Flood v. Kuhn
Flood v. Kuhn, 407 U. S. 258, was a United States Supreme Court decision upholding, by a 5–3 margin, the antitrust exemption first granted to Major League Baseball in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, it arose from a challenge by St. Louis Cardinals' outfielder Curt Flood when he refused to be traded to the Philadelphia Phillies after the 1969 season, he sought injunctive relief from the reserve clause, which prevented him from negotiating with another team for a year after his contract expired. Named as initial respondents were baseball commissioner Bowie Kuhn, MLB and all of its then-24 member clubs. Although the Court ruled in baseball's favor 5–3, it admitted the original grounds for the antitrust exemption were tenuous at best, that baseball was indeed interstate commerce for purposes of the act and the exemption was an "anomaly" it had explicitly refused to extend to other professional sports or entertainment; that admission set in motion events which led to an arbitrator's ruling nullifying the reserve clause and opening the door for free agency in baseball and other sports.
The opinion has been criticized in several ways. It is seen by some as an overly strict and reflexive reliance on the legal doctrine of stare decisis that made an earlier mistake "uncorrectable"; the text of the decision itself a seven-page introductory encomium to the game and its history by Justice Harry Blackmun that included a lengthy listing of baseball greats, came in for criticism. Some of the other justices, Court observers, felt it was inappropriate for a judicial opinion. At the time of his retirement and death, Blackmun would be remembered for it as much as Roe v. Wade; the reserve clause had been part of baseball contracts since the game's early days. The National League had begun using it in the late 19th century. Team owners realized that if players could go from team to team seeking higher pay, salaries of all players, not just stars, would go up, they feared some teams might have to fold under such competitive pressure, included the reserve clause, so called since a team reserved rights to a player for a year after the contract expired, to limit free agency.
Such collusion in other industries had been ruled to be restraint of trade in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Players had two options to become free agents, they could ask to be released from their contracts, or hold out and refuse to report until the year was up, forfeiting their pay in the process. While star players were able to exercise some leverage this way, most who held out were traded to other teams and wound up making less money. A suit was brought in the 1920s, Federal Baseball Club v. National League, by the owner of the defunct Baltimore Terrapins Federal League team who accused the major leagues of conspiring to crush MLB's one remaining competitor. Instead, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes ruled that baseball, the only professional team sport in the country at the time enjoying wide interest, was exempt since it was not interstate commerce and teams' travel to games in other states was "incidental" to MLB's main business, the staging of baseball games. Although the reserve clause was not part of the case, the exemption meant that the Supreme Court or Congress would have had to say otherwise before it could be voided.
Two possible challenges in the early 1950s failed. Former New York Giants outfielder Danny Gardella sued after baseball teams blacklisted him following his brief stint in the Mexican League. An appeals court overturned an initial verdict for baseball, commissioner Happy Chandler decided to settle rather than risk the overturning of Federal Baseball Club. Shortly afterwards, George Earl Toolson, a pitcher in the New York Yankees' farm system, refused to report to a new minor league team when sent down; the ensuing decision, Toolson v. New York Yankees, let the exemption stand citing lack of congressional interest in repealing it. Justices Harold Hitz Burton and Stanley Forman Reed dissented, saying baseball as it was played met the definition of interstate commerce. A few years when the Court declined to extend the antitrust exemption to professional football in Radovich v. National Football League, it raised some hopes that another challenge to might succeed when it admitted "were we considering the question of baseball for the first time upon a clean slate we would have no doubts" that it was interstate commerce.
1971's Haywood v. National Basketball Association, an emergency appeal issued by Justice William O. Douglas denied that exemption to professional basketball and noted "the decision in this suit would be similar to the one on baseball's reserve clause which our decisions exempting baseball from the antitrust laws have foreclosed". In 1969, Rick Barry of the NBA's San Francisco Warriors became the first major-league professional athlete to challenge the reserve clause in court, he wanted to play for the Oakland Oaks of the rival American Basketball Association, since his father-in-law was the team's coach. His challenge was unsuccessful, but after sitting out a year he signed with the Oaks anyway, the first NBA star to change leagues during the rivalry between them. In 1956, at the age of 18, Flood had, without an agent or attorney to represent or advise him, signed his first professional baseball contract with the Cincinnati Reds. Two years he was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals and became one of the team's stars.
He batted.300 in six of the next 12 seasons, earned seven Gold Glove awards, played in three World S
European Court of Justice
The European Court of Justice just the Court of Justice, is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law. As a part of the Court of Justice of the European Union it is tasked with interpreting EU law and ensuring its equal application across all EU member states; the Court is based in Luxembourg. It is composed of one judge per member state – 28 – although it hears cases in panels of three, five or 15 judges; the court has been led by president Koen Lenaerts since 2015. The court was established in 1952, by the Treaty of Paris as part of the European Coal and Steel Community, it was established with seven judges, allowing both representation of each of the six member States and being an odd number of judges in case of a tie. One judge was appointed from each member state and the seventh seat rotated between the "large Member States", it became an institution of two additional Communities in 1957 when the European Economic Community, the European Atomic Energy Community were created, sharing the same courts with the European Coal and Steel Community.
The Maastricht Treaty was ratified in 1993, created the European Union. The name of the Court did not change unlike the other institutions; the power of the Court resided in the Community pillar. The Court gained power in 1997 with the signing of the Amsterdam Treaty. Issues from the third pillar were transferred to the first pillar; these issues were settled between the member states. Following the entrance into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009, the ECJ's official name was changed from the "Court of Justice of the European Communities" to the "Court of Justice" although in English it is still most common to refer to the Court as the European Court of Justice; the Court of First Instance was renamed as the "General Court", the term "Court of Justice of the European Union" will designate the two courts, as along with its specialised tribunals, taken together. The ECJ is the highest court of the European Union in matters of Union law, but not national law, it is not possible to appeal against the decisions of national courts in the ECJ, but rather national courts refer questions of EU law to the ECJ.
However, it is for the national court to apply the resulting interpretation to the facts of any given case. Although, only courts of final appeal are bound to refer a question of EU law when one is addressed; the treaties give the ECJ the power for consistent application of EU law across the EU as a whole. The court acts as arbiter between the EU's institutions and can annul the latter's legal rights if it acts outside its powers; the judicial body is now undergoing strong growth, as witnessed by its continually rising caseload and budget. The Luxembourg courts received more than 1,300 cases when the most recent data was recorded in 2008, a record; the staff budget hit a new high of €238 million in 2009, while in 2014 €350 million was budgeted. The Court of Justice consists of 28 Judges; the Judges and Advocates-General are appointed by common accord of the governments of the member states and hold office for a renewable term of six years. The treaties require that they are chosen from legal experts whose independence is "beyond doubt" and who possess the qualifications required for appointment to the highest judicial offices in their respective countries or who are of recognised competence.
37% of judges had experience of judging appeals before they joined the ECJ. In practice, each member state nominates a judge whose nomination is ratified by all the other member states; the President of the Court of Justice is elected from and by the judges for a renewable term of three years. The president presides over hearings and deliberations, directing both judicial business and administration, he assigns cases to the chambers for examination and appoints judge as rapporteurs. The Council may appoint assistant rapporteurs to assist the President in applications for interim measures and to assist rapporteurs in the performance of their duties; the post of vice-president was created by amendments to the Statute of the Court of Justice in 2012. The duty of the Vice-President is to assist the President in the performance of his duties and to take the President's place when the latter is prevented from attending or when the office of president is vacant. In 2012, judge Koen Lenaerts of Belgium became the first judge to carry out the duties of the Vice-President of the Court of Justice.
Like the President of the Court of Justice, the Vice-President is elected by the members of the Court for a term of three years. The judges are assisted by eleven Advocates General, whose number may be increased by the Council if the Court so requests; the Advocates General are responsible for presenting a legal opinion on the cases assigned to them. They can question the parties involved and give their opinion on a legal solution to the case before the judges deliberate and deliver their judgment; the intention behind having Advocates General attached is to provide independent and impartial opinions concerning the Court's cases. Unlike the Court's judgments, the written opinions of the Advocates General are the works of a single author and are generally more readable and deal with the legal issues more comprehensively than the Court, limited to the particular matters at hand; the opinions of the Advocates General are advisory and do not bind the Court, but they are nonetheless influential and are followed in the majority of case
Australian Football League
The Australian Football League is the pre-eminent professional competition of Australian rules football. Through the AFL Commission, the AFL serves as the sport's governing body, is responsible for controlling the laws of the game; the league was founded as the Victorian Football League as a breakaway from the previous Victorian Football Association, with its inaugural season commencing in 1897. Comprising only teams based in the Australian state of Victoria, the competition's name was changed to the Australian Football League for the 1990 season, after expanding to other states throughout the 1980s; the league consists of 18 teams spread over five of Australia's six states. Matches have been played in all states and mainland territories of Australia, as well as in New Zealand and China to promote the sport abroad; the AFL season consists of a pre-season competition, followed by a 23-round regular season, which runs during the Australian winter. The team with the best record after the home-and-away series is awarded the "minor premiership."
The top eight teams play off in a four-round finals series, culminating in the AFL Grand Final, held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground each year. The grand final winner is termed the "premiers", is awarded the premiership cup; the current premiers are the West Coast Eagles. The Victorian Football Association was established in 1877 and went on to become Victoria's major Australian rules football competition. During the 1890s, an off-field power struggle occurred between the VFA's stronger and weaker clubs, the former seeking greater administrative control commensurate with their relative financial contribution to the game; this came to a head in 1896 when it was proposed that gate profits, which were always lower in matches involving the weaker clubs, be shared amongst all teams in the VFA. After it was intimated that the proposal would be put to a vote, six of the strongest clubs—Collingwood, Fitzroy, Geelong and South Melbourne—seceded from the VFA, invited Carlton and St Kilda to join them in founding a new competition, the Victorian Football League.
The remaining VFA clubs—Footscray, North Melbourne, Port Melbourne and Williamstown—were given the opportunity to compete as a junior sides at a level beneath the VFL, but rejected the offer and remained for the 1897 VFA season. The VFL's inaugural season occurred in 1897, it made several innovations early on to entice the public's interest, including an annual finals tournament, rather than awarding the premiership to the team with the best record through the season. Although the VFL and the VFA continued to compete for spectator interest for many years, the VFL established itself as the premier competition in Victoria. In 1908, the league expanded to ten teams, with Richmond crossing from the VFA and University Football Club from the Metropolitan Football Association. University, after three promising seasons, finished last each year from 1911 until 1914, including losing 51 matches in a row; as a result, the club withdrew from the VFL at the end of 1914. Beginning sporadically during the late 1890s and from 1907 until World War I, the VFL premier and the premier of the South Australian Football League met in a playoff match for the Championship of Australia.
South Australia's Port Adelaide was the most successful club of the competition winning three titles during the period along with an earlier victory. In 1925, the VFL expanded from nine teams to twelve, with Footscray and North Melbourne each crossing from the VFA. North Melbourne and Hawthorn remained weak in the VFL for a long period. Although North Melbourne would become the first of the 1925 expansion sides to reach a Grand Final in 1950 it was Footscray that adapted to the VFL with the most ease of the three clubs, by 1928 were well off the bottom of the ladder. Between the years of 1927 and 1930, Collingwood became the first, only VFL team, to win four successive Premierships. In 1952, the VFL hosted ` National Day'. Matches were played at the Sydney Cricket Ground, Brisbane Exhibition Ground, North Hobart Oval, Albury Sports Ground and Victorian country towns Yallourn and Euroa. Footscray became the first of the 1925 expansion teams to win the premiership in 1954. Melbourne became a powerhouse during the 1950s and early 1960s under coach Norm Smith and star player Ron Barassi.
The club contested seven consecutive grand finals from 1954 to 1960, winning five premierships, including three in a row from 1955 to 1957. Television coverage began with direct telecasts of the final quarter permitted. At first, several channels competed through broadcasting different games. However, when the VFL found that television was reducing crowds, it decided that no coverage was to be allowed for 1960. In 1961, replays were introduced although direct telecasts were permitted in Melbourne. In 1959, the VFL planned the first purpose built mega-stadium, VFL Park, to give it some independence from the Melbourne Crick
Major League Baseball Players Association
The Major League Baseball Players Association is the collective bargaining representative for all current Major League Baseball players. All players, managers and athletic trainers who hold or have held a signed contract with a Major League club are eligible for membership in the Association; the MLBPA has three major divisions: a labor union, a business, a charitable foundation. The MLBPA serves as a collective bargaining representative for all Major League Baseball players, as well as playing significant roles in MLB-related business and non-profit affairs; the MLBPA's Players Choice group licensing program utilizes collective marketing to assist licensees and sponsors who want to associate their brands and products with that of Major League players and coaches. Through an individual agreement with each player, the MLBPA holds exclusive right to use and sublicense the names, nicknames, likenesses and other personal indicia of active Major League Baseball players who are its members for use in connection with any product, service or product line when more than two players are involved.
Among its other functions, the Players Choice licensing program protects the rights of players from exploitation by unauthorized parties. Major League Baseball players formed the Players Trust, a charitable foundation, the first of its kind in professional sports. Through the Players Trust, Major Leaguers contribute their time and fame to call attention to important issues affecting those in need and to help encourage others to get involved in their own communities. Many programs including Buses for Baseball, City Clinics, Medicines for Humanity, the Players Choice Awards and Volunteers of America are funded through the foundation. In 2003, the Major League Baseball Players Trust and Volunteers of America created the Action Team National Youth Volunteer Program to recruit and train high school students to become volunteers in their communities; the Players Choice Awards is an award ceremony held to recognize each season's best performers, as chosen by the players themselves. Each Players Choice Awards winner designates the charity of his choice to receive a grant from the Player's Trust.
The MLBPA was not the first attempt to unionize baseball players. Earlier attempts had included: Brotherhood of Professional Baseball Players - 1885 Players' Protective Association - 1900 Fraternity of Professional Baseball Players of America - 1912 National Baseball Players Association of the United States - 1922 The American Baseball Guild – 1946 President Bob Feller: 1956–1959Executive Director Frank Scott: May 1, 1959 – 1966 The organization that would become the MLBPA was conceived in 1953. However, it was not recognized as a union until 1966; that year the newly recognized union hired Marvin Miller from the United Steel Workers of America to head the organization, serving as Executive Director until 1983. During Miller's tenure, base salaries, pension funds, licensing rights and revenues increased. In 1968, Miller negotiated the first collective bargaining agreement with the team owners, which raised the minimum salary from $6,000 to $10,000 per year; the 1970 CBA included arbitration to resolve disputes.
In 1972 the major leagues saw their first player strike, in opposition to the owners' refusal to increase player pension funds. In 1974, when owner Charlie Finley failed to make a $50,000 payment into an insurance annuity as called for in Catfish Hunter's contract, the MLBPA took the case to arbitration; the arbitrator ruled. When Andy Messersmith and Dave McNally had their 1974 contracts automatically renewed by their teams, the MLBPA supported them by challenging the reserve clause, used by team owners to bind players to one team. On December 23, 1975, arbitrator Peter Seitz ruled in favour of the players. Following the Seitz decision, the modern free agent system was created, the strength of the union was immeasurably increased. Players and owners failed to come to terms over free agent compensation, which led to another strike in 1981. In the late 1980s and early 1990s the MLBPA filed collusion charges, arguing that team owners had violated the collective bargaining agreement in the 1985–1987 seasons.
The MLBPA won each case, resulting in "second look" free agents, over $269 million in owner fines. After Miller retired, Ken Moffett became the new executive director in December 1982, but in November 1983 he was dismissed, Marvin Miller was named interim director. Donald Fehr was named acting director in December 1983. Miller supported a strong antidrug policy. Ken Moffett: December 9, 1982 – November 22, 1983 Marvin Miller: November 22, 1983 – December 9, 1983 Donald Fehr: December 9, 1983 – December 1985. On June 22, 2009, Fehr announced he would step down, after a transition period and was replaced by the union's general counsel, Michael Weiner. On November 21, 2013, MLBPA Executive Director Michael Weiner died after a 15-month battle with a non-operable brain tumor, he was 51 years old. Tony Clark, the Deputy Executive Director, was named Executive Director on December 2, 2013, the first former major league player to hold the position. In 2016, the MLBPA celebra
Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit
The Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit was a loose association of American football clubs that operated from 1890 to 1940. Amateur, professionalism was introduced to the circuit in 1892. Existing in some form for 48 years, it was one of the longest-lived paying football loops to operate outside the auspices of the National Football League; the football clubs of the 1880s and 1890s were amateur teams. They were under the membership of an athletic club, which provided both sports and the ability to wager money on the sports. However, the prestige and increased membership that could come from a successful team, led these clubs to begin secretly hiring talented players; the amateur athletics that these clubs engaged in were policed by the Amateur Athletic Union. By the mid-1890s allegations of professionalism became known to the AAU; the Allegheny Athletic Association was found guilty of paying cash to players and was permanently barred from any kind of competition with other AAU members.
This punishment would end a team, because their opponents, whether other pros, amateur associations, or colleges, would have stopped playing them. Allegheny defied the AAU in 1896 and created an open professional team. A year the Latrobe Athletic Association, went professional; the misconception that these were amateur athletic club were held to in public when newspapers wrote of players being under contract. To get around this, the circuit teams played for local or regional championships, with the only recognized national champion being the best college football team. However, the winner of the circuit was able to lay claim to a national, but professional, football title from 1890-1903. By 1904, the exodus of pro football talent to the "Ohio League", diminished the region's level of play and the national professional champions, were then claimed by the teams from Ohio. Though a champion was declared by the media and clubs throughout this period, a formal league was not founded until 1920, when several teams from the "Ohio League" and the New York Pro Football League formed the American Professional Football Association.
In 1922 the APFA became the National Football League. The circuit did not die out and in fact experienced a slight renaissance in the 1920s as the Western Pennsylvania Senior Independent Football Conference. 1920s era blue laws in the state of Pennsylvania meant that while the NFL played its games on Sunday, Pennsylvania teams would have to play on Saturday. P. Rooneys were founded in 1921. Records of the Pirates playing other Western Pennsylvania teams continue up to at least 1940, after which point most teams dissolved due to World War II. Erie Veterans Glassport Odds Jeannette Athletic Club J. P. Rooneys McKeesport Olympics Oil City Athletic Club Pitcairn Quakers Pittsburgh Lyceum Several of the teams and individuals, in the circuit, pioneered several historic firsts for professional football; these accomplishments include: William "Pudge" Heffelfinger became the first known professional football player on November 12, 1892. Sport Donnelly became the first known professional football coach in 1893.
A player assumed to be Grant Dibert signed the first known pro football contract, which covered all of the clubs games for the 1893 season. John Brallier became the first professional football player on September 3, 1895 Allegheny Athletic Association fielded the first openly professional team in 1896. Latrobe Athletic Association became the first football team to play a full season with only professionals in 1897. William Chase Temple became the first individual owner of a professional football team in c.1898. The first professional football all-star game held between the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club and players from Western Pennsylvania All-Stars. Adam Martin Wyant was the first professional football player to get elected to the United States Congress in 1921. William "Pudge" Heffelfinger – Allegheny Athletic Association – $500 for one game on November 12, 1892. Ben "Sport" Donnelly – Allegheny Athletic Association – $250 for one game on November 19, 1892. Peter Wright – Allegheny Athletic Association – $50 per game for the entire 1893 season.
James Van Cleve – Allegheny Athletic Association – $50 per game for the entire 1893 season. Ollie Rafferty – Allegheny Athletic Association – $50 per game for the entire 1893 season. Unknown player – Pittsburgh Athletic Club – for the entire 1893 season. Lawson Fiscus – Greenburg Athletic Association – $20 per game for the entire 1894 season. John Brallier – Latrobe Athletic Association – $10 and expenses for one game on September 3, 1895. Peterson, Robert W.. Pigskin: The Early Years of Pro Football. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511913-4. Riffenburgh, Beau & Bob Carroll. "The Birth of Pro Football". Coffin Cor
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Islington, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. It has won 13 League titles, a record 13 FA Cups, two League Cups, the League Centenary Trophy, 15 FA Community Shields, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893, they reached the First Division in 1904. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, have won the second-most top-flight matches in English football history. In the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970 -- 71, they won their first FA Cup Double. Between 1989 and 2005, they won five FA Cups, including two more Doubles, they completed the 20th century with the highest average league position. Herbert Chapman died prematurely, he helped introduce the WM formation and shirt numbers, added the white sleeves and brighter red to Arsenal's kit.
Arsène Wenger won the most trophies. He won a record 7 FA Cups, his title-winning team set an English record for the longest top-flight unbeaten league run at 49 games between 2003 and 2004, receiving the nickname The Invincibles, a special gold Premier League trophy. In 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the club crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, becoming close neighbours of Tottenham Hotspur, creating the North London derby. In 2006, they moved to the nearby Emirates Stadium. In terms of revenue, Arsenal is the ninth highest-earning football club in the world, earned €487.6m in 2016–17 season. Based on social media activity from 2014 to 2015, Arsenal's fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2018, Forbes estimated the club was the third most valuable in England, with the club being worth $2.24 billion. In October 1886, Scotsman David Danskin and his fellow 15 munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with each member contributing sixpence and Danskin adding another three shillings to help form the club.
Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the whole complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C.'s first home was Plumstead Common, though they spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead, at the Manor Ground. Royal Arsenal won Arsenal's first trophies in 1890 and 1891, these were the only football association trophies Arsenal won during their time in South East London. In 1891, Royal Arsenal became the first London club to turn professional. Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893, they registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended that year. Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers and the arrival of more accessible football clubs elsewhere in the city, led the club close to bankruptcy by 1910.
Businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall became involved in the club, sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, North London; this saw their third change of name: the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to The Arsenal. In 1919, The Football League voted to promote The Arsenal, instead of relegated local rivals Tottenham Hotspur, into the newly enlarged First Division, despite only listing the club sixth in the Second Division's last pre-war season of 1914–15; some books have speculated. That year, The Arsenal started dropping "The" in official documents shifting its name for the final time towards Arsenal, as it is known today. With a new home and First Division football, attendances were more than double those at the Manor Ground, Arsenal's budget grew rapidly, their location and record-breaking salary offer lured star Huddersfield Town manager Herbert Chapman in 1925. Over the next five years, Chapman built a new Arsenal.
He appointed enduring new trainer Tom Whittaker, implemented Charlie Buchan's new twist on the nascent WM formation, captured young players like Cliff Bastin and Eddie Hapgood, lavished Highbury's income on stars like David Jack and Alex James. With record-breaking spending and gate receipts, Arsenal became known as the Bank of England club. Transformed, Chapman's Arsenal claimed their first national trophy, the FA Cup, in 1930. Two League Championships followed, in 1930–31 and 1932–33. Chapman presided over multiple off the pitch changes: white sleeves and shirt numbers were added to the kit. In the middle of the 1933–34 season, Chapman died of pneumonia, his work was left to Joe Shaw and George Allison, who saw out a hat-trick with the 1933–34 and 1934–35 titles, won the 1936 FA Cup and 1937–38 title. World War II meant The Football League was suspended for seven years, but Arsenal returned to win it in the second post-war season, 1947–48; this was Tom Whittaker's first season as manager, after his promotion to succeed Allison, the club had equalled the champions of England record.
They won a third FA Cup in 1950, won a record-breaking seven
Notts County F.C.
Notts County Football Club is a professional association football club based in Nottingham, England. They participate in the fourth tier of the English football league system, they are nicknamed the "Magpies" due to the black and white colour of their home strip, which inspired Italian club Juventus to adopt the colours for their kit in 1903. After playing at different home grounds during their first fifty years, including Trent Bridge, the club moved to Meadow Lane in 1910 and have remained there since. Between 2014 and 2017, there was a professional Notts County ladies team, replaced by Notts County Women in May 2018. County hold a rivalry with Nottingham Forest, as well as with other nearby clubs such as Mansfield Town. Founded in 1862, they are the oldest professional association football club in the world, they hold a Football League record 29 combined promotions and relegations; the club predates The Football Association itself and became one of the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888.
They finished third in the 1890–91 season, have never bettered this position. They reached the 1891 FA Cup Final, but finished as runners-up to Blackburn Rovers, they did manage to best this accomplishment three years by winning the 1894 FA Cup Final with a 4–1 victory over Bolton Wanderers. They won the FA Cup as a Second Division side after being relegated the previous year, before gaining promotion by winning the Second Division title in 1896–97, they remained in the First Division until 1920, barring the 1913–14 season when they won the Second Division following relegation the previous year. They won the Second Division for a third time in the 1922–23 campaign, before suffering relegations down to the Third Division South, which they won in their first attempt in 1930–31. Back in the Third Division South by World War II, they were again promoted as champions in 1949–50 and spent most of the 1950s in the second tier before successive relegations into the Fourth Division, which they won promotion out of as runners-up in 1959–60.
They returned to the fourth tier by 1964 and went on to win the Fourth Division title in the 1970–71 season, before securing promotion out of the Third Division under the stewardship of Jimmy Sirrel in 1972–73. They made their return to the top-flight by finishing as runners-up of the Second Division in 1980–81. Relegated after a three season stay, they ended the decade back in the third tier, before Neil Warnock masterminded play-off successes in 1990 and 1991 that saw them promoted back into the first tier; however they were relegated, thus missing out on the first-ever season of Premier League football. They managed to finish the season as champions. Following a financial crisis they were relegated again in 2004, before they won the League Two title in 2009–10 admist a takeover from a Middle Eastern consortium that fell through despite great publicity and initial expectations. Notts County is the oldest professional league club in the world, having been formed in 1862. Notts pre-dated The Football Association and played a game of its own devising, rather than association football.
At the time of its formation, Notts County, like most sports teams, were considered to be a "gentlemen-only" club. Notts County are considered to be one of the pioneers of the modern game and are the oldest of the world's professional association football clubs. In November 1872, the Notts County full-back Ernest Greenhalgh played for England against Scotland in the first-ever international match, thereby becoming the club's first international player. In 1888, Notts County, along with 11 other football clubs, became a founding member of The Football League, they finished their first league season in 11th place, but avoided the dubious honour of the wooden spoon, which went to Midlands rivals Stoke. However, Notts County did achieve their highest league finish of third in 1890–91, an achievement they repeated 10 seasons later. On 25 March 1891, Notts County reached the FA Cup final for the first time; the Magpies were defeated 3–1 by Blackburn Rovers at The Oval, despite having beaten the same side 7–1 in the league only a week earlier.
County made up for this on 31 March 1894, when they won the FA Cup at Goodison Park, defeating Bolton Wanderers 4–1 in a game in which Jimmy Logan scored the second hat-trick in FA Cup final history. This achievement is memorable for Notts County becoming the first club outside the top division to win the FA Cup: Notts County finished third in Division Two that season. In 1910 they moved to Meadow Lane. County were relegated in 1926 in what was to be their last season in the English top flight for over half a century; the 1925–26 season was the last season that famed giant goalkeeper Albert Iremonger played for the club. Legend among Notts County supporters it has been said he had "hands like the claws of a JCB and was a seven foot tall monster"; the club suspended all fixtures during the 1941–42 season after Meadow Lane was hit by enemy bombing. In the 1946–47 season, the ground was used temporarily by Nottingham Forest after the River Trent flooded both Meadow Lane and the City Ground. Forest again used Meadow Lane in 1968.
The'golden age' of the club came just after the end of World War II. County stunned the footballing world by signing Tommy Lawton from Chelsea for £20,000 a then-record fee. Lawton's arrival increased crowds by over 10,000. One incident during this period saw 10,000 fans locked outside the ground. In the 1949–5