Standard 52-card deck
The standard 52-card deck of French playing cards is the most common deck of playing cards used today. It includes thirteen ranks in each of the four French suits: clubs, diamonds and spades, with reversible "court" or face cards; each suit includes an ace, a king and jack, each depicted with a symbol of its suit. Anywhere from one to six jokers distinguishable with one being more colorful than the other, are added to commercial decks, as some card games require these extra cards. Modern playing cards carry index labels on opposite corners or in all four corners to facilitate identifying the cards when they overlap and so that they appear identical for players on opposite sides; the most popular standard pattern of the French deck is sometimes referred to as "English" or "Anglo-American" pattern. It has been shown that because of the large number of possibilities from shuffling a 52-card deck, it is probable that no two fair card shuffles have yielded the same order of cards. Although French suited cards are the most common playing cards used internationally, there are many countries or regions that continue to use their own regional cards which are preferred for many games.
For example, in Central Europe, German suited cards are used, Italian suited cards are common in Italy and Spanish suited cards on the Iberian peninsula. In addition, tarot cards are required for games such as French Tarot, played in France, the Tarock family of games played in countries like Austria and Hungary; the fanciful design and manufacturer's logo displayed on the ace of spades began under the reign of James I of England, who passed a law requiring an insignia on that card as proof of payment of a tax on local manufacture of cards. Until August 4, 1960, decks of playing cards printed and sold in the United Kingdom were liable for taxable duty and the ace of spades carried an indication of the name of the printer and the fact that taxation had been paid on the cards; the packs were sealed with a government duty wrapper. Though specific design elements of the court cards are used in game play and many differ between designs, a few are notable. Face cards or court cards - jacks and kings are called "face cards" in North America because the cards have pictures of their names.
In Britain they are called "court cards" One-eyed Royals - the jack of spades and jack of hearts and the king of diamonds are drawn in profile. The rest of the courts are shown in oblique face; the jack of diamonds is sometimes known as "laughing boy". Wild cards - When deciding which cards are to be made wild in some games, the phrase "acey, deucey or one-eyed jack" is sometimes used, which means that aces and the one-eyed jacks are all wild; the king of hearts is the only king with no mustache. The one-eyed king of diamonds is shown with an axe behind his head with the blade facing toward him; these depictions, their blood-red color, inspired the nickname "suicide kings". The king of diamonds is traditionally armed with an axe while the other three kings are armed with swords; this is the basis of the trump "one-eyed jacks and the man with the axe". Poker may be played with wild cards "Aces and the King with the Axe"; the ace of spades, unique in its large, ornate spade, is sometimes said to be the death card or the picture card, in some games is used as a trump card.
The queen of spades holds a scepter and is sometimes known as "the bedpost queen", though more she is called "black lady". In many decks, the queen of clubs holds a flower, she is thus known as the "flower queen". "2" cards are known as deuces. "3" cards are known as treys. Modern playing cards are available in both "wide" and "narrow" sizes now referred to as either'poker' or'bridge' sized. Notwithstanding these accepted dimensions, there is no formal requirement for precise adherence and minor variations are produced by various manufacturers; the narrower cards are more suitable for games such as bridge and some types of poker, where a number of cards must be held or concealed in a player's hand. In most USA casino poker games, plastic bridge sized. Casino shuffling machines have traditionally been designed for "bridge" size cards for these reasons. In other table games, such as 21, a modern casino may use hundreds or thousands of decks per day, so paper cards are used for those, for economic reasons.
"Poker" size paper decks are used for other similar games. Other sizes are available, such as a smaller'patience' size and larger'jumbo' ones for card tricks; the thickness and weight of modern playing cards is subject to numerous variables related to their purpose of use and associated material design for durability, stiffness and appearance. Some decks include additional design elements. Casino blackjack decks may include markings intended for a machine to chec
Flower Garden (solitaire)
Flower Garden is a solitaire card game using a deck of 52 playing cards. It is not known why the game is called such, but the terms used in this game do have a relation to those in gardening and it takes merit that some skill is needed, it is known under the names The Bouquet and The Garden. Thirty-six cards are dealt in to six columns, each containing six cards; the columns are called the "flower beds" and the entire tableau is sometimes called "the garden." The sixteen leftover cards become the reserve, or "the bouquet." The top cards of each flower-bed and all of the cards in the bouquet are available for play. Cards can only be moved one at a time and can be built either on the foundations or on the other flower beds; the foundations are built up from Ace to King. The cards in the garden, on the other hand, can be built down regardless of suit and any empty flower bed can be filled with any card; the cards in the bouquet can be used to aid in building, be put into the foundations, or fill an empty flower bed.
The game is won when all cards end up in the foundations
La Belle Lucie
La Belle Lucie, The Fan, Clover Leaves, Three Shuffles and a Draw, Alexander the Great, Trefoil or Midnight Oil is a solitaire where the object is to build the cards into the foundations. All cards are visible from the start, but this does not imply that this game is solvable with strategy; the default rule is hard to win. The majority of games cannot be solved. For example, moving a single card onto another blocks that stack until both cards can be removed to the foundations. Any setup that has a lower card of a specific suit below a higher of the same suit, or all kings not on the bottom of each cascade cannot be solved without cheating; the shuffle and redeal is of little help. For each king left in the second redeal, there is a 66 % chance. Moving aces out has cosmetic character. La Belle Lucie is "a classic patience game", first published in the English language by Lady Adelaide Cadogan in 1870; the tableau consists of seventeen fans of three cards each with a single card counting as an eighteenth fan.
Only the top card of each fan could be played. Any aces are built from there. Cards are moved to the foundations by suit in ascending order. Cards are moved to other fans by suit in descending order; when a fan becomes empty, it cannot be filled again with a king. Once all possible moves have been exhausted, the entire tableau is reshuffled and redealt, again in fans of three with the remainder counting as a separate fan. There are only two reshuffles allowed in the game; the game is considered won when all cards are transferred into the foundations Variations are listed in the order they will occur in the game play: Trefoil: The aces are transferred to the foundations and the remaining 48 cards are shuffled and dealt in sixteen fans of three to begin the game. The tableau consists of sixteen fans of three cards each; the Fan: When a fan becomes empty, it can be filled with a king. This rule is recommended as it increases odds of solving the game. No redeals of cards. Three Shuffles and a Draw: When all possible moves have been exhausted after the two reshuffles without finishing, the player can still make one last possible move called a merci, wherein one can pick out a buried card, i.e. any card, not the top card of any fan, use it to continue the game and finish it.
This special move and three shuffles involved give the variation its name. The "no redeal rule" and the "king rule" are used together since redeals are needed to get to cards under a king unless it’s allowed to move kings to empty fans. Since all cards are visible after the deal, the basic strategy is to think before doing moves. A redeal is not always of much help. Cards under a king are blocked until the redeal. Since cards only can be moved once, the cards under moved cards will be blocked until the redeal or until the cards above are moved to the foundations, it is always safe to build on a fan. It is always safe to build on a king, since the cards under it is blocked anyway, it is safe to build on a sequence of two or more cards in suite, since the cards under it is blocked anyway. It is always safe to move cards to the foundations. Before moving a card consider; the "alternating colours rule for moves between fans" will simplify the difficulty a little bit and increase the move but will change the strategy used in the game: Even if cards can be moved multiple times, thus cards under moved cards are not always blocked, it will be the case when the fan becomes larger.
If it is not always safe. It is safer to build on a king than on other cards, since the cards under it is blocked anyway. Build evenly on the foundations. Not following this strategy will limit the moves possible between the fans after a redeal. Before moving a card consider. All cards can be moved over two other cards; therefore before moving a card, say 7♦ over 8♣, consider the need to instead move 7♥ over the destination 8♣, or the possibility to instead move the source card 7♦ over 8♠. The "regardless of suit for moves between fans" will simplify the difficulty and increase the moves You can manoeuvre a single card on another to uncover cards to move them on the foundation For example, a 3♠ can be moved on any four to uncover the 4♥ to the foundation with the 3♥ List of solitaires Glossary of solitaire Arnold, Peter. Card Games for One. Chambers, London. ISBN 978 0550 10201 0 Cadogan, Lady Adelaide. Illustrated Games of Patience. Abacus, Watford. 09 090100 2
Duchess is a solitaire card game which uses a deck of 52 playing cards. It has all four typical features, a tableau, a reserve, a stock and a waste pile, is quite easy to win. First, four fans of three cards are set up. A space is left for the four foundations four cards are placed in a row. To start the game, the player will choose among the top cards of the reserve fans which will start the first foundation pile. Once he/she makes that decision and picks a card, the three other cards with the same rank, whenever they become available, will start the other three foundations; the top cards of the reserve fans and the top cards of the columns in the tableau are available for play onto the foundations or on the tableau. The foundations are built up by suit and ranking is continuous as Aces are placed over Kings; the cards on the tableau are built down in alternating colors. Ranking is continuous in the tableau as Kings can be placed over Aces. One card can be moved at a time, but sequences can be moved as one unit.
No cards can be built on the reserve. Spaces that occur on the tableau are filled with any top card in the reserve. If the entire reserve is exhausted however, it is not replenished; the stock is dealt one card at a time to the wastepile, the top card of, available for play. There is one redeal allowed. To prepare for the redeal, the remaining cards in the wastepile are collected and turned face down to become the new stock; the game is won when all cards are built onto the foundations
Eight Off is a form of patience, named after its employment of eight cells, played with one deck of playing cards. The object of the game is to move all the cards into the foundations; the cards are dealt, into eight columns of six cards each. The remaining four cards go into the first four cells; when dealt, the table should bear some resemblance to the picture on the right, although a layout with the cells on the left and the foundations at the top is another option. The eight slots along the top of the picture represent the cells; these cells can be used to temporarily store any available card from the table. Four of the cells are filled at the beginning of the game; the four slots along the left of the picture represent the four foundations. These, as in Klondike, are meant to be built up in suit from Ace to King; that is, each foundation begins with the Ace of one suit and is followed by the 2 of the same suit, followed by the 3 of the same suit, so forth, until all the cards through the King have been placed on the foundation.
The tableau piles which fill the majority of the figure are. The cards are, all face up, are built down, traditionally by suit.. Technically, one may only move the cards between columns one at a time. If a column is emptied, most rules allow for one to only place Kings in the empty space, regardless of suit. Players, may prefer to simplify this rule to any card. Eight Off is similar to Baker's Game, named after the mathematician C. L. Baker and a precursor to the more popular FreeCell, it is included in some computer solitaire suites. List of solitaires Glossary of solitaire
Golf is a Patience card game where players try to earn the lowest number of points over the course of nine deals. It has a tableau of 35 face-up cards and a higher ratio of skill to luck than most other solitaire card games. From a standard 52-card deck, 7 columns of 5 cards each are dealt, all face up; this is the tableau. One additional card is dealt as the base of the foundation; the remaining 16 cards are turned face down to form the stock. Rules are as follows: Only the topmost card in each column may be removed from the tableau; when it is removed, the card beneath becomes available for play. Cards may be moved from the tableau to the foundation if they are either one rank higher or one rank lower than the top card of the foundation, regardless of suit, but nothing may be played on top of a King. Cards rank A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 J Q K. There is no "wrapping" in golf. Whenever there are no possible plays, turn cards up one at a time from the stock to the foundation and resume playing cards from the tableau when possible.
There is no redeal. The game is over when the stock is exhausted and no more moves are available. Player scores one point for each card remaining in the tableau. If the tableau is cleared, player scores a negative point for every card left in the stock. Game is nine "holes" and a score of 45 or lower is considered par, with a score of zero or lower being perfect. If a tableau is dealt that would make it impossible for the player to clear all of the cards the cards may be reshuffled and redealt. Common variations on these rules include: Queens may be played on top of Kings. Turning the corner is permitted so that a King can be played on top of an Ace, vice versa. One or both of the Jokers may be used as wild cards that represent any value; the foundation pile can start off empty, so players can choose one of the exposed cards to move them to the foundation for a "head-start". Multiple decks may be used to create larger tableaus. Tri Peaks
Pyramid (card game)
Pyramid is a solitaire game where the object is to get all the cards from the pyramid to the foundation. The object of the game is to remove pairs of cards that add up to the total of the highest card in the deck from a pyramid arrangement of 28 cards; when using the standard 52-card deck, Jacks value at 11, Queens 12, Kings 13. So the highest value is 13. Playing with a 48-card Spanish deck the highest numbers are the Kings at 13, so the pairs must add up to 13. To set up the pyramid, one card is dealt face up at the top of the playing area two cards beneath and covering it three beneath them, so on completing with a row of seven cards for a total of 28 cards dealt; the remaining cards are placed to the side face down. This is the Stock. To play, pairs of exposed cards can be removed to the Foundation if their values total 13. Thus, kings can be removed to the Foundation. Cards must not be covered, thus when an Ace rests on a Queen, that Queen can not be removed. You may match it with any exposed card.
If no match is made the drawn Stock card is still discarded into the Foundation. Once the Stock is exhausted and/or no more pairs can be made, the game ends. To score, count the number of remaining face up cards in the pyramid. A perfect score is therefore zero, where all cards have been matched into the Foundation.. To be considered won, all cards must be moved to the foundation; the pyramid is demolished by the end. Relaxed Pyramid Solitaire: to be considered won, all cards from the pyramid must be moved to the foundation. Redeals may be allowed. Three cards at a time from the stack, repeating. Alternatively, seven cards are dealt below the pyramid; these cards can match each other exposed cards from the stack. Another addition is playing Pyramid Solitaire with a cell, filled either from the tableau or from the waste upcard. Several variations allow a card on the pyramid to be removed in combination with a card covered by the first, so long as neither card is covered by a card not in the combo. For example, in the case of an exposed ace resting on a queen, the queen can be removed with the ace if no other cards are covering them, but if a jack is on the queen, the queen cannot be removed.
Other versions require that both cards be exposed to begin with. Giza: In a version created by Michael Keller, after the pyramid is formed, the rest of the deck is dealt as three rows of eight cards with the exposed cards open to match the exposed cards from the pyramid or other exposed cards. A variation of the game was released on the Microsoft Entertainment Pack in 1990, under the name Tut's Tomb, it has been added to Microsoft Solitaire Collection for Windows 8, Windows 10, iOS. When the game is played through Microsoft Solitaire Collection, the cards in the Stock are face-up rather than face-down