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Free-space path loss

In telecommunication, the free-space path loss is the attenuation of radio energy between the feedpoints of two antennas that results from the combination of the receiving antenna's capture area plus the obstacle free, line-of-sight path through free space. The "Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas", IEEE Std 145-1993, defines "free-space loss" as "The loss between two isotropic radiators in free space, expressed as a power ratio." It does not include any power loss in the antennas themselves due to imperfections such as resistance. Free space loss increases with the square of distance between the antennas because the radio waves spread out due the inverse square law and decreases with the square of the wavelength of the radio waves; the FSPL is used standalone, but rather as a part of the Friis transmission formula, which includes the gain of antennas. It is a factor that must be included in the power link budget of a radio communication system, to ensure that sufficient radio power reaches the receiver that the transmitted signal is received intelligibly.

The free-space path loss formula derives from the Friis transmission formula. This states that in a radio system consisting of a transmitting antenna transmitting radio waves to a receiving antenna, the ratio of radio wave power received P r to the power transmitted P t is: P r P t = D t D r 2 where D t is the directivity of the transmitting antenna D r is the directivity of the receiving antenna λ is the signal wavelength, d is the distance between the antennas,The distance between the antennas d must be large enough that the antennas are in the far field of each other d ≫ λ; the free-space path loss is the loss factor in this equation, due to distance and wavelength, or in other words the ratio of power received to power transmitted assuming the antennas are isotropic and have no directivity Since the frequency of a radio wave f is equal to the speed of light c divided by the wavelength, the path loss can be written in terms of frequency Beside the assumption that the antennas are lossless, this formula assumes that the polarization of the antennas is the same, that there are no multipath effects, that the radio wave path is sufficiently far away from obstructions that it acts as if it is in free space.

This last restriction requires an ellipsoidal area around the line of sight out to 0.6 of the Fresnel zone be clear of obstructions. The Fresnel zone increases in diameter with the wavelength of the radio waves; the concept of free space path loss is applied to radio systems that don't meet these requirements, but these imperfections can be accounted for by small constant power loss factors that can be included in the link budget. The free space loss increases with the distance between the antennas and decreases with the wavelength of the radio waves due to these factors Intensity – the power density of the radio waves decreases with the square of distance from the transmitting antenna due to spreading of the electromagnetic energy in space according to the inverse square law Antenna capture area – the amount of power the receiving antenna captures from the radiation field is proportional to a factor called the antenna aperture or antenna capture area, which increases with the square of frequency Since this factor is not related to the radio wave path but comes from the receiving antenna, the term "free space path loss" is a little misleading.

The radio waves from the transmitting antenna spread out in a spherical wavefront. The amount of power passing through any sphere centered on the transmitting antenna is equal; the surface area of a sphere of radius d is 4 π d 2. Thus the intensity or power density of the radiation in any particular direction from the antenna is inversely proportional to the square of distance I ∝ P t 4 π d 2 For an isotropic antenna which radiates equal power in all directions, the power density is evenly distributed over the surface of a sphere centered on the antenna I = P t 4 π d 2 The amount of power the receiving antenna receives from this radiation field is P r = A eff I The factor A eff, called the effective area or aperture of the receiving ant

Tonton Gutierrez

Eduardo Antonio Winsett Gutierrez, Jr. is a Filipino film and television actor best known for his role as Governor Eduardo Buenavista in the original hit teleserye Pangako Sa'Yo, it was topbilled by Kristine Hermosa, Jericho Rosales, Eula Valdez and Jean Garcia. He was introduced in Viva Films' "Sana'y Wala ng Wakas" as Sharon Cuneta's leading man and became the film outfit's exclusive contract star, he starred in Viva Films movies --"Nakagapos na Puso", "Kung Aagawin mo ang lahat sa Akin". From the aforementioned movie, he received best actor trophies from Catholic Mass Media Awards, PMPC's Star Awards and Film Academy of the Philippines in 1987. In 1996, he was awarded best actor by the Gawad Urian for Reyna Films' "Abot Kamay ang Pangarap". Eduardo Antonio Gutierrez, Jr. is the son of actress Liza Lorena. His parents did not marry and separated after he was born. Ramon Christopher Gutierrez is his half-brother from his father's second relationship with actress Pilita Corrales. Ruffa Gutierrez, Rocky Gutierrez, Elvis Gutierrez and Raymond Gutierrez, Ritchie Paul Gutierrez are his half siblings from his father's marriage to Annabelle Rama.

Tonton Gutierrez is married to actress Glydel Mercado on March 15, 2004,at the Sanctuario de San Antonio Parish, Forbes Park, Makati City. He is of mother's side. Captain Barbell - Al / Aswang Sana'y Wala Nang Wakas Alabok sa Ulap - Teddy Tuazon Tatlong Nukha ng Pag-Ibig Pasan Ko Ang Dagig Jack N' Jill - Danny Kung Aagawikin Saan Nagtatago Ang Pag-Ibig? Jack N' Jill sa Amerika Abot Hanggang Sukdulan Kahit Wala Ka Na Tiny Terrestrial: The Three Professors Sa Kabila Ng Lahat Kaputol ng Isang Awit Darna Paniwalaan Mo Ang Boyfriend Kong Gamol Kapantay ay Langit Syota ng bayan Oo Na,Sige Na Forever Basa Sa Dagat Dahas Muntik ng Maabot ang Langit Patayin sa Sindak si Barbara SPO4 Santiago Abot Kamay ang Pangarap - Gawad Urian Award winner for Best Actor Saan Ako Nagkamali Sariwang Bulaklak Nananabik Sa Iyong Pagbabalik Bubot, Kulang sa Panahon Kriselda, Sabik Sa Iyo Manananggal in Manila - Desidek Shake Rattle and Roll 6 Manrey Ambisyosa Tuloy... Bukas Ang Pinto May Sayad Armadong Hudas Tatlo...

Magkahalo My Guardian Debil Shirley Alyas Pogi: Ang Pagbabalik as Mayor Villegas Baliktaran Ooops, teka lang... Diskarte ko'to! as Johnny Estrella Marital Rape Hayop sa Sex Appeal Di kita ma-reach Sana Totoo Na Cass & Carry: Who Wants to Be a Billionaire? as Mr. Roma Ang Tanging Ina as Alfredo Magnifico as Ka Romy Forever My Love as Jimmy I Will Survive as Manolo So... Happy Together as Erwin Let The Love Begin as Jake Say That You Love Me Sa Harap ng Panganib Shake Rattle and Roll 9 Chuck Loving You as Virgilio When I Met U as Manny Dalaw as Father of Rica & Cecil Hating Kapatid Ang Tanging Ina Mo Rosario" as Party Guest Way Back Home as Ariel Santiago Born To Love You as Rex's dad Bakit hindi ka crush ng crush mo?" as Miguel Prieto Boy Golden: Shoot to Kill, the Arturo Porcuna Story as Col. Rey Maristela Just The Way You Are as Theodore Sison Felix Manalo as Benjamin Santiago " The Love Affair" as Greg Camp Sawi as Miguel

2015–16 Ukrainian First League

The 2015–16 Ukrainian First League was the 25th since its establishment. The competition commenced on 26 July 2015 with eight matches; the competition had a winter break which began after Round 18 on November 22. The competition resumed on 26 March 2016 and completed on 1 June 2016; the number of teams for the competition was confirmed on 19 June 2015. Two teams were promoted from the 2014–15 Ukrainian Second League. Cherkaskyi Dnipro – champion Obolon-Brovar Kyiv – 2nd place runner-up One team was promoted from the 2014–15 Ukrainian Premier League. Illichivets Mariupol – 14th place Avanhard Kramatorsk – special case The following displays the location of teams; the following stadiums are considered home grounds for the teams in the competition. As of 1 June 2016 As of 1 June 2016 2015–16 Ukrainian Premier League 2015–16 Ukrainian Second League 2015–16 Ukrainian Cup

Old Dog Haven

OldDog Haven is 501 not-for-profit charitable organization whose goal it is to improve the quality of life of geriatric or "senior" dogs that need care and homes in the western part of Washington State. The group was formed in 1994 by shelter volunteers. OldDog Haven uses a network of people to provide safe homes for abandoned senior dogs. A Home Base where the founders live and care for a number of dogs is located in Arlington, Washington. OldDog Haven does not have a shelter. All of the dogs in its care live in homes with foster families who love and cherish them as valued family members; the organization has seen that many dogs of advanced years are rejected by owners, or are left behind when an elderly owner must move to an independent or assisted living facility or a nursing home: these animals are left at animal shelters—where their chance of adoption is negligible—or pass to family or friends who are not prepared to deal with the needs of an older dog. As a result, many of these animals are in poor physical condition, making them less adoptable.

Wherever possible, OldDog Haven employs a network of foster homes and supporters to take in and care for the animals: every effort is made to adopt out dogs with a reasonable life-expectancy. OldDog Haven attempts to assist owners or their families in finding new homes for senior dogs through its website and through referrals. OldDog Haven does not receive any state or federal funds: the organization relies on donations and fund-raising activities for its income. All donations to OldDog Haven are tax-deductible. OldDog Haven

Battle of Kandalur Salai

The battle of Kandalur salai spelled Kanthaloor Shala, was a naval engagement of the Cholas under Rajaraja I against the Brahmin "salai" at Kandalur in south Kerala. The exact location of Kandalur—somewhere south of present-day Trivandrum—and assessment of the term "salai" are subjects of scholarly debate; the salais were considered prized possessions as they are claimed to have been sacked by many kings of south India. The event is sometimes assumed to be identical with the "conquest of Vizhinjam by a general of Rajaraja", before the burning of Lanka, given in the Tiruvalangadu Grant; the Kandalur salai belonged to the Ay chief, a vassal of the Pandya king at Madurai, in the mid-860s. The capture of the Kandalur salai can be tentatively dated to 988 AD, it is possible that at the time of the attack, the salai may have been under control of the Chera king at Kodungallur, Bhaskara Ravi "Manukuladitya". If, the case, the campaign can be viewed as part of Rajaraja's early battles against the Cheras and the rulers of Sri Lanka.

However, some historians argue that Kandalur salai, which only Chola inscriptions claim to have belonged to the Chera, may have been held by the Pandyas when it was attacked by Rajaraja I. As per historian K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, the capture was the first military achievement of king Rajaraja's reign; the success was summed up in the famous phrase "Kandalur salai kalamarutta", which precedes Rajaraja's name in several of his inscriptions from the 4th regnal year onwards. A Chola inscription was unearthed from a village near Tiruvannamalai in November, 2009; as per historians the inscription supports the view that a naval engagement indeed took place at Kandalur in c. 988 AD. The exact location of Kandalur is a subject of scholarly debate, it is possible the original Kandalur salai was located near the Ay headquarters Vizhinjam and a new Kandalur Salai was constructed further north in Trivandrum. Original location:— a village around 20 km east of Vizhinjam with a Shiva temple called Kandalur Salai New location:— within the city of Trivandrum

Larry Dale Lee

Larry Dale Lee, was an American financial and economic journalist for BridgeNews, found stabbed to death in his apartment in Guatemala City, Guatemala. Larry Lee was born in Rockford, United States, raised in Doniphan, Missouri, he graduated top of his class from Doniphan High School in 1976. Lee attended Emmanuel Baptist Church in his home town of Doniphan. Family, friends and co-workers say that Lee had a strong interest in social issues, he first graduated from the University of Arkansas, in the 1980s, he attended the University of Missouri, where he earned his graduate degree in journalism in 1987. He became fluent in Spanish. While working in Knoxville, Tennessee, in 1993, Lee revealed he was gay, but he did not inform his family. Lee started his journalism career working for his home town newspaper, The Prospect-News, in Doniphan, he worked at The Webb City Sentinel while working on his graduate degree in journalism until August 1986, he was an intern in 1987 at the Knoxville News-Sentinel, he returned to the newspaper as a copy editor and staff reporter and worked there continuously between 1989 and 1994.

Lee's career took him to writing for newspapers in Tennessee, Arkansas and Florida. During this period, he was employed as a journalist by the Southwest Times Record, Fort Smith, Arkansas. In August 1998, Lee took a job as the correspondent for BridgeNews in Guatemala. At the time, BridgeNews was the second largest Financial news agency behind Reuters and it had reporters in about 100 countries, he was employed by BridgeNews at the time of his murder but he told friends he was in the process of selling his possessions and leaving Guatemala City for Mexico City and leaving journalism for a career in non-profit social services sector. Lee had been working on a story about the Guatemala presidential election, he filed his last story for BridgeNews and his murder at 10:30 p.m. on 26 December 1999. He sent his last email shortly after midnight on 27 December. On 28 December, a friend came to check on him in his Zone 1 neighborhood, 13th floor apartment, when Lee did not answer his door, the friend asked a janitor to check on him, Lee was discovered dead.

Police found Lee naked and his body slashed in his Guatemala City apartment. Lee had been stabbed in the back and multiple times on the side; the autopsy established the time of death to be on 28 December. The police had no murder weapon, suspects and, since it was holidays and the neighborhood he lived in was quiet, no witnesses. There were several lines of motivations that were being investigated surrounding Lee's murder: Robbery: Since Lee was leaving Guatemala, he had advertised his possessions for sale, his phone was among the stolen items. There was no security system in his apartment building and a friend who lived in Guatemala City said his neighborhood was dangerous at nights and few foreigners lived there. Jealous lover or hate crime: After Lee was murdered, police discovered that he was gay; this led them to look into his sexual preference as a possible motivation, in the event that he was leaving a possible lover or that someone had targeted him because he was gay. Journalism-related: The Committee to Protect Journalists has not determined whether or not the case was related to Lee's reporting on financial, social or political issues.

One of his most damning stories was about a former leader committing human rights abuses. Random crime: Another possibility is that he was not targeted for any particular reason, but rather that the crime came to him as a result of general lawlessness. Ten years after Lee's murder, the Guatemalan police had no leads, made no arrests and family, friends and co-workers had complained that the case was not or competently investigated. President George W. Bush brought up the issue of impunity in Lee's case, as well as other Americans killed in Guatemala over an 18-month period, but only 5 percent of urban murders are brought to a successful conclusion in that country. In 1999, Larry Lee became the last of 37 journalists killed that year, and between Larry Lee's murder in 1999 and summer 2001, eight Americans were killed in Guatemala. Lee's family filed a negligence case against Bridge Information Systems in April 2001. According to the lawsuit, BridgeNews had not responded to a policy that had established a set of procedures to follow if a reporter was not heard of after 24 hours.

The time between Lee filing his last story and the time of death and discovery of his body were beyond the 24-hour-time period. BridgeNews denied any responsibility. In October 2001, Reuters bought Bridge Information Systems after the company had filed bankruptcy. In 1990, Roy Aarons, an editor came out publicly at a conference of editors and went on to found the National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association in order ensure safe work environments for those who are members, promote respectful coverage and support gay and lesbian journalists in their professional pursuits; the Committee to Protect Journalists and family members have pointed out the flawed investigation. The CPJ criticized police for not requesting Lee's phone records, and Lee's brother, Scott Lee, the first family member to enter Lee's apartment after the murder, had found evidence, including blood that could have been tested by police. Lee's sister Janine Zerger was critical of the Guatelmalan investigation: They did not investigate enough to know about his life.

But the word gay conjures up images in their m