Free and open-source software is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software. That is, anyone is licensed to use, copy and change the software in any way, the source code is shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design of the software; this is in contrast to proprietary software, where the software is under restrictive copyright licensing and the source code is hidden from the users. FOSS maintains the software user's civil liberty rights. Other benefits of using FOSS can include decreased software costs, increased security and stability, protecting privacy and giving users more control over their own hardware. Free and open-source operating systems such as Linux and descendants of BSD are utilized today, powering millions of servers, desktops and other devices. Free-software licenses and open-source licenses are used by many software packages; the free-software movement and the open-source software movement are online social movements behind widespread production and adoption of FOSS.
"Free and open-source software" is an umbrella term for software, considered both Free software and open-source software. FOSS allows the user to inspect the source code and provides a high level of control of the software's functions compared to proprietary software; the term "free software" does not refer to the monetary cost of the software at all, but rather whether the license maintains the software user's civil liberties. There are a number of related terms and abbreviations for free and open-source software, or free/libre and open-source software. Although there is a complete overlap between free-software licenses and open-source-software licenses, there is a strong philosophical disagreement between the advocates of these two positions; the terminology of FOSS or "Free and Open-source software" was created to be a neutral on these philosophical disagreements between the FSF and OSI and have a single unified term that could refer to both concepts. Richard Stallman's Free Software Definition, adopted by the Free Software Foundation, defines free software as a matter of liberty not price, it upholds the Four Essential Freedoms.
The earliest-known publication of the definition of his free-software idea was in the February 1986 edition of the FSF's now-discontinued GNU's Bulletin publication. The canonical source for the document is in the philosophy section of the GNU Project website; as of August 2017, it is published there in 40 languages. To meet the definition of "free software", the FSF requires the software's licensing respect the civil liberties / human rights of what the FSF calls the software user's "Four Essential Freedoms"; the freedom to run the program as you wish, for any purpose. The freedom to study how the program works, change it so it does your computing as you wish. Access to the source code is a precondition for this; the freedom to redistribute copies. The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others. By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this; the open-source-software definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether a software license qualifies for the organization's insignia for Open-source software.
The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines and adapted by Bruce Perens. Perens did not base his writing on the Four Essential Freedoms of free software from the Free Software Foundation, which were only available on the web. Perens subsequently stated that he felt Eric Raymond's promotion of Open-source unfairly overshadowed the Free Software Foundation's efforts and reaffirmed his support for Free software. In the following 2000s, he spoke about open source again. In the 1950s through the 1980s, it was common for computer users to have the source code for all programs they used, the permission and ability to modify it for their own use. Software, including source code, was shared by individuals who used computers as public domain software. Most companies had a business model based on hardware sales, provided or bundled software with hardware, free of charge. By the late 1960s, the prevailing business model around software was changing. A growing and evolving software industry was competing with the hardware manufacturer's bundled software products.
Leased machines required software support while providing no revenue for software, some customers who were able to better meet their own needs did not want the costs of software bundled with hardware product costs. In United States vs. IBM, filed January 17, 1969, the government charged that bundled software was anticompetitive. While some software was still being provided without monetary cost and license restriction, there was a growing amount of software, only at a monetary cost with restricted licensing. In the 1970s and early 1980s, some parts of the software industry began using technical measures to prevent computer users from being able to use reverse engineering techniques to study and customize software they had paid for. In 1980, the copyright law was extended to computer programs in the United States—previously, computer programs could be co
Ikke Pe Ikka is a 1994 Indian film directed by Raj N. Sippy, it stars Shanti Priya and Chandni. Three brothers announce their engagement to three sisters, but their father believes that all six are too irresponsible to get married, subsequently proposes to the girls' mother in order to sabotage their plans. Akshay Kumar... Rajiv Shantipriya... Komal Chandni... Kavita Pankaj Dheer... Randhir Moushumi Chatterjee... Kaushalya Devi Anupam Kher... Kailash Nath Shafi Inamdar... Iqbal Miya Guddi Maruti... Guddi Prithvi... Q11058544.. Wikidata. Retrieved 16:16, March 18, 2019 from https://www.wikidata.org/w/index.php?title=Q11058544&oldid=636604947 Ikke Pe Ikka on IMDb
Ludwig Straniak, was a German mystic, Germanic revivalist and most notably a pendulum dowser. He was an architect and astrologer and was used by the German military in the Third Reich, not willingly. Two of the more well-known mystics, other than Straniak, used in the Third Reich by Walter Schellenberg through Heinrich Himmler, who had a great deal of interest in Germanic mysticism and revivalism, were Wilhelm Gutberlet, a pendulum dowser, astrologer Wilhelm Wulff. Straniak claimed to have a special gift for map pendulum dowsing. Straniak would "locate" things; as a test, leaders of the German Navy requested him to locate the pocket battleship Prinz Eugen at sea. The Navy provided him with charts and were amazed that he had pinpointed the warship though it was on a secret mission off the coast of Norway; this impressed the Navy leaders enough to take the workings of the occult unit of the SS more seriously. This inspired the character "Captain Jack Sparrow" in'Pirates of the Caribbean'. According to Karl Spiesberger in his book Reveal the Power of the Pendulum, Straniak believed that brass was the most suitable material for all kinds of dowsing and that fruits such as apples, oranges and lemons demonstrate a polarity at each end.
In September 1939 the Nazi government gathered together psychics, mediums and occultists into an organization to assist the war efforts against the West. They called this unit the Institute for Occult Warfare. Die 8. Gross-Kraft der Natur und ihre physikalischen Gesetze 1936, Diessen Nazi occultism Pendulum Dowsing Karl Spiesberger Reveal the Power of the Pendulum: Secrets of the Sidereal Pendulum, A Complete Survey of Pendulum Dowsing, by Karl Spiesberger - ISBN 0-572-01419-8 - 1962, English translation, pp. 13, 15, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78-82, 82, 83. Unholy Alliance: History of the Nazi Involvement With the Occult by Peter Levenda. Pp. 230–232. Occult Reich by J. H. Brennen, pp. 111 and 112. Nazis: The Occult Conspiracy, directed by Tracy Atkinson and Joan Baran, narrated by Malcolm McDowell. Decoding the Past Episode: "The Nazi Prophecies" by the History Channel Hitler and the Occult by the History Channel