Liberty, in philosophy, involves free will as contrasted with determinism. In politics, liberty consists of the social and political freedoms to all community members are entitled. In theology, liberty is freedom from the effects of sin, spiritual servitude, as such, the exercise of liberty is subject to capability and limited by the rights of others. Philosophers from earliest times have considered the question of liberty, according to Thomas Hobbes, a free man is he that in those things which by his strength and wit he is able to do is not hindered to do what he hath the will to do. John Locke rejected that definition of liberty, while not specifically mentioning Hobbes, he attacks Sir Robert Filmer who had the same definition. According to Locke, In the state of nature, liberty consists of being free from any power on Earth. People are not under the will or lawmaking authority of others but have only the law of nature for their rule, in political society, liberty consists of being under no other lawmaking power except that established by consent in the commonwealth.
People are free from the dominion of any will or legal restraint apart from that enacted by their own constituted lawmaking power according to the trust put in it. Thus, freedom is not as Sir Robert Filmer defines it, A liberty for everyone to do what he likes, to live as he pleases, freedom is constrained by laws in both the state of nature and political society. Freedom of nature is to be no other restraint but the law of nature. Freedom of people under government is to be under no restraint apart from standing rules to live by that are common to everyone in the society and made by the lawmaking power established in it. Persons have a right or liberty to follow their own will in all things that the law has not prohibited and not be subject to the inconstant, uncertain and arbitrary wills of others. John Stuart Mill, in his work, On Liberty, was the first to recognize the difference between liberty as the freedom to act and liberty as the absence of coercion, the modern concept of political liberty has its origins in the Greek concepts of freedom and slavery.
To be free, to the Greeks, was to not have a master and that was the original Greek concept of freedom. It is closely linked with the concept of democracy, as Aristotle put it, another is that a man should live as he likes. This, they say, is the privilege of a freeman, since, on the other hand and this applied only to free men. In Athens, for instance, women could not vote or hold office and were legally and socially dependent on a male relative, the populations of the Persian Empire enjoyed some degree of freedom. Citizens of all religions and ethnic groups were given the rights and had the same freedom of religion, women had the same rights as men
Union (American Civil War)
The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States, or the Confederacy. All of the Unions states provided soldiers for the U. S. Army, the Border states played a major role as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy. The Northeast provided the resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies. The Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort, the Democratic Party strongly supported the war in 1861 but in 1862 was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the Copperheads. The Democrats made major gains in 1862 in state elections. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio, in 1864 the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket.
The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border, prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers wives, widows and for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered to escape the draft, Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as the North and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was the South. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacys secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America, in foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government.
The term Union occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union. Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV. Even before the war started, the preserve the Union was commonplace. Using the term Union to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the political entity. In comparison to the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war. Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force
Local legends tell of Knight and his men forming the Free State of Jones in the area in and around Jones County, Mississippi, at the height of the war. The nature and extent of the Knight Companys opposition to the Confederate government is disputed among historians, after the war, Knight joined the Republican Party and served in Mississippis Reconstruction government as a deputy US Marshal. Knight has long been a figure in the region, with people divided over his motives. This controversy has been fueled in part by general social opposition to Knights alliances with slaves during the war and they and allies developed a small mixed-race community in southeastern Mississippi. The marriage was considered illegal, as Mississippi had banned interracial marriages before and after the war, Newton Knight was born near the Leaf River in Jones County, Mississippi, in November 1837 to Albert Knight and his wife. His birth year has been recorded by his son, Tom Knight, in a biography as 1830 and his gravestone has his full name as STUART NEWTON KNIGHT born Nov.10,1829 died Feb.16,1922.
But the 1900 census records that Knight was born in November 1837 and this date is consistent with census records from other years, but he may have given the wrong year of his birth to the census takers to hide his family origin. He was probably taught to read and write by his mother, Newton was a grandson of John Jackie Knight, one of Jones Countys largest slaveholders before the war. Newtons father, however, neither owned slaves nor inherited any after his fathers death and his son wrote that he was morally opposed to the institution due to his Primitive Baptist beliefs. In accordance with its teachings, Newton forswore alcohol, unlike his father and grandfather, Newton Knight married Serena Turner in 1858, and the two established a small farm just across the county line in southwest Jasper County, Mississippi. Jones County elected John H. Powell, the cooperation candidate, Powell voted against secession on the first ballot, but under pressure, switched his vote on the second ballot, joining the majority in voting to secede from the Union.
In an interview years later, Knight suggested that many voters of Jones County, not understanding how limited Powells choices were. Knight enlisted in the Confederate Army in July 1861, six months he was given a furlough in order to return home and tend to his ailing father. In May 1862, along with a number of friends and neighbors and they preferred to serve together in the same company, rather than with strangers. Throughout the summer and fall of 1862, a number of factors increased the rate of desertions from the Confederate Army, There was a lack of food and supplies for soldiers in the aftermath of the Siege of Corinth. The men of Jones County and the region were disturbed by news from home reporting the poor conditions, as their wives, Knight was enraged when he received word that Confederate authorities had seized his familys horses for their use. However, many believe Knights principal reason for desertion was his anger over the Confederate governments passing of the Twenty Negro Law and this act allowed large plantation owners to avoid military service if they owned 20 slaves or more.
An additional family member was exempted from service for each additional 20 slaves owned by the planter, Knight had received word that his brother-in-law, who had become the head of the family in Knights absence, was abusing Knights children
The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation is a 1915 American silent epic drama film directed and co-produced by D. W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish. The screenplay is adapted from the novel and play The Clansman and it was released on February 8,1915. Three hours long, the film was presented in two parts separated by an intermission, it was the first 12-reel film in America. The assassination of President Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth is dramatized, there were widespread African-American protests against The Birth of a Nation, such as in Boston, while thousands of white Bostonians flocked to see the film. The NAACP spearheaded a campaign to ban the film. Griffiths indignation at efforts to censor or ban the film motivated him to produce Intolerance the following year. The films release is credited as being one of the events that inspired the formation of the second era Ku Klux Klan at Stone Mountain, Georgia. The Birth of a Nation, along with the trial and lynching of Leo Frank for the 1913 murder of Mary Phagan in Atlanta, was used as a tool for the KKK.
Under President Woodrow Wilson, it was the first American motion picture to be screened at the White House, Griffiths innovative techniques and storytelling power have made The Birth of a Nation one of the landmarks of film history. In 1992, the United States Library of Congress deemed the film culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant, the film follows two juxtaposed families. One is the Northern Stonemans, abolitionist U. S, representative Austin Stoneman, his daughter, and two sons. The other is the Southern Camerons, Dr. Cameron is married to his wife, the couple has three sons and two daughters. Phil, the elder Stoneman son, falls in love with Margaret Cameron, while the visit to the the Cameron estate in South Carolina. Meanwhile, young Ben Cameron idolizes a picture of Elsie Stoneman, during the Civil War, the young men from both families enlist in their respective armies for the war. The younger Stoneman and two of the Cameron brothers are killed in the war, the Cameron women are rescued by Confederate soldiers who rout a Black militia, after an attack on the Cameron home.
Ben Cameron leads a charge at the Siege of Petersburg. But he is wounded and captured. He is taken to a Union hospital in Washington, D. C, during his stay at the hospital, he is told that he will be hanged
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a movement to end the African and Indian slave trade. An abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, soon after his death in 1785, they joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal, freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans, during the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, and Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. France abolished slavery within the French Kingdom in 1315, Haiti achieved independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory.
The northern states in the U. S. all abolished slavery by 1804, the United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia and it was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania, where it was officially abolished by presidential decree in 1981. In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that France signifies freedom and this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Some cases of African slaves freed by setting foot on the French soil were recorded such as example of a Norman slave merchant who tried to sell slaves in Bordeaux in 1571. He was arrested and his slaves were freed according to a declaration of the Parlement of Guyenne which stated that slavery was intolerable in France, born into slavery in Saint Domingue, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became free when his father brought him to France in 1776.
As in other New World colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labour for their sugar plantations in their Caribbean colonies. In addition, French colonists in Louisiane in North America held slaves, particularly in the South around New Orleans, Louis XIVs Code Noir regulated the slave trade and institution in the colonies. It gave unparalleled rights to slaves and it includes the right to marry, gather publicly, or take Sundays off. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions and it forced the owners to instruct them in the Catholic faith, implying that Africans were human beings endowed with a soul, a fact that was not seen as evident until then. It resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free in 1830 and they were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and even slaves. Other free people of colour, such as Julien Raimond, spoke out against slavery, during the Age of Enlightenment, many philosophers wrote pamphlets against slavery and its moral and economical justifications, including Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws or in the Encyclopédie
Matthew David McConaughey is an American actor. He first gained notice for his role in the coming-of-age comedy Dazed and Confused. Matthew McConaughey, the youngest of three boys, was born on November 4,1969 in Uvalde and his mother, Mary Kathleen Kay or KMac, is a former kindergarten teacher and a published author. She was originally from Trenton, New Jersey and his father, James Donald McConaughey, was from Louisiana and ran an oil pipe supply business. He played for the Kentucky Wildcats and the Houston Cougars college football teams, in 1953, Jim McConaughey was drafted in the 27th round by the NFL football team the Green Bay Packers. He was released before the season began and never played a league game in the NFL. Matthews mother and late father married each other three times and his ancestry includes Scottish, Irish and German. He is a relative of Confederate brigadier general Dandridge McRae, McConaughey moved to Longview, Texas in 1980, where he attended Longview High School. He lived for a year in Warnervale, New South Wales, Australia and he attended the University of Texas at Austin, where he joined Delta Tau Delta fraternity.
He began in the fall of 1989 and graduated in the spring of 1993 with a degree in Radio-Television-Film. His original plan had changed as he wanted to attend Southern Methodist University until a brother told him that private school tuition would have been a burden on the family finances. He had planned to attend law school graduation from college. McConaughey began working in commercials, including one for the Austin, Texas daily newspaper, the Austin American-Statesman. The line, How else am I gonna keep up with my Horns, – a reference to his beloved Texas Longhorns sports teams – gave the local community a look at the young actor, before he was cast in Richard Linklaters film Dazed and Confused. In 1992, he was cast as Joe in Trisha Yearwoods video for her hit song Walkaway Joe, in the late 1990s, McConaughey was cast in leading roles in more movies, including Contact, The Newton Boys, EDtv and U-571. By the early 2000s, he was frequently cast in comedies, including The Wedding Planner and How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days.
McConaughey starred in the 2005 feature film Sahara, along with Steve Zahn, prior to the release of the film, he promoted it by sailing down the Amazon River and trekking to Mali. That same year, McConaughey was named People magazines Sexiest Man Alive for 2005, in 2006, he co-starred with Sarah Jessica Parker in the romantic comedy Failure to Launch and as Marshall head football coach Jack Lengyal in We Are Marshall
Robert Lowry (governor)
Robert Lowry was an American politician and a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. Lowry was born in Chesterfield County, South Carolina in 1829 and was raised in Mississippi, during the American Civil War he enlisted as a Private in the Confederate States Army. He quickly received a commission in the 6th Mississippi Infantry Regiment. He commanded the regiment at the Battle of Shiloh where it suffered very heavy casualties. In early 1864 he led the troops that were sent to put down the uprising of citizens near Jones County. Later Lowry commanded a brigade of Mississippi regiments in the Third Corps of the Army of Tennessee, when the war was over, he returned to the practice of law at Brandon. Lowry briefly served in the senate after the war. Massive fraud in the election of 1881 resulted in the election of the subject over the Independent Peoples Party candidate. Between 1882 and 1890 he was the Democratic governor of Mississippi and he could be called a Bourbon Democrat.
The Farmers Alliance movement continued to show local action in Yazoo County, governor Lowry called out the state militia to keep the peace in Leflore County at the end of his term of office. Political activity related to peonage and racial discrimination in the Mississippi delta, rapid industrial development occurred during his administration as well as the founding of the first state-supported womens college at Columbus. Lowry was related to J. A. W. Lowry, list of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Who Was Who in the Civil War, new York, Facts On File,1988. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray, Lives of the Confederate Commanders, baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press,1959
Siege of Vicksburg
The Siege of Vicksburg was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Mississippi, into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River, capturing it completed the part of the Northern strategy. When two major assaults against the Confederate fortifications were repulsed with casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25. With no reinforcement, supplies nearly gone, and after holding out for more than forty days, the successful ending of the Vicksburg Campaign significantly degraded the ability of the Confederacy to maintain its war effort, as described in the Aftermath section of the campaign article. Ballard, p. 308—suggest that the battle in the campaign was actually the Battle of Champion Hill.
This action yielded command of the Mississippi River to the Union forces, attempts to stop the Union advance at Champion Hill and Big Black River Bridge were unsuccessful. Pemberton knew that the corps under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman was preparing to flank him from the north, he had no choice but to withdraw or be outflanked. Pemberton burned the bridges over the Big Black River and took everything edible in his path, both animal and plant, as he retreated to the city of Vicksburg. Grant could now receive supplies more directly than by the previous route, large masses of Union troops were on the march to invest the city, repairing the burnt bridges over the Big Black River, which Grants forces crossed on May 18. Johnston sent a note to his general, asking him to sacrifice the city and save his troops, Washburn, XVII Corps, under Maj. Gen. James B. Pembertons Confederate Army of Mississippi inside the Vicksburg line consisted of four divisions, carter L. Stevenson, John H. Forney, Martin L. Smith, John S.
Bowen. As the Confederate forces approached Vicksburg, Pemberton could put only 18,500 troops in his lines, Grant had over 35,000, with more on the way. However, Pemberton had the advantage of terrain and fortifications that made his defense nearly impregnable, the defensive line around Vicksburg ran approximately 6.5 miles, based on terrain of varying elevations that included hills and knobs with steep angles for an attacker to ascend under fire. The perimeter included many gun pits, trenches, Grant wanted to overwhelm the Confederates before they could fully organize their defenses and ordered an immediate assault against Stockade Redan for May 19. This first attempt was easily repulsed, the assault collapsed in a melee of rifle fire and hand grenades lobbing back and forth. The failed Federal assaults of May 19 damaged Union morale, deflating the confidence the soldiers felt after their string of victories across Mississippi. They were costly, with casualties of 157 killed,777 wounded, the Confederates, assumed to be demoralized, had regained their fighting edge
Twenty Negro Law
The Twenty Negro Law, known as the Twenty Slave Law and the Twenty Nigger Law, was a piece of legislation enacted by the Confederate Congress during the American Civil War. The law addressed Confederate fears of a rebellion due to so many white men being absent from home. The Confederacy enacted the first conscription laws in United States history, though the South exempted several categories of men in occupations related to transportation, the ministry and medicine, it did not exempt overseers. The Conscription Act proved extremely unpopular with many Confederate soldiers and they had done their duty faithfully and well. They wanted to see their families, in fact, wanted to go home anyhow, War had become a reality, they were tired of it. A law had passed by the Confederate States Congress called the conscript act. A soldier had no right to volunteer and to choose the branch of service he preferred, from this time on till the end of the war, a soldier was simply a machine, a conscript. It was mighty rough on rebels and we cursed the war, we cursed Bragg, we cursed the Southern Confederacy.
All our pride and valor had gone, and we were sick of war, when Abraham Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation on September 22,1862, many in the Confederacy believed that the Union president was specifically trying to foment a slave revolt. While this new provision provoked little criticism in some areas of the Confederacy, such as Virginia, it proved extremely unpopular with much of the rank-and-file soldiery in the Confederate army. Sam Watkins writes of his own feelings toward this particular provision and it gave us the blues, we wanted twenty negroes. Negro property suddenly became very valuable, and there was raised the howl of rich mans war, the glory of the war, the glory of the South, the glory and the pride of our volunteers had no charms for the conscript. With the defeat of the Confederacy in 1865, the Twenty Negro Law ceased to exist, Quotations related to American Civil War at Wikiquote Quotations related to Confederate States of America at Wikiquote Quotations related to Slavery at Wikiquote
Keri Lynn Russell is an American actress and dancer. She came to fame for portraying the role of Felicity Porter on the series Felicity, which ran from 1998 to 2002. Russell has since appeared in films including Mission, Impossible III, August Rush, Extraordinary Measures, Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. She currently stars as KGB agent Elizabeth Jennings in the FX television series The Americans for which she received a Primetime Emmy Award, Russell was born in Fountain Valley, the daughter of Stephanie, a homemaker, and David Russell, a Nissan Motors executive. She has a brother, and a younger sister. The family lived in Coppell, Mesa, russells dancing earned her a spot on The Mickey Mouse Club. Russell first appeared on television at age 15 as a cast member of the All-New Mickey Mouse Club variety show on the Disney Channel. She was on the show from 1991 to 1994 and co-starred with future actor Ryan Gosling and future pop stars Christina Aguilera, Britney Spears, JC Chasez, Justin Timberlake, and Tony Lucca.
In 1992, Russell appeared in Honey, I Blew Up the Kid alongside Rick Moranis and in 1993, with Children in a 1995 episode. She subsequently starred in film and television roles, including the 1996 made-for-television film The Babysitters Seduction. That year she had a role on the soap opera series Malibu Shores. In 1994, Russell appeared as the woman in Bon Jovis music video Always with Jack Noseworthy, Carla Gugino. In 1997, she appeared in two episodes of Roar alongside Heath Ledger, from 1998 to 2002, Russell starred as the title character on the successful WB Network series Felicity. She won a Golden Globe for the role in 1999, russells long and curly hair was one of her characters defining characteristics. A drastic hairstyle change at the beginning of the second season was thought to cause a significant drop in the shows television ratings. During the shows run, Russell appeared in the films Eight Days a Week, The Curve and her next role was in the film We Were Soldiers, playing the wife of a United States serviceman during the Vietnam War.
The film was released two months before the end of Felicitys run, when Felicity ended, Russell moved to New York City and made her off-Broadway stage debut in 2004, appearing opposite Jeremy Piven, Andrew McCarthy, and Ashlie Atkinson in Neil LaButes Fat Pig. Directing Mission, Impossible III in 2005, J. J. Abrams asked Russell to join the cast and she was screen tested for the role of Lois Lane in Superman Returns but lost the role to Kate Bosworth
Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2015 population of 463,878. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5,710,795 people, Atlanta is the county seat of Fulton County, and a small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County. In 1837, Atlanta was founded at the intersection of two lines, and the city rose from the ashes of the American Civil War to become a national center of commerce. Atlantas economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include logistics and business services, media operations, Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage. Revitalization of Atlantas neighborhoods, initially spurred by the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the demographics, politics. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area, standing Peachtree, a Creek village located where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta.
As part of the removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek ceded the area in 1821. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western, the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the zero milepost was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points. A year later, the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as Terminus, and as Thrasherville after a merchant who built homes. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed Marthasville to honor the Governors daughter, later, J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlantica-Pacifica, which was shortened to Atlanta. The residents approved, and the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29,1847, by 1860, Atlantas population had grown to 9,554.
During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies, in 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on November 11,1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Armys March to the Sea by ordering Atlanta to be burned to the ground, sparing only the citys churches and hospitals. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was gradually rebuilt, due to the citys superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgias largest city, by 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the citys black colleges had established Atlanta as a center for higher education. In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, during the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth.
In three decades time, Atlantas population tripled as the city expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs