porch survived. Under Henry IV, Goslar remained a centre of Imperial rule. While Henry aimed to secure the enormous wealth deriving from the Rammlesberg silver mines as a royal demesne, the dissatisfaction of local nobles escalated with the Saxon Rebellion in 1073–75.
In the subsequent Great Saxon Revolt, the Goslar citizens sided with anti-king Rudolf of Rheinfelden, who held a princely assembly here in 1077, with Hermann of Salm, crowned king in Goslar by Archbishop Siegfried of Mainz on 26 December 1081. Brought Goslar the status of an Imperial City. In Spring 1105 Henry V convened the Saxon estates at Goslar, to gain support for the deposition of his father Henry IV. Elected king in the following year, he held six Imperial Diets at the Goslar Palace during his rule; the tradition was adopted by his successor Lothair II and by the Hohenstaufen rulers Conrad III and Frederick Barbarossa. After his election in 1152, King Frederick appointed the Welf duke Henry the Lion Imperial Vogt of the Goslar mines; when Henry the Lion was declared deposed in 1180, he had the Rammelsberg mines devastated. Goslar's importance as an Imperial residence began to decline under the rule of Barbarossa's descendants. During the German throne dispute the Welf king Otto IV laid siege to the town in 1198 but had to yield to the forces of his Hohenstaufen rival Philip of Swabia.
Goslar was again stormed and plundered by Otto's troops in 1206. Frederick II held the last Imperial Diet here. While the Emperors withdraw from Northern Germany, civil liberties in Goslar were strengthened. Market rights date back to 1025; the ci
Charles the Simple
Charles III, called the Simple or the Straightforward, was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. Charles was the third and posthumous son of king Louis the Stammerer by his second wife Adelaide of Paris; as a child, Charles was prevented from succeeding to the throne at the time of the death in 884 of his half-brother, king Carloman II. Instead, Frankish nobles of the realm asked Emperor Charles the Fat to assume the crown, he was prevented from succeeding the unpopular Charles the Fat, deposed in November 887 and died in January 888, although it is unknown if his overthrow was accepted or made known in West Francia before his death. The nobility elected Odo, the hero of the Siege of Paris as the new king, although there was a faction that supported claims of Guy III of Spoleto; the young Charles was put under the protection of Ranulf II, the Duke of Aquitaine, who may have tried to claim the throne for him and in the end used the royal title himself until making peace with Odo.
In 893, Charles was crowned by a faction opposed to the rule of Odo at the Reims Cathedral, becoming monarch of West Francia only after the death of Odo in 898. In 911, a group of Vikings led by Rollo besieged Paris and Chartres. After a victory near Chartres on 26 August, Charles decided to negotiate with Rollo, resulting in the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte which created the Duchy of Normandy. In return for the Vikings' loyalty, they were granted all the land between the river Epte and the sea, as well as Duchy of Brittany, which at the time was an independent country which West Francia had unsuccessfully tried to conquer. Rollo agreed to be baptised and to marry Charles' daughter Gisela. In 911, Louis the Child, the last Carolingian king of East Francia died, nobles of Lotharingia, loyal to him, under the leadership of Reginar, Duke of Lorraine declared Charles their new king, breaking from East Francia which had elected non-Carolingian Conrad I as the new king. Charles had tried to win Lotharingian support for years, for instance, by marrying in April 907 a Lotharingian woman named Frederuna, in 909 his niece Cunigunda married Wigeric of Lotharingia.
Charles defended Lotharingia against two attacks by Conrad I. In 925, Lotharingia was once again seized by East Francia. Queen Frederuna died on 10 February 917 leaving six daughters and no sons, leaving the succession uncertain. On 7 October 919 Charles married Eadgifu, the daughter of Edward the Elder, King of England, who bore him a son, the future King Louis IV of France. By this time, Charles' excessive favouritism towards a certain Hagano had turned the aristocracy against him, he endowed Hagano with monasteries that were the benefices of other barons, alienating them. In Lotharingia, he earned the enmity of the new duke Gilbert, who in 919 declared loyalty to the new king of East Francia Henry the Fowler. Opposition to Charles in Lotharingia was not universal, however; the nobles exasperated with Charles' policies and his favoritism of count Hagano, seized Charles in 920. After negotiations by Archbishop Herveus of Reims the king was released. In 922, the Frankish nobles revolted again led by Robert of Neustria.
Robert, Odo's brother, was elected king by the rebels and crowned, while Charles had to flee to Lotharingia. On 2 July 922, Charles lost his most faithful supporter, Herveus of Reims, who had succeeded Fulk in 900. Charles returned with a Norman army in 923 but was defeated on 15 June at the Battle of Soissons by Robert, who died in the battle. Charles was captured and imprisoned in a castle at Péronne under the guard of Herbert II of Vermandois. Robert's son-in-law Rudolph of Burgundy was elected to succeed him as king. Charles was buried at the nearby abbey of Saint-Fursy, his son by Eadgifu would be crowned in 936 as Louis IV of France. In the initial aftermath of Charles's defeat, Queen Eadgifu and children had fled to England. On 6 December 884, King Carloman II of West Francia died without a male heir and his half-brother, the future Charles the Simple, was just a five-year-old boy; because of this, their cousin Charles the Fat Holy Roman Emperor and King of East Francia, was invited by the nobles of the Kingdom to assume the throne.
Since the beginning, the new monarch was forced to deal with constant Viking raids, with little success. After three years of incompetent government, Charles the Fat was deposed by the Diet of Tribur in 887. Faced with the growing threat of northern invaders, the local nobles again rejected the succession of Charles the Simple because he was too young, Odo, Count of Paris was chosen as the new King of West Francia, after defending Paris against the Vikings, led by Rollo. In 893, aided by Archbishop Fulk of Reims, Charles the Simple attempted to reclaim the throne, but in vain. By 897, the young prince ruled only the city of Laon before Odo on his deathbed designated him as his successor. Following the death of Odo in January 898, Charles the Simple assumed the title of king of West Francia. Soon the new monarch showed his ambition to conquer Lotharingia, the main objective of all the monarchs of West Francia since Charles the Bald. Lotharingia was the cradle of the Carolingian dynasty. Charlemagne's ancestors, the Pippinids were from Lotharingia.
After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the Lotharingia was part of Middle Francia for a short time and both West and East Francia tried to gain control over it. Arnulf of Carinthia, King of East Francia prevented this b
Roman Catholic Diocese of Châlons
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Châlons is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Châlons-sur-Marne, France. The diocese comprises the department excluding the arrondissement of Reims, it is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Reims. Local legends maintain that the evangelization of Châlons by St. Memmius, sent thither by St. Peter and assisted by his sister Poma by St. Donatian and St. Domitian, took place in the first century; these legends are not creditable, in the revised list of the diocesan saints in the Breviary these legends have been suppressed. Louis Duchesne, a prominent scholar of early Christianity in Gaul, assigns the founding of the See of Châlons to the fourth century; the bishops of Châlons played a part in French history as Peers of France. At the coronation of the Capetian kings, the Bishop of Châlons always carried the royal ring; the older cathedral at Châlons had been dedicated to Saint Vincent, up to the time of Charles the Bald. It had become the cathedral under Bishop Felix.
625, when the older cathedral was abandoned. In 931, again in 963, the town of Châlons suffered serious fires. In 931 the fire was deliberately set by King Raoul in reprisal for the support given by Bishop Bovo to Count Héribert of Vermandois against the King. In 963 it was Count Héribert of Vermandois who put the city to the flames because Bishop Gebuin had supported the deposition of Héribert's son from the archbishopric of Reims. In both cases the cathedral suffered serious damage. In 1138 the cathedral was struck by lightning and destroyed; the new Cathedral of S. Étienne was consecrated in 1147 by the exiled Pope Eugene III, assisted by eighteen cardinals, with Bernard of Clairvaux in attendance. In 1253, when he was visiting Rome, Bishop Pierre de Hans was able to obtain what was claimed to be a fragment of the head of S. Étienne from the Abbot of the monastery at S. Paolo fuori le mura; the first seminary in Châlons was founded by Bishop Jérome de Burges on 14 October 1572, in part of the abandoned Hôpital Saint Lazare, thereafter called the Collège S. Lazare.
From 1617, the seminarists shared quarters with the Jesuits, when the Jesuits moved to larger quarters, the seminary followed them. It was only in 1646 that Bishop de Vialar provided them with separate, inadequate, quarters. Bishop de Clermont-Tonnerre had the church of S. Nicholas demolished and the seminary extended on its foundations; the Collège de Châlons was endowed by Bishop Cosme Clausse on 30 May 1615, he and the City entered into a contract with the Jesuits to staff the college on 23 February 1617. The Jesuits directed the school until they were expelled from France in 1762, at which point the collège was turned over to laymen and secular clergy until the end of the monarchy in 1791. In 1784 some 245 pupils were being educated there; the diocese was well supplied with positions. The cathedral had eight dignities: the Dean, the Cantor, the Grand Archdeacon, the Archdeacon of Joinville, the Archdeacon of Astenai, the Archdeacon of Vertus, the Treasurer, the Succentor. In addition there were thirty Canons.
In 1699 the number of Canons was thirty-nine. There had once been a Provost as well, but the office was abolished by Bishop Roger in 1065, with royal consent; the bishop appointed the four Archdeacons and the Treasurer, while the Dean, the Cantor, the Succentor were elected by the Chapter of the Cathedral. The Chapter assigned the prebends, to which the Archdeacons and Treasurer were not entitled. There were two Collegiate Churches in the city of Châlons, Saint-Trinité and Nôtre Dame en Vaux. Among its abbeys, the diocese counted: St. Memmius, founded in the fifth century by Alpinus; the king was the patron and made the appointments at Toussaints, Saint-Pierre, Saint-Memmius, Châtrices. Nôtre-Dame de l'Epine, near Châlons, was a place of pilgrimage as early as the beginning of the fifteenth century, thanks to the mysterious discovery of a miraculous image of the Virgin Mary. In 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decided to bring the French church under the control of the State. Civil government of the provinces was to be reorganized into new units called'départements' intended to be 83 or 84 in number.
The dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church were to be reduced in number, to coincide as much as possible with the new departments. Since there were more than 130 bishoprics at the time of the Revolution, more than fifty dioceses needed to be suppressed and their territories consolidated. Clergy would need to take an oath of allegiance to the State and its Constitution, specified by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, they would become salaried officials of the State. Both bishops and priests would be elected by special'electors' in each department; this meant schism.
Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death. He was the elder son of his wife Ealhswith; when Edward succeeded to the throne, he had to defeat a challenge from his cousin Æthelwold, who had a strong claim to the throne as the son of Alfred's elder brother and predecessor, Æthelred. Alfred had succeeded Æthelred as king of Wessex in 871, faced defeat against the Danish Vikings until his decisive victory at the Battle of Edington in 878. After the battle, the Vikings still ruled Northumbria, East Anglia and eastern Mercia, leaving only Wessex and western Mercia under Anglo-Saxon control. In the early 880s Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, the ruler of western Mercia, accepted Alfred's lordship and married his daughter Æthelflæd, around 886 Alfred adopted the new title King of the Anglo-Saxons as the ruler of all Anglo-Saxons not subject to Danish rule. In 910 a Mercian and West Saxon army inflicted a decisive defeat on an invading Northumbrian army, ending the threat from the northern Vikings.
In the 910s, Edward conquered Viking-ruled southern England in partnership with his sister Æthelflæd, who had succeeded as Lady of the Mercians following the death of her husband in 911. Historians dispute how far Mercia was dominated by Wessex during this period, after Æthelflæd's death in June 918, her daughter Ælfwynn became second Lady of the Mercians, but in December Edward took her into Wessex and imposed direct rule on Mercia. By the end of the 910s he ruled Wessex and East Anglia, only Northumbria remained under Viking rule. In 924 he faced a Mercian and Welsh revolt at Chester, after putting it down he died at Farndon in Cheshire on 17 July 924, he was succeeded by his eldest son Æthelstan. Edward was admired by medieval chroniclers, in the view of William of Malmesbury, he was "much inferior to his father in the cultivation of letters" but "incomparably more glorious in the power of his rule", he was ignored by modern historians until the 1990s, Nick Higham described him as "perhaps the most neglected of English kings" because few primary sources for his reign survive.
His reputation rose in the late twentieth century and he is now seen as destroying the power of the Vikings in southern England while laying the foundations for a south-centred united English kingdom. Mercia was the dominant kingdom in southern England in the eighth century and maintained its position until it suffered a decisive defeat by Wessex at the Battle of Ellandun in 825. Thereafter the two kingdoms became allies, to be an important factor in English resistance to the Vikings. In 865 the Danish Viking Great Heathen Army landed in East Anglia and used this as a starting point for an invasion; the East Anglians were forced to pay off the Vikings. They appointed a puppet king in 867, moved on Mercia, where they spent the winter of 867–868. King Burgred of Mercia was joined by King Æthelred of Wessex and his brother, the future King Alfred, for a combined attack on the Vikings, who refused an engagement; the following year, the Danes conquered East Anglia, in 874 they expelled King Burgred and, with their support, Ceolwulf became the last King of Mercia.
In 877 the Vikings partitioned Mercia, taking the eastern regions for themselves and allowing Ceolwulf to keep the western ones. In early 878 they invaded Wessex, many West Saxons submitted to them. Alfred, now king, was reduced to a remote base in the Isle of Athelney in Somerset, but the situation was transformed when he won a decisive victory at the Battle of Edington, he was thus able to prevent the Vikings from taking Wessex and western Mercia, although they still occupied Northumbria, East Anglia and eastern Mercia. Edward's parents and Ealhswith, married in 868, her father was Æthelred Mucel, Ealdorman of the Gaini, her mother, was a member of the Mercian royal family. Alfred and Ealhswith had five children; the oldest was Æthelflæd, who married Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, ruled as Lady of the Mercians after his death. Edward was next, the second daughter, Æthelgifu, became abbess of Shaftesbury; the third daughter, Ælfthryth, married Baldwin, Count of Flanders, the younger son, Æthelweard, was given a scholarly education, including learning Latin.
This would suggest that he was intended for the church, but it is unlikely in Æthelweard's case as he had sons. There were an unknown number of children who died young. Neither part of Edward's name, which means'protector of wealth', had been used by the West Saxon royal house, Barbara Yorke suggests that he may have been named after his maternal grandmother Eadburh, reflecting the West Saxon policy of strengthening links with Mercia. Historians estimate that Edward was born in the mid-870s, his eldest sister, Æthelflæd, was born about a year after her parents' marriage, Edward was brought up with his youngest sister, Ælfthryth. Edward led troops in battle in 893, must have been of marriageable age in that year as his oldest son Æthelstan was born about 894. According to Asser in his Life of King Alfred, Edward and Ælfthryth were educated at court by male and female tutors, read ecclesiastical and secular works in English, such as the Psalms and Old English poems, they were taught the courtly qualities of gentleness and humility, Asser wrote that they were obedient to their father and friendly to visitors.
This is the only known case of princess receiving the same upbringing. As a son of a king, Edward was an ætheling, a pri
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
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Gisela of France
Gisela was a legendary French princess who was, according to legend, married to Rollo, duke of Normandy. According to tradition, Rollo was betrothed to Gisela, daughter to the king of West Francia, Charles the Simple, after his conversion to Christianity upon his ascension as ruler of Normandy in 911; the marriage and the existence of Gisela are not confirmed, supporting the mythical character of Gisela. Some suggested that, if she did exist, she may have been an illegitimate daughter of Charles. A character named. Bauduin, Pierre, ed.. "Chefs normands et élites franques, fin -Début siècle". Les Fondations scandinaves en Occident et les débuts du duché de Normandie. Publications du CRAHM. van Houts, Elisabeth, ed.. The Normans in Europe. Manchester University Press