2014 FIFA World Cup
The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the 20th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organised by FIFA. It took place in Brazil from 12 June to 13 July 2014, after the country was awarded the hosting rights in 2007, it was the second time that Brazil staged the competition, the first being in 1950, the fifth time that it was held in South America. Thirty-one national teams advanced through qualification competitions to join the host nation in the final tournament. A total of 64 matches were played in 12 venues located in as many host cities across Brazil. For the first time at a World Cup finals, match officials used goal-line technology, as well as vanishing spray for free kicks. FIFA Fan Fests in each host city gathered a total of 5 million people, the country received 1 million visitors from 202 countries; every World Cup-winning team since the first tournament in 1930 – Argentina, England, Germany, Italy and Uruguay – qualified for this tournament. Spain, the title holders, were eliminated at the group stage, along with Italy.
Uruguay were eliminated in the round of 16, France exited in the quarter-finals. Host nation Brazil, who had won the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, lost to Germany 7–1 in the semi-finals and finished in fourth place. In the final, Germany defeated Argentina 1–0 to win the tournament and secure the country's fourth world title, the first after the German reunification in 1990, when as West Germany they beat Argentina in the World Cup final. Germany became the first European team to win a World Cup staged in the Americas, this result marked the third consecutive title won by a European team, after Italy in 2006 and Spain in 2010. In March 2003, FIFA announced that the tournament would be held in South America for the first time since 1978, in line with its then-active policy of rotating the right to host the World Cup among different confederations. With the 2010 FIFA World Cup hosted in South Africa, it would be the second consecutive World Cup outside Europe, a first for the tournament, it was second in the Southern Hemisphere.
Only Brazil and Colombia formally declared their candidacy but, after the withdrawal of the latter from the process, Brazil was elected as host nation unopposed on 30 October 2007. Following qualification matches played between June 2011 and November 2013, the following 32 teams – shown with their last pre-tournament FIFA world ranking – qualified for the final tournament. Twenty-four of these teams were returning participants from the 2010 World Cup. Bosnia and Herzegovina were the only team with no previous appearance at the World Cup finals. Colombia qualified for the World Cup after 16 years of absence, while the 2018 World Cup hosts Russia and Belgium returned after 12 years. Paraguay failed to qualify for the first time since 1994; this was the first World Cup for 32 years that did not feature a representative from the Nordic countries. The highest ranked team not to qualify was Ukraine, while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was Australia; the 32 participating teams were drawn into eight groups.
In preparation for this, the teams were organised into four pots with the seven highest-ranked teams joining host nation Brazil in the seeded pot. As with the previous tournaments, FIFA aimed to create groups which maximised geographic separation and therefore the unseeded teams were arranged into pots based on geographic considerations; the draw took place on 6 December 2013 at the Costa do Sauípe resort in Bahia, during which the teams were drawn by various past World Cup-winning players. Under the draw procedure, one randomly drawn team – Italy – was firstly relocated from Pot 4 to Pot 2 to create four equal pots of eight teams. In March 2013, FIFA published a list of 52 prospective referees, each paired, on the basis of nationality, with two assistant referees, from all six football confederations for the tournament. On 14 January 2014, the FIFA Referees Committee appointed 25 referee trios and eight support duos representing 43 countries for the tournament. Yuichi Nishimura from Japan acted as referee in the opening match whereas Nicola Rizzoli from Italy acted as referee in the final.
As with the 2010 tournament, each team's squad consists of 23 players. Each participating national association had to confirm their final 23-player squad no than 10 days before the start of the tournament. Teams were permitted to make late replacements in the event of serious injury, at any time up to 24 hours before their first game. During a match, all remaining squad members not named in the starting team are available to be one of the three permitted substitutions. 12 venues in twelve cities were selected for the tournament. The venues covered all the main regions of Brazil and created more evenly distributed hosting than the 1950 finals in Brazil; the tournament required long-distance travel for teams. During the World Cup, Brazilian cities were home to the participating teams at 32 separate base camps, as well as staging official fan fests where supporters could view the games; the most used stadiums were the Brasilia, which hosted seven matches each. The least-used venues were in Cuiaba, Manaus and Curitiba, which hosted four matches each.
Base camps were used by the 32 national squads to stay and train before and during the World Cup tournament. On 31 January 2014, FIFA announced the base camps for each participating team, having earlier circulated a brochure of 84 prospectiv
Association Sportive de Saint-Étienne Loire is a French association football club based in Saint-Étienne. The club was founded in 1919 and plays in Ligue 1, the top division of French football. Saint-Étienne plays; the team is managed by Jean-Louis Gasset and captained by Loïc Perrin, who started his career at the club in 1996. Saint-Étienne is known as Les Verts meaning "the Greens" due to its home colours. Saint-Étienne have won a record ten Ligue 1 titles, as well as six Coupe de France titles, a Coupe de la Ligue title and five Trophée des Champions. Saint-Étienne has won the Ligue 2 championship on three occasions; the club achieved most of its honours in the 1960s and 1970s when the club was led by managers Jean Snella, Albert Batteux, Robert Herbin. The club's primary rivals are Olympique Lyonnais, based in nearby Lyon, with whom they contest the Derby Rhône-Alpes. In 2009, the club added a female section. AS Saint-Étienne was founded in 1919 by employees of the Saint-Étienne-based grocery store chain Groupe Casino under the name Amicale des Employés de la Société des Magasins Casino.
The club adopted green as its primary color due to it being the principal colour of Groupe Casino. In 1920, due to the French Football Federation prohibiting the use of trademarks in sports club, the club dropped "Casino" from its name and changed its name to Amical Sporting Club to retain the ASC acronym. In 1927, Pierre Guichard took over as president of the club and, after merging with local club Stade Forézien Universitaire, changed its name to Association sportive Stéphanoise. In July 1930, the National Council of the FFF voted 128–20 in support of professionalism in French football. In 1933, Stéphanoise changed its name to its current version; the club was inserted into the second division and became inaugural members of the league after finishing runner-up in the South Group. Saint-Étienne remained in Division 2 for four more seasons before earning promotion to Division 1 for the 1938–39 season under the leadership of the Englishman Teddy Duckworth. However, the team's debut appearance in the first division was short-lived due to the onset of World War II.
Saint-Étienne returned to the first division after the war under the Austrian-born Frenchman Ignace Tax and surprised many by finishing runner-up to Lille in the first season after the war. The club failed to improve upon that finish in following seasons under Tax and, ahead of the 1950–51 season, Tax was let go and replaced by former Saint-Étienne player Jean Snella. Under Snella, Saint-Étienne achieved its first honour after winning the Coupe Charles Drago in 1955. Two seasons the club won its first domestic league title. Led by goalkeeper Claude Abbes, defender Robert Herbin, as well as midfielders René Ferrier and Kees Rijvers and striker Georges Peyroche, Saint-Étienne won the league by four points over Lens. In 1958, Saint-Étienne won the Coupe Drago for the second time. After the following season, in which the club finished sixth, Snella departed the club, he was replaced by René Vernier. In the team's first season under Vernier, Saint-Étienne finished 12th, the club's worst finish since finishing 11th eight seasons ago.
In the following season, François Wicart joined the coaching staff. In 1961, Roger Rocher became president of the club and became one of the club's chief investors. After two seasons under Wicart, Saint-Étienne were relegated after finishing 17th in the 1961–62 season. However, Wicart did lead the club to its first Coupe de France title in 1962, alongside co-manager Henri Guérin with the team defeating FC Nancy 1–0 in the final, he led the club back to Division 1 after one season in the second division, but after the season, Wicart was replaced by Snella, who returned as manager after a successful stint in Switzerland with Servette. In Snella's first season back, Saint-Étienne won its second league title and, three seasons captured its third. Snella's third and final title with the club coincided with the arrival of Georges Bereta, Bernard Bosquier, Gérard Farison and Hervé Revelli to the team. After the season, Snella returned to Servette and former Stade de Reims manager Albert Batteux replaced him.
In Batteux's first season in 1967–68, Saint-Étienne captured the double after winning the league and the Coupe de France. In the next season, Batteux won the league and, in the ensuing season, won the double again; the club's fast rise into French football led to a high-level of confidence from the club's ownership and supporters and, following two seasons without a trophy, Batteux was let go and replaced by former Saint-Étienne player Robert Herbin. In Herbin's first season in charge, Saint-Étienne finished fourth in the league and reached the semi-finals of the Coupe de France. In the next two seasons, the club won the double, its seventh and eighth career league title and its third and fourth Coupe de France title. In 1976, Saint-Étienne became the first French club since Reims in 1959 to reach the final of the European Cup. In the match, played at Hampden Park in Scotland, Saint-Étienne faced German club Bayern Munich, who were the reigning champions and arguably the world's best team at the time.
The match was hotly contested with Saint-Étienne failing to score after numerous chances by Jacques Santini, Dominique Bathenay and Osvaldo Piazza, among others. A single goal by Franz Roth decided the outcome and Saint-Étienne supporters departed Scotland in tears, not without nicknaming the goalposts "les poteaux carrés". Saint-Étienne did earn a consolation prize by winning
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
2010–11 UEFA Europa League
The 2010–11 UEFA Europa League was the second season of the UEFA Europa League, Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, the 40th edition overall including its predecessor, the UEFA Cup. It began on 1 July 2010, with the first qualifying round matches, concluded on 18 May 2011, with the final at the Aviva Stadium in Dublin, Republic of Ireland, between Porto and first-time finalists Braga; this was the first all-Portuguese final of a European competition and only the third time that two Portuguese teams faced each other in Europe, following Braga's elimination of Benfica in the semi-finals. Porto defeated Braga 1–0, with a goal from the competition's top goalscorer Radamel Falcao, won their second title in the competition, after victory in the 2002–03 UEFA Cup. A total of 194 teams from 53 UEFA associations participated in the 2010–11 UEFA Europa League. Associations were allocated places according to their 2009 UEFA country coefficient, which took into account their performance in European competitions from 2004–05 to 2008–09.
Below is the qualification scheme for the 2010–11 UEFA Europa League: Associations 1–6 each have three teams qualify Associations 7–9 each have four teams qualify Associations 10–51 each have three teams qualify, except Liechtenstein, which have one team qualify Associations 52–53 each have two teams qualify The top three associations of the 2009–10 UEFA Fair Play ranking each gain an additional berth Moreover, 33 teams eliminated from the 2010–11 UEFA Champions League are transferred to the Europa League. Notes: Additional fair play berth: Additional teams transferred from the UEFA Champions League The winners of the 2009–10 UEFA Europa League, Atlético Madrid, were guaranteed a place in the group stage as the title holder, since they did not qualify for the 2010–11 UEFA Champions League. However, they qualified for the Europa League third qualifying round through domestic performance, as they were the runners-up of the 2009–10 Copa del Rey to Champions League-qualified Sevilla; as a result, this place in the third qualifying round was vacated, which in turn led to the following changes to the default allocation system in order to compensate for this vacant spot: The domestic cup winners of association 28 have been promoted from the second qualifying round to the third qualifying round.
The domestic cup winners of associations 52 and 53 have been promoted from the first qualifying to the second qualifying round. A Europa League place is vacated when a team qualifies for both the Champions League and the Europa League, or qualifies for the Europa League by more than one method; when a place is vacated, it is redistributed within the national association by the following rules: When the domestic cup winners qualify for the Champions League, their Europa League place is vacated, the remaining Europa League qualifiers are moved up one place, with the final place taken by the domestic cup runners-up, provided they do not qualify for the Champions League or the Europa League. Otherwise, this place is taken by the highest-placed league finishers that have not yet qualified for the Europa League; when the domestic cup winners qualify for the Europa League through league position, their place through the league position is vacated, the Europa League qualifiers that finish lower in the league are moved up one place, with the final place taken by the highest-placed league finishers that have not yet qualified for the Europa League.
A place vacated by the League Cup winners is taken by the highest-placed league finishers that have not yet qualified for the Europa League. A Fair Play place is taken by the highest-ranked team in the domestic Fair Play table that has not yet qualified for the Champions League or the Europa League; the labels in the parentheses show how each team qualified for the place of its starting round: TH: Title holders CW: Cup winners CR: Cup runners-up LC: League Cup winners Nth: League position P-W: End-of-season European competition play-offs winners FP: Fair play UCL: Relegated from the Champions League GS: Third-placed teams from the group stage PO: Losers from the play-off round Q3: Losers from the third qualifying roundNotesEngland: Portsmouth, the runners-up of the 2009–10 FA Cup to Champions League-qualified Chelsea, did not obtain a UEFA licence, meaning they could not qualify for Europe. Portsmouth had appealed to UEFA, the Premier League and the English FA, but the latter two would not allow late applications for the licence.
As a result, the seventh-placed team of the 2009–10 Premier League, claimed the Europa League spot in the third qualifying round. Republic of Ireland: Since the third- and fourth-placed teams of the 2009 League of Ireland, Cork City and Derry City, were dissolved and expelled from the league after the season was completed, the fifth-placed team, claimed the Europa League spot in the first qualifying round. Lithuania: Vėtra, the runners-up of the 2009 A Lyga and the runners-up of the 2009–10 Lithuanian Football Cup to Champions League-qualified Ekranas, were denied the UEFA license for the 2010–11 season and therefore could not represent Lithuania in the UEFA Europa League; as a result, all Europa League spots were awarded to teams based on their league positions. Therefore, the fourth-placed team, Šiauliai, were moved from the first qualifying round to the second qualifying round, while the fifth-placed team, Tauras Tauragė, claimed the Europa League spot in the first qualifying round. Spain: Ma
Futebol Clube do Porto, MHIH, OM known as FC Porto or Porto, is a Portuguese sports club based in Porto. It is best known for the professional football team playing in the Primeira Liga, the top flight of Portuguese football Founded on 28 September 1893, Porto is one of the "Big Three" teams in Portugal – together with Lisbon-based rivals Benfica and Sporting CP – that have appeared in every season of the Primeira Liga since its establishment in 1934, they are nicknamed Dragões, for the mythical creature atop the club's crest, Azuis e brancos, for the shirt colours. The club supporters are called Portistas. Since 2003, Porto have played their home matches at the Estádio do Dragão, which replaced the previous 52-year-old ground, the Estádio das Antas. Porto is the second most decorated team in Portugal, with a total of 76 major trophies, of which 69 were achieved in domestic competitions; these comprise 28 Primeira Liga titles, 16 Taça de Portugal, 4 Campeonato de Portugal, a record 21 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira.
Porto is the only team in Portuguese league history to have won two titles without any defeat, namely in the 2010–11 and 2012–13 seasons. In the former, Porto achieved the largest-ever difference of points between champion and runner-up in a three-points-per-win system, on their way to a second quadruple. In international competitions, Porto is the most decorated Portuguese team, with a total of seven trophies, they won the European Cup/UEFA Champions League in 1987 and 2004, the UEFA Cup/Europa League in 2003 and 2011, the UEFA Super Cup in 1987, the Intercontinental Cup in 1987 and 2004. In addition, they were runners-up in the 1983–84 European Cup Winners' Cup and in the 2003, 2004 and 2011 editions of the UEFA Super Cup. Porto is the only Portuguese club to have won the UEFA Cup/Europa League, the UEFA Super Cup and the Intercontinental Cup, to have achieved a continental treble of domestic league, domestic cup and European titles. Together with Barcelona and Real Madrid, Porto have the most appearances in the UEFA Champions League group stage.
At the end of the 2017–18 season, Porto ranked 11th in the UEFA club coefficient ranking. The club was founded on 28 September 1893 as Foot-Ball Club do Porto by António Nicolau de Almeida, a local port wine merchant and avid sportsman, who became fascinated with football during his trips to England. Porto played its first matches with other Portuguese clubs, including one against Lisbon's Foot-Ball Club Lisbonense on 2 March 1894; this match had the patronage of King Carlos I and Queen Amélie of Orléans, who traveled to Porto to witness the event and present a trophy to the winners. Almeida's enthusiasm and involvement with the club waned due to family pressure, by the turn of the century, Porto had entered a period of inactivity. In 1906, José Monteiro da Costa returned to Porto after finishing his studies in England. Like Almeida, thirteen years before, he was captivated by the English game, together with some associates, decided to reintroduce the practice of football in the city, outside of the British circles.
On 2 August 1906, Porto was revived and Monteiro da Costa appointed its president. Although football was the driving force, the club promoted other sports, including gymnastics and wrestling, athletics and swimming. Shortly after, Porto rented its first ground and recruited a French coach named Adolphe Cassaigne, who would stay in the club until 1925. On 15 December 1907, Porto played its first match against a foreign team, hosting Spain's Real Fortuna. In the following month, Porto returned the visit and played its first match abroad. Four years the club won the inaugural staging of the Taça José Monteiro da Costa, securing its first-ever major title. In 1912, Porto joined efforts with Leixões to establish the Porto Football Association, which began organising the regional championship in the following year. Porto finished the first season as runners-up, behind local rivals Boavista, but in the following season the club won its first championship. By the end of the 1920–21 season, Porto had been regional champions six times in seven years, outright winners of the Taça José Monteiro da Costa, after claiming a third consecutive victory in 1916.
The 1921–22 season was marked by the creation of the first nationwide football competition – the Campeonato de Portugal. Organised by the national federation, this knockout tournament gathered the winners of the different regional championships to determine the Portuguese champion. After clinching its fourth consecutive regional title, Porto defeated Sporting CP in the inaugural edition and became the first national champions. While a dominant regional force, the club faced stronger opposition in the national championship, winning it only three more times in a span of sixteen years. In 1933–34, Porto was denied participation in the Campeonato de Portugal by its football association for refusing to release players for a match between the Porto and Lisbon regional teams. In the following season, a second nationwide competition named "Campeonato da Primeira Liga", or Primeira Liga, was provisionally established by the national federation to increase the number of matches per season and improve the competitiveness of Portuguese football.
As the regional champion, Porto qualified for the first edition of the new round-robin competition, winning it with 10 victories in 14 matches. Due to the success of its format, the Primeira Liga was made an official championship competition for the 1938–39 season –
Club Atlético Boca Juniors is an Argentine professional sports club based in La Boca neighbourhood of Buenos Aires. Boca Juniors is known for its professional football team which, since its promotion in 1913, has always played in the Argentine Primera División, becoming the most successful team of Argentina in number of official titles, with 67 won to date. National titles won by Boca Juniors include 33 Primera División championships, 12 domestic cups. Boca Juniors owns an honorary title awarded by the Argentine Football Association for their successful tour of Europe in 1925. Internationally, the Boca Juniors have won a total of 22 international titles, with 18 organised by CONMEBOL and other international bodies. Boca is ranked fifth in the world in terms of number of internationally recognized titles, tied with A. C. Milan and CA Independiente, behind Real Madrid, FC Barcelona, Egyptian side Al Ahly. Boca Juniors' international achievements include Tie Cup, Copa de Honor Cousenier, Copa Escobar-Gerona, organized jointly by the Argentine and Uruguayan Associations.
Boca Juniors is one of only eight teams to have won CONMEBOL's treble. Their success has Boca ranked among the IFFHS's Club World Ranking Top 25, which they have reached the top position six times. Boca was named by the IFFHS as the top South American club of the first decade of the 21st century. Boca Juniors is known to be one of the most popular football clubs in Argentina, along with River Plate. Boca has always had a fierce rivalry with River Plate. Matches between them are known as the Superclásico, are one of the most heated rivalries in Argentina and the world, as both clubs are the two most popular in the country. Boca's home stadium is Estadio Alberto J. Armando, colloquially known as La Bombonera; the youth academy has produced many Argentine internationals such as Sebastián Battaglia, Nicolás Burdisso, Carlos Tevez, Éver Banega, Nicolás Gaitán and Fernando Gago, who have played or are playing for top European clubs. In addition to football, Boca Juniors has professional volleyball teams.
Other activities held in the club are: athletics, futsal and rhythmic gymnastics, martial arts, swimming and wrestling. On 3 April 1905, a group of Italian boys met in order to find a club; the house where the meeting was arranged was Esteban Baglietto's and the other four people who attended were Alfredo Scarpatti, Santiago Sana and brothers Ioannis and Theodoros Farengas from Chios and Konstantinos Karoulias from Samos. Other important founders members include Arturo Penney, Marcelino Vergara, Luis Cerezo, Adolfo Taggio, Donato Abbatángelo, Bertolini. In 1913, Boca obtained the promotion to Primera División; this was possible when the Asociación Argentina de Fútbol decided to increase the number of teams in the league from 6 to 15. In 1925, Boca made its first trip to Europe to play in Spain and France; the squad played a total of 19 games. For that reason Boca was declared "Campeón de Honor" for the 1925 season by the Association. During successive years, Boca consolidated as one of the most popular teams of Argentina, with a huge number of fans not only in Argentina but worldwide.
The club is one of the most successful teams in Argentine football, having won 33 Primera División titles, second only to River Plate with 36. In South American and international club football, Boca Juniors have won 18 titles, the same as A. C. Milan; those honors include 1919 Tie Cup, 1920 Copa de Honor Cousenier and 1945 and 1946 Copa Escobar-Gerona. According to the club's official site, the original jersey colour was a white shirt with thin black vertical stripes, being replaced by a light blue shirt and another striped jersey before adopting the definitive blue and gold. Other version states that Boca Juniors' first jersey was pink, although it has been questioned by some journalists and historians who state that Boca, most never wore a pink jersey, by pointing out the lack of any solid evidence and how this version stems from, is only supported on, flawed testimonies. Legend has it. Both teams wore so similar shirts that the match was played to decide which team would get to keep it. Boca lost, decided to adopt the colors of the flag of the first boat to sail into the port at La Boca.
This proved to be a Swedish ship, therefore the yellow and blue of the Swedish flag were adopted as the new team colours. The first version had a yellow diagonal band, changed to a horizontal stripe. First kitsNotes Rare models and special editionsNotes The club has had five different designs for its badge during its history, although its outline has remained unchanged through most of its history; the first known emblem dates from 1911. In October 1932, the club stated that one star would be added to the badge for each Primera División title won. Neverthless, the stars would not appear on a Report and Balance Sheet. A version with laurel leaves was launched in 1955 to celebrate the 50th. Anniversary of the club, while the emblem with the stars inside has appeared on Boca Juniors uniforms since 1993. In 1996, the Ronald Shakespear Studio introduced a new badge –with t
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under