Ashland is a city in Jackson County, United States. It lies along Interstate 5 16 miles north of the California border and near the south end of the Rogue Valley; the city's population was 20,078 at the 2010 census and was estimated to be 21,117 as of 2017. The city is the home of the Oregon Shakespeare Festival; these are important to Ashland's economy, which depends on restaurants and retail stores that cater to tourists. Lithia Park along Ashland Creek, historic buildings, a paved intercity bike trail provide additional visitor attractions. Ashland called "Ashland Mills", was named after Ashland County, the original home of founder Abel Helman, secondarily for Ashland, where other founders had family connections. Ashland has a mayor-council government assisted by citizen committees, its liberal politics have differed sharply, with much of the rest of southwest Oregon. Prior to the arrival of white settlers in mid-19th century, the Shasta people lived in the valley along Ashland Creek where today's city is located.
Early Hudson's Bay Company hunters and trappers following the Siskiyou Trail passed through the site in the 1820s. In the late 1840s American settlers following the Applegate Trail began passing through the area. By the early 1850s, the Donation Land Claim Act brought many to the Rogue Valley and into conflict with its native people; these violent clashes, known as the Rogue River Wars, continued until 1856. In 1851, gold was discovered at Rich Gulch, a tributary of Jackson Creek, a tent city grew on its banks, today's Jacksonville. Settlers arrived in the Ashland area in January 1852, including Robert B. Hargadine, Sylvester Pease, Abel D. Helman, Eber Emery, others. Helman and Hargadine filed. Helman and Emery built a sawmill along what was called Mill Creek to turn timber into lumber for settlers. In 1854, they and another settler, M. B. Morris, built a second mill, Ashland Flouring Mills, to grind local wheat into flour; the community around the mill became known as "Ashland Mills". A post office was established in Ashland Mills in 1855 with Helman as postmaster.
During the 1860s and 1870s the community grew, establishing a school, businesses, a large employer, Ashland Woolen Mills, which produced clothing and blankets from local wool. In 1871, the Post Office dropped "Mills" from Ashland's name. In 1872 Reverend J. H. Skidmore opened a college, Ashland Academy, a predecessor of Southern Oregon University. In 1887, Portland and San Francisco, were joined by rail at Ashland; until 1926, when most rail service began taking a different route, Ashland thrived on rail trade of local products, including pears and apples. In 1908 the Women's Civic Improvement Club petitioned for the creation of community space along Ashland Creek, which became Ashland Canyon Park; the discovery of lithia water near Emigrant Lake around the same time led to a plan to establish a mineral spa at the park. Voters approved bonds to pay for the project, which included piping the mineral water from its source to Ashland; the town engaged John McLaren, landscape architect of San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, to design the park, renamed Lithia Springs Park shortened to Lithia Park.
Although the park was popular, the mineral spa plans proved too expensive for local taxpayers and were abandoned in 1916. Meanwhile, entrepreneurs took to selling mineral waters from the area's springs. During the Fourth of July celebration in 1935, Angus L. Bowmer arranged the first performances of what would become the Oregon Shakespeare Festival; the festival grew during the 20th century, has become an award-winning and internationally known regional theater company. Many of Ashland's historic buildings have been restored; the city has 48 individual structures and two historic districts on the National Register of Historic Places. The structures include the Enders Building, which from 1910 to 1928 contained the largest mercantile establishment between Sacramento and Portland. Ashland is at 1,949 feet above sea level in the foothills of the Siskiyou and Cascade ranges, about 15 miles north of the California border on Interstate 5. About 10 miles south of Ashland and 5 miles north of the California border is Siskiyou Summit, which at 4,310 feet is the highest point on I-5.
Ashland is about 12 miles southeast of Medford and 285 miles south of Portland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of about 6.6 square miles, all land. Ashland Creek and its tributaries begin on the flanks of Mount Ashland, at 7,533 feet above sea level in the Siskiyou Mountains south of the city. Upstream of the city boundary, these streams flow through the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest; the creek flows through the city to meet Bear Creek, which parallels I-5 along the east side of Ashland. Bear Creek, one of many streams in the Rogue Valley, flows northwest to join the Rogue River near Gold Hill, from there the river flows west to its mouth on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon Route 99, running parallel to I-5, passes through downtown Ashland. Oregon Route 66 intersects Route 99 near the city center. Route 66 leads east 63 miles to Klamath Falls. Ashland lies within Oregon's southwest interior climate zone, in which all but the higher-elevation sites
Billy Don Moyers is an American journalist and political commentator. He served as the ninth White House Press Secretary under the Johnson administration from 1965 to 1967, he worked as a network TV news commentator for ten years. Moyers has been extensively involved with public broadcasting, producing documentaries and news journal programs, he has won numerous awards and honorary degrees for his investigative journalism and civic activities. He has become well-known as a trenchant critic of the corporately structured U. S. news media. Born Billy Don Moyers in Hugo in Choctaw County in southeastern Oklahoma, he is the son of John Henry Moyers, a laborer, Ruby Johnson Moyers. Moyers was reared in Texas, he began his journalism career at 16 as a cub reporter at the Marshall News Messenger in Marshall in East Texas. In college, he studied journalism at the North Texas State College in Texas. In 1954, then-US Senator Lyndon B. Johnson employed him as a summer intern and promoted him to manage Johnson's personal mail.
Soon after, Moyers transferred to the University of Texas at Austin, where he wrote for The Daily Texan newspaper. In 1956, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Journalism. While in Austin, Moyers served as assistant news editor for KTBC radio and television stations, owned by Lady Bird Johnson, wife of then-Senator Johnson. During the academic year 1956–1957, he studied issues of church and state at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland as a Rotary International Fellow. In 1959, he completed a Master of Divinity degree at the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas. Moyers served as Director of Information while attending SWBTS, he was a Baptist pastor in Weir in Williamson County, near Austin. Moyers was ordained in 1954. Moyers planned to enter a Doctor of Philosophy program in American Studies at the University of Texas. During Senator Johnson's unsuccessful bid for the 1960 Democratic U. S. presidential nomination, Moyers served as a top aide, in the general campaign he acted as liaison between Democratic vice-presidential candidate Johnson and the Democratic presidential nominee, U.
S. Senator John F. Kennedy. During the Kennedy Administration, Moyers was first appointed as associate director of public affairs for the newly created Peace Corps in 1961, he served as Deputy Director from 1962 to 1963. When Lyndon B. Johnson took office after the Kennedy assassination, Moyers became a special assistant to Johnson, serving from 1963 to 1967. Moyers is the last surviving person identifiable in the photograph taken of Johnson's first inauguration on Air Force One, he played a key role in organizing and supervising the 1964 Great Society legislative task forces and was a principal architect of Johnson's 1964 presidential campaign. Moyers acted as the President's informal chief of staff from October 1964 until 1966. From July 1965 to February 1967, he served as White House press secretary. After the resignation of White House Chief of Staff Walter Jenkins because of a sexual misdemeanor in the run up to the 1964 election, President Lyndon B. Johnson, alarmed that the opposition was framing the issue as a security breach, ordered Moyers to request FBI name checks on 15 members of Goldwater's staff to find "derogatory" material on their personal lives.
Goldwater himself only referred to the Jenkins incident off the record. The Church Committee stated in 1975 that "Moyers has publicly recounted his role in the incident, his account is confirmed by FBI documents." In 2005, Laurence Silberman claimed. Moyers said. Moyers sought information from the FBI on the sexual preferences of White House staff members, most notably Jack Valenti. Moyers indicated his memory was unclear on why Johnson directed him to request such information, "but that he may have been looking for details of allegations first brought to the president by Hoover."Moyers approved of the infamous "Daisy Ad" against Barry Goldwater in the 1964 presidential campaign. Goldwater blamed him for it, once said of Moyers, "Every time I see him, I get sick to my stomach and want to throw up." The ad is considered the starting point of the modern-day harshly negative campaign ad. Journalist Morley Safer in his 1990 book "Flashbacks" wrote that Moyers and President Johnson met with and "harangued" Safer's boss, CBS president Frank Stanton, about Safer's coverage of the Marines torching Cam Ne village in the Vietnam War.
During the meeting, Safer alleges, Johnson threatened to expose Safer's "communist ties". This was a bluff, according to Safer. Safer says that Moyers was "if not a key player a key bystander" in the incident. Moyers stated that his hard-hitting coverage of conservative presidents Reagan and Bush were behind Safer's 1990 allegations. In The New York Times on April 3, 1966, Moyers offered this insight on his stint as press secretary to President Johnson: "I work for him despite his faults and he lets me work for him despite my deficiencies." On October 17, 1967, he told an audience in Cambridge that Johnson saw the war in Vietnam as his major legacy and, as a result, was insisting on victory at all costs in the face of public opposition. Moyers felt. "I never thought the situation could arise when I would wish for the defeat of LBJ, that makes my current state of mind all the more painful to me," he told them. "I would have to say now: It would depend on who his opponent is."The full details of his rift with Johnson have not been made public but may be discussed in a forthcoming memoir.
Moyers has refused to discuss his experience in the J
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
Roku players, branded as Roku, are a series of online media players manufactured by Roku, Inc. Roku partners provide over-the-top content in the form of channels; the name comes from the Japanese word 六 meaning "six" and was named so because it was the sixth company that Anthony Wood started. A Roku streaming device receives data via a Wi-Fi connection from an Internet router; the data is output via an audio cable, video cable, or an HDMI connector directly on some of the device models. Programming and content for the devices are available from a wide variety of global providers. Roku announced the first Netflix Internet video streaming receiver box—the Roku DVP—on May 20, 2008; the device runs Linux. Before Autumn 2010, three versions of the Roku DVP were available: the Roku SD, HD, HD-XR; the Roku SD only streams standard definition content in 480i format. The Roku HD streams HD content; the Roku SD and HD both built in 802.11 b/g Wi‑Fi. The Roku HD-XR, which streams both SD and HD, as well as Full HD content, adds 802.11a and dual-band 802.11n WiFi support and a USB port on the back.
Roku revamped its lineup of devices in September 2010. The revised HD became the basic model of the line, offering 720p resolution, 802.11g WiFi reception, an HDMI output. The middle of the line model, the XD, added 1080p resolution, an enhanced remote with replay capabilities, single-band wireless-n WiFi; the top-level XD|S offered component video and optical audio outputs, dual-band wireless N, a USB port for playing videos and music. In 2015, Roku announced the company would no longer update the operating system software or provide any support for Roku models manufactured before May, 2011; the company explained that streaming technology has evolved "and so have our Roku streaming players". On July 20, 2011, Roku updated its product lineup with three new boxes. However, the Ethernet connection and remote with motion control for games are available only on the XS model; the Roku Game Remote uses Hillcrest Labs' Freespace motion control technology, so users can control games with natural gestures.
The Netflix application was revamped for the Roku 2 HD, Roku 2 XD and Roku 2 XS. On October 11, 2011, the Roku LT was introduced as a lower cost, stripped down version of the Roku 2 XS. I/O consists of two AV ports, one HDMI, one 3.5" mini plug composite SD analog. The same content capability is available, except it cannot play games, its highest video resolution is 720p. There is no Ethernet port nor microSD card slot; the feature "Roku Search" was added on October 29, 2012. This feature allows users to search movie and TV show titles and directors for multiple services on Roku such as Amazon Video, HBO Go, Netflix; the feature is only available on Roku 2, Roku Streaming Stick, Roku LT, Roku HD, due to technical constraints on earlier models. This feature appears to only work in the USA. On May 14, 2013, an updated software interface was released for second generation Roku units; this is the same interface, introduced with the release of their third generation player. On July 26, 2013, BSkyB launched a Now TV-branded Roku LT, allowing users to stream Now TV content to their television, as well as access content from BBC iPlayer, Demand 5, Sky News.
On March 5, 2013, Roku announced the release of their updated media player, Roku 3, with a faster CPU than the Roku 2 XS, a Wi-Fi Direct remote instead of Bluetooth. The Roku 3 remote includes a headphone jack for a private listening mode. Roku announced two new versions of its streaming set-top boxes, for 2015: Roku 3 has a new remote control, with a microphone for voice search, the Roku 2 has a much faster processor than the old Roku 2, but its remote control no longer has a headphone jack built in; the Roku 3 2015 model number is 4230. The Roku 2 2015 model number is 4210; the naming scheme has caused some confusion among consumers. On October 6, 2015, Roku announced the release of the Roku 4; the new device has 4K video streaming capability, a remote control finder, updated software and hardware that includes support for Wi-Fi 802.11ac. The Roku 4 began shipping in October 2015. On September 26, 2016, Roku revamped their entire streaming player line-up with 5 new models, while the Streaming Stick was held over from the previous generation as a sixth option.
The Roku Premiere+ and Roku Ultra support HDR video using HDR10. In October 2017, Roku introduced its sixth generation of products; the updates included the dropping of the Premiere and Premiere+ models, the introduction of the Streaming Stick+, as well as new processors for the Roku Streaming Stick, Roku Express and Express+. In September 2018, Roku introduced the seventh generation of products. Carrying over from the 2017 sixth generation without any changes are the Express, Express+, Streaming Stick, Streaming Stick+; the Ultra is the same hardware device from 2017, but now comes with JBL premium headphones and is repackaged with a new model number of 4661. Roku has resurrected the Premiere and Premiere+ names, however these two new models bear little resemblance to the 2016 fifth generation Premiere and Premiere+ models; the new Premiere and Premiere+ are based on t
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalization movement, is a social movement critical of economic globalization. The movement is commonly referred to as the global justice movement, alter-globalization movement, anti-globalist movement, anti-corporate globalization movement, or movement against neoliberal globalization. Participants base their criticisms on a number of related ideas. What is shared is that participants oppose large, multinational corporations having unregulated political power, exercised through trade agreements and deregulated financial markets. Corporations are accused of seeking to maximize profit at the expense of work safety conditions and standards, labour hiring and compensation standards, environmental conservation principles, the integrity of national legislative authority and sovereignty; as of January 2012, some commentators have characterized changes in the global economy as "turbo-capitalism", "market fundamentalism", "casino capitalism", as "McWorld".
Many anti-globalization activists do not oppose globalization in general and call for forms of global integration that better provide democratic representation, advancement of human rights, fair trade and sustainable development and therefore feel the term "anti-globalization" is misleading. Supporters believe that by the late 20th century those they characterized as "ruling elites" sought to harness the expansion of world markets for their own interests. In reaction, various social movements emerged to challenge their influence. People opposing globalization believe that international agreements and global financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, undermine local decision-making. Corporations that use these institutions to support their own corporate and financial interests, can exercise privileges that individuals and small businesses cannot, including the ability to: move across borders. Extract desired natural resources. Use a wide variety of human resources.
The movement aims for an end to the legal status of "corporate personhood" and the dissolution of free market fundamentalism and the radical economic privatization measures of the World Bank, the IMF, the World Trade Organization. Activists are opposed to the various abuses which they think are perpetuated by globalization and the international institutions that, they say, promote neoliberalism without regard to ethical standards or environmental protection. Common targets include the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization and free trade treaties like the North American Free Trade Agreement, Free Trade Area of the Americas, the Trans Pacific Trade Agreement, the Multilateral Agreement on Investment and the General Agreement on Trade in Services. In light of the economic gap between rich and poor countries, adherents of the movement claim that free trade without measures to protect the environment and the health and wellbeing of workers will increase the power of industrialized nations.
Proponents of this line of thought refer to the process as polarization and argue that current neo-liberal economic policies have given wealthier states an advantage over developing nations, enabling their exploitation and leading to a widening of the global wealth gap. A report by Jean Ziegler, UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food, notes that "millions of farmers are losing their livelihoods in the developing countries, but small farmers in the northern countries are suffering" and concludes that "the current inequities of the global trading system are being perpetuated rather than resolved under the WTO, given the unequal balance of power between member countries." Activists point to the unequal footing and power between developed and developing nations within the WTO and with respect to global trade, most in relation to the protectionist policies towards agriculture enacted in many developed countries. These activists point out that heavy subsidization of developed nations' agriculture and the aggressive use of export subsidies by some developed nations to make their agricultural products more attractive on the international market are major causes of declines in the agricultural sectors of many developing nations.
Through the Internet, a movement began to develop in opposition to the doctrines of neoliberalism which were manifested in the 1990s when the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development proposed liberalization of cross-border investment and trade restrictions through its Multilateral Agreement on Investment. This treaty was prematurely exposed to public scrutiny and subsequently abandoned in November 1998 in the face of strenuous protest and criticism by national and international civil society representatives. Neoliberal doctrine argued that untrammeled free trade and reduction of public-sector regulation would bring benefits to poor countries and to disadvantaged people in rich countries. Anti-globalization advocates urge that preservation of the natural environment, human rights and democratic institutions are to be placed at undue risk by globalization unless mandatory standards are attached to liberalization. Noam Chomsky stated in 2002 that The term "globalization" has been ap
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site