Michiel Hazewinkel is a Dutch mathematician, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics at the Centre for Mathematics and Computer and the University of Amsterdam known for his 1978 book Formal groups and applications and as editor of the Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Born in Amsterdam to Jan Hazewinkel and Geertrude Hendrika Werner, Hazewinkel studied at the University of Amsterdam, he received his BA in Mathematics and Physics in 1963, his MA in Mathematics with a minor in Philosophy in 1965 and his PhD in 1969 under supervision of Frans Oort and Albert Menalda for the thesis "Maximal Abelian Extensions of Local Fields". After graduation Hazewinkel started his academic career as Assistant Professor at the University of Amsterdam in 1969. In 1970 he became Associate Professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, where in 1972 he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Econometric Institute. Here he was thesis advisor of Roelof Stroeker, M. van de Vel, Jo Ritzen, Gerard van der Hoek. From 1973 to 1975 he was Professor at the Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, where Marcel van de Vel was his PhD student.
From 1982 to 1985 he was appointed part-time Professor Extraordinarius in Mathematics at the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, part-time Head of the Department of Pure Mathematics at the Centre for Mathematics and Computer in Amsterdam. In 1985 he was appointed Professor Extraordinarius in Mathematics at the University of Utrecht, where he supervised the promotion of Frank Kouwenhoven, Huib-Jan Imbens, J. Scholma and F. Wainschtein. At the Centre for Mathematics and Computer CWI in Amsterdam in 1988 he became Professor of Mathematics and head of the Department of Algebra and Geometry until his retirement in 2008. Hazewinkel has been managing editor for journals as Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde since 1977, he was managing editor for the book series Mathematics and Its Applications for Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1977. Hazewinkel was member of 15 professional societies in the field of Mathematics, participated in numerous administrative tasks in institutes, Program Committee, Steering Committee, Consortiums and Boards.
In 1994 Hazewinkel was elected member of the International Academy of Computer Sciences and Systems. Hazewinkel has authored and edited several books, numerous articles. Books, selection: 1970. Géométrie algébrique-généralités-groupes commutatifs. With Michel Demazure and Pierre Gabriel. Masson & Cie. 1976. On invariants, canonical forms and moduli for linear, finite dimensional, dynamical systems. With Rudolf E. Kalman. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 1978. Formal groups and applications. Vol. 78. Elsevier. 1993. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics. Ed. Vol. 9. Springer. Articles, a selection: Hazewinkel, Michiel. "Moduli and canonical forms for linear dynamical systems II: The topological case". Mathematical Systems Theory. 10: 363–385. Doi:10.1007/BF01683285. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Hazewinkel, Michiel. "On Lie algebras and finite dimensional filtering". Stochastics. 7: 29–62. Doi:10.1080/17442508208833212. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Hazewinkel, M.. J.. "Nonexistence of finite-dimensional filters for conditional statistics of the cubic sensor problem".
Systems & Control Letters. 3: 331–340. Doi:10.1016/0167-691190074-9. Hazewinkel, Michiel. "The algebra of quasi-symmetric functions is free over the integers". Advances in Mathematics. 164: 283–300. Doi:10.1006/aima.2001.2017. Homepage
In mathematics, the free group FS over a given set S consists of all expressions that can be built from members of S, considering two expressions different unless their equality follows from the group axioms. The members of S are called generators of FS. An arbitrary group G is called free if it is isomorphic to FS for some subset S of G, that is, if there is a subset S of G such that every element of G can be written in one and only one way as a product of finitely many elements of S and their inverses. A related but different notion is a free abelian group, both notions are particular instances of a free object from universal algebra. Free groups first arose as examples of Fuchsian groups. In an 1882 paper, Walther von Dyck pointed out that these groups have the simplest possible presentations; the algebraic study of free groups was initiated by Jakob Nielsen in 1924, who gave them their name and established many of their basic properties. Max Dehn realized the connection with topology, obtained the first proof of the full Nielsen–Schreier theorem.
Otto Schreier published an algebraic proof of this result in 1927, Kurt Reidemeister included a comprehensive treatment of free groups in his 1932 book on combinatorial topology. On in the 1930s, Wilhelm Magnus discovered the connection between the lower central series of free groups and free Lie algebras; the group of integers is free. A free group on a two-element set S occurs in the proof of the Banach–Tarski paradox and is described there. On the other hand, any nontrivial finite group cannot be free, since the elements of a free generating set of a free group have infinite order. In algebraic topology, the fundamental group of a bouquet of k circles is the free group on a set of k elements; the free group FS with free generating set. S is a set of symbols, we suppose for every s in S there is a corresponding "inverse" symbol, s−1, in a set S−1. Let T = S ∪ S−1, define a word in S to be any written product of elements of T; that is, a word in S is an element of the monoid generated by T. The empty word is the word with no symbols at all.
For example, if S = T =, a b 3 c − 1 c a − 1 c is a word in S. If an element of S lies next to its inverse, the word may be simplified by omitting the c, c−1 pair: a b 3 c − 1 c a − 1 c ⟶ a b 3 a − 1 c. A word that cannot be simplified further is called reduced; the free group FS is defined to be the group of all reduced words in S, with concatenation of words as group operation. The identity is the empty word. A word is called cyclically reduced, if last letter are not inverse to each other; every word is conjugate to a cyclically reduced word, a cyclically reduced conjugate of a cyclically reduced word is a cyclic permutation of the letters in the word. For instance b−1abcb is not cyclically reduced, but is conjugate to abc, cyclically reduced; the only cyclically reduced conjugates of abc are abc and cab. The free group FS is the universal group generated by the set S; this can be formalized by the following universal property: given any function ƒ from S to a group G, there exists a unique homomorphism φ: FS → G making the following diagram commute: That is, homomorphisms FS → G are in one-to-one correspondence with functions S → G.
For a non-free group, the presence of relations would restrict the possible images of the generators under a homomorphism. To see how this relates to the constructive definition, think of the mapping from S to FS as sending each symbol to a word consisting of that symbol. To construct φ for given ƒ, first note that φ sends the empty word to the identity of G and it has to agree with ƒ on the elements of S. For the remaining words φ can be uniquely extended since it is a homomorphism, i.e. φ = φ φ. The above property characterizes free groups up to isomorphism, is sometimes used as an alternative definition, it is known as the universal property of free groups, the generating set S is called a basis for FS. The basis for a free group is not uniquely determined. Being characterized by a universal property is the standard feature of free objects in universal algebra. In the language of category theory, the construction of the free group is a functor from the category of sets to the category of groups.
This functor is left adjoint to the forgetful functor from groups to sets. Some properties of free groups follow from the definition: Any group G is the homomorphic image of some free group F. Let S be a set of generators of G; the natural map f: F → G is an epimorphism, which proves the claim. Equivalently, G is isomorphic to a quotient group of some free group F; the kernel of φ is a set of relations in the presentation of G. If S can be chosen to be finite here G is called finitely generated. If S has more than one element F is not abelian, in fact the
Encyclopedia of Mathematics
The Encyclopedia of Mathematics is a large reference work in mathematics. It is available in book form and on CD-ROM; the 2002 version contains more than 8,000 entries covering most areas of mathematics at a graduate level, the presentation is technical in nature. The encyclopedia is edited by Michiel Hazewinkel and was published by Kluwer Academic Publishers until 2003, when Kluwer became part of Springer; the CD-ROM contains three-dimensional objects. The encyclopedia has been translated from the Soviet Matematicheskaya entsiklopediya edited by Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov and extended with comments and three supplements adding several thousand articles; until November 29, 2011, a static version of the encyclopedia could be browsed online free of charge online. This URL now redirects to the new wiki incarnation of the EOM. A new dynamic version of the encyclopedia is now available as a public wiki online; this new wiki is a collaboration between the European Mathematical Society. This new version of the encyclopedia includes the entire contents of the previous online version, but all entries can now be publicly updated to include the newest advancements in mathematics.
All entries will be monitored for content accuracy by members of an editorial board selected by the European Mathematical Society. Vinogradov, I. M. Matematicheskaya entsiklopediya, Sov. Entsiklopediya, 1977. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Kluwer, 1994. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 1, Kluwer, 1987. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 2, Kluwer, 1988. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 3, Kluwer, 1989. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 4, Kluwer, 1989. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 5, Kluwer, 1990. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 6, Kluwer, 1990. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 7, Kluwer, 1991. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 8, Kluwer, 1992. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 9, Kluwer, 1993. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Vol. 10, Kluwer, 1994. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Supplement I, Kluwer, 1997. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Supplement II, Kluwer, 2000.
Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Supplement III, Kluwer, 2002. Hazewinkel, M. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics on CD-ROM, Kluwer, 1998. Encyclopedia of Mathematics, public wiki monitored by an editorial board under the management of the European Mathematical Society. List of online encyclopedias Official website Publications by M. Hazewinkel, at ResearchGate
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to
Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society
Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of mathematics published by the American Mathematical Society. As a requirement, all articles must be at most 15 printed pages. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2013 impact factor of 0.840. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society publishes articles from all areas of pure and applied mathematics, including topology, analysis, number theory, logic and statistics; this journal is indexed in the following databases: Mathematical Reviews Zentralblatt MATH Science Citation Index Science Citation Index Expanded ISI Alerting Services CompuMath Citation Index Current Contents / Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society Notices of the American Mathematical Society Journal of the American Mathematical Society Transactions of the American Mathematical Society Official website Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society on JSTOR
Marshall Hall (mathematician)
Marshall Hall, Jr. was an American mathematician who made significant contributions to group theory and combinatorics. He studied mathematics at Yale University, graduating in 1932, he studied for a year at Cambridge University under a Henry Fellowship working with G. H. Hardy, he returned to Yale to take his Ph. D. in 1936 under the supervision of Øystein Ore. He worked in Naval Intelligence during World War II, including six months in 1944 at Bletchley Park, the center of British wartime code breaking. In 1946 he took a position at The Ohio State University. In 1959 he moved to the California Institute of Technology where, in 1973, he was named the first IBM Professor at Caltech, the first named chair in mathematics. After retiring from Caltech in 1981, he accepted a post at Emory University in 1985. Hall died in 1990 in London on his way to a conference to mark his 80th birthday, he wrote a number of papers of fundamental importance in group theory, including his solution of Burnside's problem for groups of exponent 6, showing that a finitely generated group in which the order of every element divides 6 must be finite.
His work in combinatorics includes an important paper of 1943 on projective planes, which for many years was one of the most cited mathematics research papers. In this paper he constructed a family of non-Desarguesian planes which are known today as Hall planes, he worked on block designs and coding theory. His classic book on group theory was well received when it is still useful today, his book Combinatorial Theory came out in a second edition in 1986, published by John Sons. He proposed Hall's conjecture on the differences between perfect squares and perfect cubes, which remains an open problem as of 2015. 1943: "Projective Planes", Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 54: 229–77 doi:10.2307/1990331 1959: The Theory of Groups, Macmillan MR103215 Wilhelm Magnus Review: Marshall Hall, Jr. Theory of Groups Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 66: 144–6. 1964: The Groups of Order 2n n ≤ 6), Macmillan MR168631 Preface: "An exhaustive catalog of the 340 groups of order dividing 64 with detailed tables of defining relations and lattice presentations of each group in the notation the text defines.
"Of enduring value to those interested in finite groups". 1967: Combinatorial Theory, Blaisdell MR224481 Hall, Jr. Marshall, "Mathematical Biography: Marshall Hall Jr.", in Duran, Peter. A Century of mathematics in America, vol 1, Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, pp. 367–374, ISBN 0-8218-0124-4 Zassenhaus, Hans, "Marshall Hall, Jr.: 1910–1990", Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 37: 1033, ISSN 0002-9920, MR 1071446 O'Connor, John J.. Marshall Hall at the Mathematics Genealogy Project