Leutkirch im Allgäu
Leutkirch im Allgäu is a former Free Imperial City located in south-eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is part of the district of Ravensburg, in the western Allgäu region and belongs to the administrative region of Tübingen. Since the municipal reform of 1972, the consolidated Leutkirch urban area comprises the town of Leutkirch im Allgäu itself and the former municipalities of Diepoldshofen, Gebrazhofen, Hofs, Reichenhofen and Wuchzenhofen. Few protohistoric settlement remains have been found in the Allgäu region although a grave dating from the migration period has been found in the Leutkirch area; the area was settled by Alemanic tribes before the establishment of the Danube-Iller-Rhine limes during the Roman period. The town was created with the merger of the villages of Ufhofen and Mittelhofen and vestiges of those settlements were found under the old church of St. Martin. First mention of the church is found in a document of the Abbey of St. Gall dating back to 766. After the line of the local lord became extinct, the area was awarded to the counts of Bregenz and of Montfort.
In 1293, King Adolf of Nassau granted to Leutkirch the right to rule itself according to the Town Code of Lindau, thus raising Leutkirch to the status of a Free Imperial City. For a while, the town continued to be ruled by a bailiff appointed by the king. In 1311, there is mention for the first time of a town council whose members are the town judges. An elected bürgermeister chaired the town council from the 15th century. A so-called Committee of Twenty, representing the guilds, was part of the governing structure; the town council was to be composed of a magistrate, two mayors, three secret councillors and nine councillors. The main industry of the town was the linen trade and the main weaver guild had a membership of 200 at one time, their linen production was exported to Spain mostly. Leutkirch became a member of the Swabian League in 1488 and gained a seat and vote both in the League and in the Imperial Diet. Like the majority of the other Free Imperial Cities, Leutkirch went through considerable internal strife during the Protestant Reformation.
The town Lutheran in 1546, adhered to the Augsburg Confession and joined the Schmalkaldic League. There was a fierce dispute for several years between the Protestant magistrates of the town and the abbot of Weingarten Abbey for control over St. Martin’s parish church whose patron was the abbot. A compromise was reached in 1562: the Catholics kept the parish church while the Protestants took over the hospital’s church, expanded in 1589 and is now known as Memorial Church. Catholics therefore maintained some rights in the Protestant city. In 1577 Leutkirch joined other Lutheran Free Imperial Cities in signing the Formula of Concord; the town suffered during the Thirty Years' War and the number of inhabitants fell drastically. The post-war period was not easy as well and the debt of the town continued to increase. However, difficult economic times did not prevent the town's rulers from having a new baroque town hall built in 1740; the stucco ceiling by Johannes Schütz remains one of the main attractions of the town.
From the Peace of Westphalia onward, Leutkirch was to remain one of the smallest and least conspicuous of the 50 Free Imperial Cities of the Empire. In the course of the mediatisation of 1802-03, Leutkirch was not spared the fate of the great majority of the 50 Free Imperial Cities of the moribund Holy Roman Empire and lost its independence; the town was first annexed to the Duchy of Bavaria in 1803 before becoming part of the Kingdom of Württemberg in 1810. All of the countryside surrounding the Free Imperial City of Leutkirch except on the northwest was designated a Free Imperial Village possessing Imperial Immediacy; this territory was known as the Free Men of the Leutkircher Heath. By 1800, the Free Men were only one of five Imperial villages still remaining, it shared the fate of the City of Leutkirch and was occupied by Bavarian troops in 1803. The city is the initial point of the Leutkirch-Memmingen railway. Peter Nick, Molecular Biologist and head of Molecular Cell Biology at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Heiko Butscher and manager Leutkirch im Allgäu is twinned with: Bédarieux, since 1982 Hérépian, since 1982 Lamalou-les-Bains, since 1982 Castiglione delle Stiviere, since 1995 This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but from violence and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945. A war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers; these states employed large mercenary armies, the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose, granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant; these events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war; the Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union.
The southern states Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor; the Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories; the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; the Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers; the rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and dominant in the latter part of the 17th century. The Peace of Augsburg, signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, establishing that: Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion of their realms.
Subjects had to follow that emigrate. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552. Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed; this added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties. The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empir
Aalen is a former Free Imperial City located in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg, about 70 kilometres east of Stuttgart and 48 kilometres north of Ulm. It is its largest town, it is the largest town in the Ostwürttemberg region. Since 1956, Aalen has had the status of Große Kreisstadt, it is noted for its many half-timbered houses constructed from the 16th century through the 18th century. With an area of 146.63 km2, Aalen is ranked 7th in Baden-Württemberg and 2nd within the Government Region of Stuttgart, after Stuttgart. With a population of about 66,000, Aalen is the 15th most-populated settlement in Baden-Württemberg. Aalen is situated on the upper reaches of the river Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Jura which lies to the south and south-east, close to the hilly landscapes of the Ellwangen Hills to the north and the Welland to the north-west; the west of Aalen's territory is on the foreland of the eastern Swabian Jura, the north and north-west is on the Swabian-Franconian Forest, both being part of the Swabian Keuper-Lias Plains.
The south-west is part of the Albuch, the east is part of the Härtsfeld, these two both being parts of the Swabian Jura. The Kocher enters the town's territory from Oberkochen to the south, crosses the district of Unterkochen enters the town centre, where the Aal flows into it; the Aal is a small river located only within the town's territory. Next, the Kocher crosses the district of Wasseralfingen leaves the town for Hüttlingen. Rivers originating near Aalen are the Rems and the Jagst, both being tributaries of the Neckar, just like the Kocher; the elevation in the centre of the market square is 430 metres relative to Normalhöhennull. The territory's lowest point is at the Lein river near Rodamsdörfle, the highest point is the Grünberg's peak near Unterkochen at 733 metres. Aalen's territory ranges over all lithostratigraphic groups of the South German Jurassic: Aalen's south and the Flexner massif are on top of the White Jurassic, the town centre is on the Brown Jurassic, a part of Wasseralfingen is on the Black Jurassic.
As a result, the town advertises itself as a "Geologist's Mecca". Most parts of the territory are on the Opalinuston-Formation of the Aalenian subdivision of the Jurassic Period, named after Aalen. On the Sandberg, the Schnaitberg and the Schradenberg hills, all in the west of Aalen, the Eisensandstein formation emerges to the surface. On the other hills of the city, sands and residual rubble prevail; the historic centre of Aalen and the other areas in the Kocher valley are founded on holocenic floodplain loam and riverbed gravel that have filled in the valley. Most parts of Dewangen and Fachsenfeld are founded on formations of Jurensismergel, Posidonienschiefer, Amaltheenton and Obtususton moving from south to north, all belonging to the Jurassic and being rich in fossils, they are at last followed by the Trossingen Formation belonging to the Late Triassic. Until 1939 iron ore was mined on the Braunenberg hill.. The maximum extent of the town's territory amounts to 18 kilometres in a north-south dimension and 25 kilometres in an east-west dimension.
The area is 14,662.8 hectares, which includes 42.2% 6,186.2 hectares agriculturally used area and 37.7% 5,534.9 hectares of forest. 11.5% 1,692.3 hectares are built up or vacant, 6.4% 932.8 hectares is used by traffic infrastructure. Sporting and recreation grounds and parks comprise 1% 152.7 hectares, other areas 1.1% 163.9 hectares. The following municipalities border on Aalen, they are listed clockwise, beginning south, with their respective linear distances to Aalen town centre given in brackets: Oberkochen, Heuchlingen, Abtsgmünd, Neuler, Hüttlingen, Westhausen, Lauchheim and Neresheim, all in the Ostalbkreis district, furthermore Heidenheim an der Brenz and Königsbronn, both in Heidenheim district. Aalen's territory consists of the town centre and the municipalities merged from between 1938 and 1975; the municipalities merged in the course of the latest municipal reform of the 1970s are called Stadtbezirke, are Ortschaften in terms of Baden-Württemberg's Gemeindeordnung, which means, each of them has its own council elected by its respective residents and is presided by a spokesperson.
The town centre itself and the merged former municipalities consist of numerous villages separated by open ground from each other and having their own independent and long-standing history. Some however have been created as planned communities, which were given proper names, but no well-defined borders. List of villages: Aalen forms a Mittelzentrum within the Ostwürttemberg region, its designated catchment area includes the following municipalities of the central and eastern Ostalbkreis district: Abtsgmünd, Essingen, Hüttlingen, Kirchheim am Ries, Neresheim, Oberkochen, R
German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany, the German parts of Switzerland and Belgium, South Tyrol in Italy and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects. Medieval German literature is literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty; the Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century. Middle High German starts in the 12th century; the Baroque period was one of the most fertile times in German literature. Modern literature in German begins with the authors of the Enlightenment; the Sensibility movement of the 1750s–1770s ended with Goethe's best-selling Die Leiden des jungen Werther. The Sturm und Drang and Weimar Classicism movements were led by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. German Romanticism was the dominant movement of the late early 19th centuries.
Biedermeier refers to the literature, the visual arts and interior design in the period between the years 1815, the end of the Napoleonic Wars, 1848, the year of the European revolutions. Under the Nazi regime, some authors went into exile and others submitted to censorship; the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to German language authors thirteen times, or the third most after English and French language authors, with winners including Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Günter Grass. Periodization is not an exact science but the following list contains movements or time periods used in discussing German literature, it seems worth noting that the periods of medieval German literature span two or three centuries, those of early modern German literature span one century, those of modern German literature each span one or two decades. The closer one nears the present, the more debated the periodizations become. Medieval German literature Old High German literature Middle High German literature Late medieval German literature/Renaissance Early Modern German literature Humanism and Protestant Reformation Baroque Enlightenment Modern German literature 18th- and 19th-century German literature Empfindsamkeit / Sensibility Sturm und Drang / Storm and Stress German Classicism Weimar Classicism or, depending on Schiller's or Goethe's death German Romanticism Biedermeier Young Germany Poetic Realism Naturalism 20th-century German literature 1900–1933 Fin de siècle Symbolism Expressionism Dada New Objectivity 1933–1945 National Socialist literature Exile literature 1945–1989 By country Federal Republic of Germany German Democratic Republic Austria Switzerland Other By thematic or group Post-war literature Group 47 Holocaust literature Contemporary German literature Medieval German literature refers to literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty.
The Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century, though the boundary to Early Middle High German is not clear-cut. The most famous work in OHG is the Hildebrandslied, a short piece of Germanic alliterative heroic verse which besides the Muspilli is the sole survivor of what must have been a vast oral tradition. Another important work, in the northern dialect of Old Saxon, is a life of Christ in the style of a heroic epic known as the Heliand. Middle High German proper runs from the beginning of the 12th century, in the second half of the 12th century, there was a sudden intensification of activity, leading to a 60-year "golden age" of medieval German literature referred to as the mittelhochdeutsche Blütezeit; this was the period of the blossoming of MHG lyric poetry Minnesang. One of the most important of these poets was Walther von der Vogelweide; the same sixty years saw the composition of the most important courtly romances. These are written in rhyming couplets, again draw on French models such as Chrétien de Troyes, many of them relating Arthurian material, for example, Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The third literary movement of these years was a new revamping of the heroic tradition, in which the ancient Germanic oral tradition can still be discerned, but tamed and Christianized and adapted for the court. These high medieval heroic epics are written in rhymed strophes, not the alliterative verse of Germanic prehistory; the Middle High German period is conventionally taken to end in 1350, while the Early New High German is taken to begin with the German Renaissance, after the invention of movable type in the mid-15th century. Therefore, the literature of the late 14th and the early 15th century falls, as it were, in the cracks
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180. He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I Barbarossa and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI. At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents. Born in Ravensburg, in 1129 or 1131, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heir of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrude, only daughter of the Emperor Lothair III and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Brunswick.
Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria; this was because Henry the Proud had been his rival for the Crown in 1138. Henry III, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156. However, the East Mark was not returned. Henry was the founder of Lübeck. Augsburg, Stade, Kassel, Güstrow, Lüneburg, Salzwedel and Brunswick. In Brunswick, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the courtyard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 — the first bronze statue north of the Alps, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue. In 1147, Henry married Clementia of Zähringen, he divorced her in 1162 under pressure from the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange.
In 1168, Henry married Matilda, the daughter of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of King Richard I of England. Henry faithfully supported his older cousin, the Emperor Frederick I, in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his Saxon knights. During Frederick's first invasion of northern Italy, Henry took part, among the others, in the victorious sieges of Crema and Milan. In 1172, Henry took a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, meeting with the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller, spending Easter of that year in Constantinople. By December 1172, he was back in Bavaria and in 1174, he refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East, he did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, unless Barbarossa presented Henry with the Saxon imperial city Goslar: a request Barbarossa refused.
Barbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, he had to submit in November 1181 at an Imperial Diet in Erfurt, he was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188, his wife Matilda died in 1189. When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, conquered the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for its disloyalty.
Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, returned to his much diminished lands around Brunswick, where he finished his days as Duke of Brunswick, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. Henry had the following known children: By his first wife, Clementia of Zähringen, daughter of Conrad I, Duke of Zähringen and Clemence of Namur: Gertrude of Bavaria, married firstly to Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, secondly to King Canute VI of Denmark. Richenza of Bavaria Henry of Bavaria, died young. By his second wife, Matilda of England, daughter of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine:Matilda, married firstly to Godfrey, Count of Perche, secondly to Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy. Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine Lothar of Bavaria Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Swabia William of Winchester, Lord
Dinkelsbühl is a historic town in Central Franconia, a region of Germany, now part of the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Dinkelsbühl is a former Free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. In local government terms, Dinkelsbühl lies near the western edge of the Landkreis of district of Ansbach, north of Aalen. Dinkelsbühl lies on the northern part of the Romantic Road, is one of three striking historic towns on the northern part of the route, the others being Rothenburg ob der Tauber and Nördlingen; the town lies on the southern edge of the Franconian Heights and on the River Wörnitz, which rises in the town of Schillingsfürst. The population in 2013 was 11,315 Fortified by Emperor Henry V, in 1305 Dinkelsbühl received the same municipal rights as Ulm, in 1351 was raised to the position of a Free Imperial City, its municipal code, the Dinkelsbühler Recht, published in 1536, revised in 1738, contained a extensive collection of public and private laws. During the Protestant Reformation, Dinkelsbühl was notable for being – along only with Ravensburg and Biberach an der Riß — a Bi-confessional Imperial City where the Peace of Westphalia caused the establishment of a joint Catholic–Protestant government and administrative system, with equality offices and a precise and equal distribution between Catholic and Protestant civic officials.
This status ended in 1802. Around 1534 the majority of the population of Dinkelsbühl became Protestant; every summer Dinkelsbühl celebrates the city's surrender to Swedish Troops in 1632 during the Thirty Years' War. This reenactment is played out by many of the town's residents, it features an array of Swedish troops attacking the city gate and children dressed in traditional garb coming to witness the event. Paper cones full of chocolate and candy are given as gifts to children; this historical event is called the "Kinderzeche" and can in some aspects be compared with the "Meistertrunk" in Rothenburg. The name is derived from the two German words for "child" and "the bill for food and drink in an inn", is called such because of the legend that a child saved the town from massacre by the Swedish Troops during the surrender; the legend tells that when the Swedish army besieged the town, a teenage girl took the children to the Swedish general to beg for mercy. The Swedish general had lost his young son to illness, a boy who approached him so resembled his own son that he decided to spare the town.
The film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm was filmed on location in Dinkelsbühl. The Werner Herzog film The Enigma of Kasper Hauser premiered on 1 November 1974 in Dinkelsbühl, where it was filmed. Dinkelsbühl towers. There exist a lot of outstanding attractions; the image of this town is typical for a German town of the 15th to early 17th century. St. George's Minster is a beautiful masterpiece in the Gothic style of the late 15th century, it is the largest "hall church" in the country. St. Paul's, now a Protestant church, was rebuilt in the 19th century in the style of the far late Roman architectural style, it was part of a monastery. The Castle of the Teutonic Order has a rococo chapel; the so-called Deutsches Haus is the ancestral home of the Counts of Drechsel-Deufstetten. It is a fine specimen of the German renaissance style of wooden architecture. Situated in front of the Minster is a monument to Christoph von Schmid, a 19th-century writer of stories for the young. Museum of the 3rd Dimension is housed in the former city mill.
The Museum of History shows historical discoveries found within Dinkelsbühl and has reconstructions of the ancient houses of the city. Since 2008, the museum has had a new domicile in the so-called "Steinerne Haus" from the 14th century; the official name is now: "house of history". While many of the artifacts are the same, the presentation is new; the church of St. Vincent, 2 km outside the city; the Summer Breeze Open Air heavy metal festival has been held in Dinkelsbühl since 2007. Nikolaus von Dinkelsbühl, A theologian during the 14th and 15th centuries. Christoph von Schmid, writer during the 18th and 19th centuries, was born in Dinkelsbühl in 1768. Friedrich von Hermann, an economist and statistician, was born in Dinkelsbühl in 1795. Stefan Reuter, football world champion in 1990, was born in Dinkelsbühl in 1966