Defective by Design
Defective by Design is an anti-DRM initiative by the Free Software Foundation. DRM technology, known as "digital rights management" technology by its supporters, restricts users' ability to use their purchased movies, literature and hardware in ways they are accustomed to with ordinary non-restricted media; as a result, DRM has been described as "digital restrictions management" or "digital restrictions mechanisms" by opponents. The philosophy of the initiative is that DRM is designed to be deliberately defective, to restrict the use of the product. This, cripples the future of digital freedom; the group aims to target "Big Media, unhelpful manufacturers, DRM distributors" and to bring public awareness of the issue and increase participation in the initiative. It represents one of the first efforts of the Free Software Foundation to find common cause with mainstream social activists, to encourage free software advocates to become involved; as of late 2006, the campaign was claiming over 12,000 registered members.
In August 2018, GOG created an anti-DRM program called "FCK DRM". The homepage of the initiative offers links to the websites of Defective by Design, the EFF, itch.io, Project Gutenberg and other projects that promote free software and free culture. DRM is used to encrypt various multimedia products and is intended to restrict the uses of a product to those the rightsholders intend. Examples of DRM functionality include: limiting or prohibiting duplication of media to prevent copyright infringement or lawful archiving, sharing, of media and encrypting or blocking access to a system's input or output to prevent consumers from using non-licensed products, such as a competitor's hardware or media. DRM can prevent users from duplicating a CD or a DVD, prevent someone watching a DVD from skipping an advertisement, or create problems with interoperability between competing products. Although tech-savvy users are able to find a way around DRM, this can be difficult and may require use of the analog hole.
For others DRM might prevent them from using media in legal ways. In addition to restricting copying of DRM-restricted media, DRM can allow a computer to systematically disobey its owner. Defective By Design is a joint effort by the Free Software Foundation and CivicActions, a company that develops online advocacy campaigns; the chief organizers are Gregory Heller of CivicActions, Peter T. Brown, executive director of the Free Software Foundation, Henry Poole, a CivicActions member, a director of the Free Software Foundation; the campaign was launched in May 2006, with an anti-DRM protest at WinHEC. The protest featured Free Software Foundation members in yellow hazmat suits "handing out pamphlets explaining that Microsoft products are – in the words of the key slogan for the campaign –'defective by design' because of the DRM technologies included in them". Since the campaign has launched a number of actions with varying degrees of success; the campaign claims that its phone-in campaign against the Recording Industry Association of America and related organizations around the world resulted in thousands of calls from people questioning the industry's position on DRM.
On the other hand, efforts to meet with Bono of U2, a prominent supporter of Apple's DRM-regulated iTunes, have so far met with no success. However, four major record labels dropped their pending lawsuits and joined with Apple and Microsoft to eliminate Digital Rights Management from music sales. DefectiveByDesign.org proclaimed October 3, 2006, to be a "Day Against DRM", organized several events outside key Apple stores in the US and the UK. Again hazmat suits were worn by protesters and leaflets were handed out to the public explaining Apple's use of DRM in their iTunes music store and on their iPod media players. On January 30, 2007, the campaign organized along with the BadVista campaign at the Times Square. Protesters in hazmat suits handed literature to attendants about the dangers of Windows Vista's Digital Rights Management and Trusted Computing features, as well as handed over CDs with free software for users to install an alternative to Windows Vista; the Defective by Design site encourages users to use the tagging feature of Amazon.com, Slashdot and on other sites that allow tagging, to mark certain products with the'defectivebydesign' tag.
Items targeted include DVD players, DRM-restricted DVD titles, HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc titles, Windows XP and higher, the Zune, the iPod. Broadcast Protection Discussion Group Free Software Foundation anti-Windows campaigns Hardware restrictions Trusted Computing Official website Stallman, Richard. "Can you trust your computer?". Essay
FSF Free Software Awards
Free Software Foundation grants two annual awards. Since 1998, FSF has granted the award for Advancement of Free Software and since 2005 the Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit. In 1999 it was presented in the Jacob Javits Center in New York City; the 2000 Award Ceremony was held at the Museum of Jewish History in Paris. From 2001 to 2005, the award has been presented in Brussels at the Free and Open source Software Developers' European Meeting. Since 2006, the awards have been presented at the FSF's annual members meeting in Cambridge, Massachusetts; this is annually presented by the Free Software Foundation to a person whom it deems to have made a great contribution to the progress and development of free software, through activities that accord with the spirit of free software. Source: Award for the Advancement of Free Software 1998 Larry Wall for numerous contributions to Free Software, notably Perl; the other finalists were the Apache Project, Tim Berners-Lee, Jordan Hubbard, Ted Lemon, Eric S. Raymond, Henry Spencer.1999 Miguel de Icaza for his leadership and work on the GNOME Project.
The other finalists were Donald Knuth for TeX and METAFONT and John Gilmore for work done at Cygnus Solutions and his contributions to the Free Software Foundation.2000 Brian Paul for his work on the Mesa 3D Graphics Library. The other finalists were Donald Becker for his work on Linux drivers and Patrick Lenz for the open source site Freshmeat.2001 Guido van Rossum for Python. The other finalists were L. Peter Deutsch for GNU Ghostscript and Andrew Tridgell for Samba.2002 Lawrence Lessig for promoting understanding of the political dimension of free software, including the idea that "code is law". The other finalists were Bruno Haible for CLISP and Theo de Raadt for OpenBSD.2003 Alan Cox for his work advocating the importance of software freedom, his outspoken opposition to the USA's DMCA as well as other technology control measures, his development work on the Linux kernel. The other finalists were Theo de Raadt for OpenBSD and Werner Koch for GnuPG.2004 Theo de Raadt for his campaigning against binary blobs, the opening of drivers and firmware of wireless networking cards for the good of everyone.
The other finalists were Andrew Tridgell for Samba and Cesar Brod for advocacy in Brazil.2005 Andrew Tridgell for his work on Samba and his BitKeeper client which led to the withdrawal of gratis BitKeeper licenses, spurring the development of git, a free software distributed revision control system for the Linux kernel. The other finalists were Hartmut Pilch founder of the Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure for his combatting of the Software Patent Directive in Europe and Theodore Ts'o for his Linux kernel filesystem development.2006 Theodore Ts'o for his work on the Linux kernel and his roles as a project leader in the development of Kerberos and ONC RPC. The other finalists were Wietse Venema for his creation of the Postfix mailserver and his work on security tools, Yukihiro Matsumoto for his work in designing the Ruby programming language.2007 Harald Welte for his work on GPL enforcement and Openmoko2008 Wietse Venema For his "significant and wide-ranging technical contributions to network security, his creation of the Postfix email server."2009 John Gilmore For his "many contributions and long term commitment to the free software movement."2010 Rob Savoye For his work on Gnash Additionally, a special mention was made to honor the memory and contribution of Adrian Hands, who used a morse input device to code and submit a gnome patch, three days before he died from ALS.2011 Yukihiro Matsumoto the creator of Ruby, for his work on GNU, other free software for over 20 years.2012 Fernando Pérez for his work on IPython, his role in the scientific Python community.2013 Matthew Garrett for his work to support software freedom in relation to Secure Boot, UEFI, the Linux kernel2014 Sébastien Jodogne for his work on easing the exchange of medical images and developing Orthanc.2015 Werner Koch the founder and driving force behind GnuPG.
GnuPG is the de facto tool for encrypted communication. Society needs more than to advance free encryption technology.2016 Alexandre Oliva for his work in promoting Free Software and the involvement in projects like the maintenance of linux-libre and the reverse engineer of the proprietary software used by Brazilian citizens to submit their taxes to the government.2017 Karen Sandler for her dedication to Free Software as the former Executive Director of GNOME Foundation, current Executive Director of Software Freedom Conservancy, co-organizer of Outreachy, through years of pro bono legal advice.2018 Deborah Nicholson Deborah is the director of community operations at the Software Freedom Conservancy, Stallman praised her body of work and her unremitting and widespread contributions to the free software community. "Deborah continuously reaches out to, engages, new audiences with her message on the need for free software in any version of the future." Source: The Award for Projects of Social Benefit The Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit is an annual award granted by the Free Software Foundation.
In announcing the award, the FSF explained that: This award is presented to the project or team responsible for applying free software, or the ideas of the free software movement, in a project that intentionally and benefits society in other aspects of life. According to Richard Stallman, President of FSF, the award was inspired by the Sahana project, developed, was used, for organising the transfer of aid to tsunami victims in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake; the developers indicated. This is the second
Nagarjuna G. works in the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. His major research interests include Science Education, Cognitive Science and Philosophy of Science and Structure and Dynamics of Knowledge; as an activist he focuses on promoting free knowledge and free software and serves as the chairperson of Free Software Foundation of India. Nagarjuna was born in 1960 in Andhra Pradesh, India. Nagarjuna did M. Sc. in Biology and M. A. in Philosophy from Mumbai and Ph. D. in Philosophy of Science from IIT Kanpur. Some of his areas of interest are semantic web, knowledge organization, AI, philosophy of science, biological roots of knowledge and modelling complex systems with specific interest in cognitive development, he is the author of a specification and implementation of a distributed knowledge base called GNOWSYS. He is an architect of gnowledge.org, a community portal, launched on 2 February 2007. He contributed as a core architect of SELF Platform.
He is guiding four research scholars in the area of science education at HBCSE, TIFR. Nagarjuna is an active member of the Free Software Foundation in India, he is one of the speakers for the FSF. He is a founding member, current chairperson and the member of the board of directors for the Free Software Foundation of India. Nagarjuna has Philosophy of Science, he has created an illustrated exhibition on History of Science at Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education. He teaches graduate courses in History and Philosophy of Science at Homi Bhabha Centre for science Education and Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences. Official Page: Gnowledge Portal: Personal Blog
Open-source software development
Open-source software development is the process by which open-source software, or similar software whose source code is publicly available, is developed by an open-source software project. These are software products available with its source code under an open-source license to study and improve its design. Examples of some popular open-source software products are Mozilla Firefox, Google Chromium, LibreOffice and the VLC media player. Open-source software development has been a large part of the creation of the World Wide Web as we know it, with Tim Berners-Lee contributing his HTML code development as the original platform upon which the internet is now built. In 1997, Eric S. Raymond wrote the Bazaar. In this book, Raymond makes the distinction between two kinds of software development; the first is the conventional closed-source development. This kind of development method is, according like the building of a cathedral; the second is the progressive open-source development, more like "a great babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches out of which a coherent and stable system could emerge only by a succession of miracles."
The latter analogy points to the discussion involved in an open-source development process. Differences between the two styles of development, according to Bar and Fogel, are in general the handling of bug reports and feature requests, the constraints under which the programmers are working. In closed-source software development, the programmers are spending a lot of time dealing with and creating bug reports, as well as handling feature requests; this time is spent on prioritizing further development plans. This leads to part of the development team spending a lot of time on these issues, not on the actual development. In closed-source projects, the development teams must work under management-related constraints that interfere with technical issues of the software. In open-source software development, these issues are solved by integrating the users of the software in the development process, or letting these users build the system themselves. Open-source software development can be divided into several phases.
The phases specified here are derived from al.. A diagram displaying the process-data structure of open-source software development is shown on the right. In this picture, the phases of open-source software development are displayed, along with the corresponding data elements; this diagram is made using the meta-process modeling techniques. There are several ways in which work on an open-source project can start: An individual who senses the need for a project announces the intent to develop a project in public. A developer working on a limited but working codebase, releases it to the public as the first version of an open-source program; the source code of a mature project is released to the public. A well-established open-source project can be forked by an interested outside party. Eric Raymond observed in his essay The Cathedral and the Bazaar that announcing the intent for a project is inferior to releasing a working project to the public. It's a common mistake to start a project when contributing to an existing similar project would be more effective.
To start a successful project it is important to investigate what's there. The process starts with a choice between the adopting of an existing project, or the starting of a new project. If a new project is started, the process goes to the Initiation phase. If an existing project is adopted, the process goes directly to the Execution phase. Several types of open-source projects exist. First, there is the garden variety of software programs and libraries, which consist of standalone pieces of code; some might be dependent on other open-source projects. These projects fill a definite need. Examples of this type of project include the Linux kernel, the Firefox web browser and the LibreOffice office suite of tools. Distributions are another type of open-source project. Distributions are collections of software that are published from the same source with a common purpose; the most prominent example of a "distribution" is an operating system. There are many Linux distributions. There are other distributions, like ActivePerl, the Perl programming language for various operating systems, Cygwin distributions of open-source programs for Microsoft Windows.
Other open-source projects, like the BSD derivatives, maintain the source code of an entire operating system, the kernel and all of its core components, in one revision control system. These operating system development projects integrate their tools, more so than in the other distribution-based systems. There is the book or standalone document project; these items do not ship as part of an open-source software package. The Linux Documentation Project hosts many such projects that document various aspects of the GNU/Linux operating system. There are many other examples of this type of open-source project, it is hard to run an open-source project following a more traditional software development method like the waterfall model, because in these traditional methods it is not allowed to go back to a previous phase. In open-source software development, requirements are gathered before the start of the project. Besi
GNU General Public License
The GNU General Public License is a widely-used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study and modify the software. The license was written by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation for the GNU Project, grants the recipients of a computer program the rights of the Free Software Definition; the GPL is a copyleft license, which means that derivative work can only be distributed under the same license terms. This is in distinction to permissive free software licenses, of which the BSD licenses and the MIT License are widely-used examples. GPL was the first copyleft license for general use; the GPL license family has been one of the most popular software licenses in the free and open-source software domain. Prominent free-software programs licensed under the GPL include the Linux kernel and the GNU Compiler Collection. David A. Wheeler argues that the copyleft provided by the GPL was crucial to the success of Linux-based systems, giving the programmers who contributed to the kernel the assurance that their work would benefit the whole world and remain free, rather than being exploited by software companies that would not have to give anything back to the community.
In 2007, the third version of the license was released to address some perceived problems with the second version that were discovered during its long-time usage. To keep the license up to date, the GPL license includes an optional "any version" clause, allowing users to choose between the original terms or the terms in new versions as updated by the FSF. Developers can omit it; the GPL was written by Richard Stallman in 1989, for use with programs released as part of the GNU project. The original GPL was based on a unification of similar licenses used for early versions of GNU Emacs, the GNU Debugger and the GNU C Compiler; these licenses contained similar provisions to the modern GPL, but were specific to each program, rendering them incompatible, despite being the same license. Stallman's goal was to produce one license that could be used for any project, thus making it possible for many projects to share code; the second version of the license, version 2, was released in 1991. Over the following 15 years, members of the free software community became concerned over problems in the GPLv2 license that could let someone exploit GPL-licensed software in ways contrary to the license's intent.
These problems included tivoization, compatibility issues similar to those of the Affero General Public License—and patent deals between Microsoft and distributors of free and open-source software, which some viewed as an attempt to use patents as a weapon against the free software community. Version 3 was developed to attempt to address these concerns and was released on 29 June 2007. Version 1 of the GNU GPL, released on 25 February 1989, prevented what were the two main ways that software distributors restricted the freedoms that define free software; the first problem was that distributors may publish binary files only—executable, but not readable or modifiable by humans. To prevent this, GPLv1 stated that copying and distributing copies or any portion of the program must make the human-readable source code available under the same licensing terms; the second problem was that distributors might add restrictions, either to the license, or by combining the software with other software that had other restrictions on distribution.
The union of two sets of restrictions would apply to the combined work, thus adding unacceptable restrictions. To prevent this, GPLv1 stated that modified versions, as a whole, had to be distributed under the terms in GPLv1. Therefore, software distributed under the terms of GPLv1 could be combined with software under more permissive terms, as this would not change the terms under which the whole could be distributed. However, software distributed under GPLv1 could not be combined with software distributed under a more restrictive license, as this would conflict with the requirement that the whole be distributable under the terms of GPLv1. According to Richard Stallman, the major change in GPLv2 was the "Liberty or Death" clause, as he calls it – Section 7; the section says that licensees may distribute a GPL-covered work only if they can satisfy all of the license's obligations, despite any other legal obligations they might have. In other words, the obligations of the license may not be severed due to conflicting obligations.
This provision is intended to discourage any party from using a patent infringement claim or other litigation to impair users' freedom under the license. By 1990, it was becoming apparent that a less restrictive license would be strategically useful for the C library and for software libraries that did the job of existing proprietary ones; the version numbers diverged in 1999 when version 2.1 of the LGPL was released, which renamed it the GNU Lesser General Public License to reflect its place in the philosophy. Most "GPLv2 or any version" is stated by users of the license, to allow upgrading to GPLv3. In late 2005, the Free Software Foundation announced work on version 3 of the GPL. On 16 January 2006, the first "discussion draft" of GPLv3 was published, the public consultation began; the public consultation was planned for ni
Free Software Foundation Europe
The Free Software Foundation Europe was founded in 2001 to support all aspects of the free software movement in Europe. FSFE is a charitable registered association under German law, has registered'chapters' in several European countries, it is an official European sister organization of the US-based Free Software Foundation. FSF and FSFE are financially and separate entities. FSFE believes that access to and control of software determines who may participate in a digital society. Therefore, the freedoms to use, copy and redistribute software, as described in The Free Software Definition, are necessary for equal participation in the Information Age; the focus of FSFE's work is political and social with the aim of promoting free software and the ethical, social and commercial values that it implements. In particular, it is promoting free software politically as Europe-based global competence center in dialog with politicians and press. Follows and seeks to influence legal and political activities that are contrary to the goals and values of Free Software.
Provides a contact point and orientational help on all issues regarding Free Software. Works together with lawyers active in the Free Software area in universities and practices in order to follow and influence the legal discourse, it cooperates with lawyers throughout Europe to maximize the legal security of Free Software. Supports and develops projects in the Free Software area the GNU Project, it provides computer resources to Free Software developers to enable them to continue their developments. Helps companies to develop business models based on Free Software or fit existing models to it. To make it easier for companies based on Free Software to be commercially successful, the FSF Europe seeks to broaden the market for Free Software. Helps coordinating and networking other initiatives in the Free Software area. "Public Money? Public Code!" Campaign In September 2017, FSFE launched the "Public Money? Public Code!" Campaign by publishing an open letter signed by other organizations and calling for European and national Members of Parliament to “Implement legislation requiring that publicly financed software developed for the public sector be made publicly available under a Free and Open Source Software licence”.
Among the 150 signing organizations, the campaign is supported by digital rights NGOs like Creative Commons, Open Source Initiative, Electronic Frontier Foundation, EDRi, Chaos Computer Club, national chapters of Wikimedia (Germany, Czech Republic and Italy as well as organizations responsible for the development and maintenance of Free and Open Source Software like OpenSUSE, Tor and Videolan. The campaign was publicly endorsed by more than 18 000 individuals including public figures such as Edward Snowden, Francesca Bria as well as public administrations like the City of Barcelona. Software patents in Europe According to the FSFE, software patents for Europe are being pushed forward by a lobby gathering around the European patent office and the Business Software Alliance, which represents the interests of the largest US companies. Software patents are considered by the FSFE to be a menace to society and economy and FSF Europe is involved in the resistance to such plans. European Union v. Microsoft In 2001 the European Union, through the DG Competition of the European Commission, started investigating Microsoft's dominant position in the desktop operating systems.
The Free Software Foundation Europe was invited by the EC to represent the stance of the Free Software movement. In 2004 FSFE was admitted as an intervening third party in the appeal against the decision of the Commission and representing the Samba Team, was one of the only two interveners to remain active in the proceedings from start to end, it provided strong evidence in court thanks to the effort volunteers like Andrew Tridgell, Jeremy Allison, Volker Lendeke and their lawyer, Carlo Piana. The case is now considered one of the leading cases in European antitrust. World Intellectual Property Organization The World Intellectual Property Organization is one of 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations system of organisations, its role is to administer 24 international treaties dealing with different aspects of limited monopolies on knowledge. As an observer to WIPO and together with a global coalition of other players with similar goals, FSFE is working towards reshaping it as a "World Intellectual Wealth Organisation."FSFE Legal Team The legal branch of FSFE that helps individuals, projects and government agencies find Free Software legal information and support.
FSFE Legal provides compliance, best practice and governance resources in-house, in partnership with FSFE’s associate organisations and through its extensive network of contacts. Its mission is to spread knowledge, solve problems and encourage the long-term growth of Free Software; the FSFE Legal Team is responsible for maintaining the Fiduciary License Agreement, a balanced Contributor License Agreement that makes sure the project remains Free Software. Each month, FSFE publishes a newsletter, in multiple languages, of their activities that can be mentioned in public. From FSFE's published "Self-Conception": "The people of the Free Software Foundation Europe, see ourselves as Europeans from different cultures with the shared goal of co-operatio
Federico Heinz is an Argentinian programmer and Free Software advocate living in London. He is a co-founder and current president of Fundación Vía Libre, a non-profit organization that promotes the free flow of knowledge as a motor for social progress, the use and development of Free Software, he has helped legislators such an Argentina's Ing. Dragan, Dr. Conde, Peru's Dr. Villanueva draft and defend legislation demanding the use of Free Software in all areas of public administration, he works at Google in their UK office. He speaks fluent Spanish and German. A video of Heinz on a panel about public administration Recordings of two talks by Heinz from a Dublin event, April 29th 2006 Personal blog