Free Democratic Party (Germany)

The Free Democratic Party is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany. The FDP is led by Christian Lindner; the FDP was founded in 1948 by members of former liberal political parties which existed in Germany before World War II, namely the German Democratic Party and the German People's Party. For most of the German Federal Republic's history, it has held the balance of power in the Bundestag, it was the Social Democratic Party of Germany. In the 2013 federal election, the FDP failed to win any directly elected seats in the Bundestag and came up short of the 5 percent threshold to qualify for list representation, being left without representation in the Bundestag for the first time in its history. In the 2017 federal election, the FDP regained its representation in the Bundestag, receiving 10.6% of the vote. The FDP supports civil liberties and internationalism; the party is traditionally considered centre-right. Since the 1980s, the party has pushed economic liberalism and has aligned itself to the promotion of free markets and privatization.

It is the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. The history of liberal parties in Germany dates back to 1861, when the German Progress Party was founded, being the first political party in the modern sense in Germany. From the establishment of the National Liberal Party in 1867 until the demise of the Weimar Republic in 1933, the liberal-democratic camp was divided into a "national-liberal" and a "left-liberal" line of tradition. After 1918 the national-liberal strain was represented by the German People's Party, the left-liberal one by the German Democratic Party. Both parties played an important role in government during the Weimar Republic era, but successively lost votes during the rise of the Nazi Party since the late-1920s. After the Nazi seizure of power, both liberal parties agreed to the Enabling Act of 1933 and subsequently dissolved themselves. During the 12 years of Hitler's rule, some former liberals collaborated with the Nazis, while others resisted against Nazism. Soon after World War II, the Soviet Union pushed for the creation of licensed "anti-fascist" parties in its occupation zone in East Germany.

In July 1945, former DDP politicians Wilhelm Külz, Eugen Schiffer and Waldemar Koch called for the establishment of a pan-German liberal party. Their Liberal-Democratic Party was soon licensed by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany, under the condition that the new party joined the pro-Soviet "Democratic Bloc". In September 1945, citizens in Hamburg—including the anti-Nazi resistance circle "Association Free Hamburg"—established the Party of Free Democrats as a bourgeois left-wing party and the first liberal Party in the Western occupation zones; the German Democratic Party was revived in some states of the Western occupation zones. Many former members of DDP and DVP however agreed to overcome the traditional split of German liberalism into a national-liberal and a left-liberal branch, aiming for the creation of a united liberal party. In October 1945 a liberal coalition party was founded in the state of Bremen under the name of Bremen Democratic People's Party. In January 1946, liberal state parties of the British occupation zone merged into the Free Democratic Party of the British Zone.

A similar state party in Hesse, called Liberal-Democratic Party, was licensed by the US military government in January 1946. In the state of Bavaria, a Free Democratic Party was founded in May 1946. In the first post-war state elections in 1946, liberal parties performed well in Württemberg-Baden, Bremen and Greater Berlin; the LDP was strong in the October 1946 state elections of the Soviet zone—the last free parliamentary election in East Germany—obtaining an average of 24.6%, thwarting an absolute majority of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, favoured by the Soviet occupation power. This disappointment to the communists however led to a change of electoral laws in the Soviet zone, cutting the autonomy of non-socialist parties like the LDP and forcing it to join the SED-dominated National Front, making it a dependent "bloc party"; the Democratic Party of Germany was established in Rothenburg ob der Tauber on 17 March 1947 as a pan-German party of liberals from all four occupation zones.

Its leaders were Theodor Heuss and Wilhelm Külz. However, the project failed in January 1948 as a result of disputes over Külz's pro-Soviet direction; the Free Democratic Party was established on 11–12 December 1948 in Heppenheim, in Hesse, as an association of all 13 liberal state parties in the three Western zones of occupation. The proposed name, Liberal Democratic Party, was rejected by the delegates, who voted 64 to 25 in favour of the name Free Democratic Party; the party's first chairman was Theodor Heuss, a member of the Democratic People's Party in Württemberg-Baden. The place for the party's foundation was chosen deliberately: it was at the Heppenheim Assembly that the moderate liberals had met in October 1847 before the March Revolution; some regard the "Heppenheim Assembly", held at the Hotel Halber

Panasonic Lumix DMC-LX10

The Panasonic Lumix DMC-LX10 is a 20 MP 1" sensor compact camera in the Lumix range, announced by Panasonic on September 19, 2016. LX10 features an F1.4–2.8 equivalent Leica-branded zoom lens, 3" 1040k dot LCD, built-in flash, built-in wireless, it can record 4K video at 30p or Full HD at 60p. The LX10 is more compact than the Panasonic LX100 or GX8 series by not having an electronic viewfinder, interchangeable lenses, or hot shoe; the camera is compared to the Sony RX100 series. Video Capture Quality The DMC-LX10 version provides the following video capture quality H.264 - 3840 x 2160 p - 30p - 100MbpsH.264 - 3840 x 2160 p - 25p - 100MbpsH.264 - 3840 x 2160 p - 24p - 100MbpsH.264 - 1920 x 1080 p - 60p - 28MbpsH.264 - 1920 x 1080 p - 50p - 28MbpsH.264 - 1920 x 1080 p - 30p - 20MbpsH.264 - 1920 x 1080 p - 25p - 20MbpsH.264 - 1280 x 720 p - 30p - 28MbpsH.264 - 1280 x 720 p - 25p - 28MbpsAVCHD - 1920 x 1080 p - 50p - 28MbpsAVCHD - 1920 x 1080 i - 50i - 17MbpsAVCHD - 1920 x 1080 p - 24p - 24MbpsThe LX10 has Slow Motion video capability in FHD captured at 100 fps MP4 providing a 25 fps output.


2018 Categoría Primera B season

The 2018 Categoría Primera B season was the 29th season since its founding as Colombia's second division football league. The competition concluded on 26 November. Cúcuta Deportivo were the champions by defeating Unión Magdalena 3–0 on aggregate score in the final. Both teams were promoted to the Categoría Primera A. For this season, the league returned to the'one tournament per year' format; the season will consist of three stages. In the first stage, the 16 clubs played each other once at home and once away. Similar to the 2018 Primera A season, the extra matches against a regional rival were not played; the top eight teams after the thirty rounds advanced to the semifinal round where they were sorted into two groups of four and played a double round-robin tournament group stage, with the top team of each group qualifying to the finals. The winner of the finals was crowned as the season champions and earned promotion to the Categoría Primera A for the 2019 season; the season runner-up would have to play the best team in the aggregate table on a home-and-away basis for the second promotion berth.

In case the season runner-up ended up as the best team in the aggregate table, it would be promoted and the promotion play-off would not be played. 16 teams took part, fourteen of them returning from last season plus Cortuluá and Tigres, who were relegated from the 2017 Primera A. The former will return to the second tier after 3 years while the latter returned after one season in the top flight. Both teams replaced Boyacá Leones who earned promotion at the end of the last season. A: Barranquilla used the Estadio Metropolitano Roberto Meléndez in Barranquilla as home stadium during the first half of the season.b: Cortuluá used the Estadio Pascual Guerrero in Cali instead of the Estadio Doce de Octubre in Tuluá as home stadium during the first half of the season. The eight teams that advanced to the Semifinals were drawn into two groups of four teams; the winners of each group advanced to the finals. Cúcuta Deportivo won 3–0 on aggregate. Since the season runners-up Unión Magdalena ended up as the best team in the aggregate table, they earned automatic promotion to the Categoría Primera A and the promotion play-off was not played.

Source: Soccerway 2018 Categoría Primera A season 2018 Copa Colombia Dimayor's official website