Biel/Bienne is a town and a municipality in the Biel/Bienne administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Biel/Bienne is on the boundary between the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, and is throughout bilingual. Biel is the German name for the town, Bienne its French counterpart, the town is often referred to in both languages simultaneously. Since January 1,2005, the name has been Biel/Bienne. Until then, the city was officially named Biel, Neuchâtel and Bern lie west and southeast of Biel/Bienne. They all can be reached in about 30 minutes, either by train or by car, the city has about 55,000 inhabitants and in 2014 the agglomeration had almost 106,000. The shoreline of Lake Biel has been inhabited since at least the neolithic, the remains of two neolithic settlements were found at Vingelz in 1874. The remains of the settlements became the Vingelz / Hafen archaeological site, east of the Vingelz site, a late Bronze Age settlement was discovered. After the Roman conquest, the region was part of Germania Superior, during the Roman era the Roman road from Petinesca to Pierre Pertuis or Salodurum passed through the village of Mett, which is now part of Biel/Bienne.
The foundations of buildings and a 4th-century cemetery in Mett come from a late Roman or a medieval military guard station. A theory holds that the toponym is derived from the name of Belenus, however, no surviving records or inscriptions confirm this theory. Another theory states that the town grew up around a late Roman fortress, while no trace of the fortress has been found, the foundations of several Roman buildings have been found east of the medieval town. The town is mentioned in 1142 as apud belnam, which is taken as evidence for its derivation from Belenus, in popular etymology, the name has been connected with the German name for axe, reflected in the two crossed axes in the citys coat of arms. In the 5th century, the area was invaded by the Burgundians, during the 6th or 7th century, the Germanic speaking Alamanni moved into the area around Lake Biel, creating the language boundary that exists today. By the 8th century, the German-speaking population became the majority on the east end of the lake, in 999 Rudolph III of Burgundy granted lands around Lake Biel to the Bishopric of Basel, during the formative period of the Holy Roman Empire.
Through the Bishop of Basel, the Counts of Neuchâtel and the Counts of Neuchâtel-Nidau began to exercise their power in the foothills of the Jura Mountains. In 1140 the counts built Nidau Castle in the village of Nidau to help secure their land on the eastern end of the lake. The town was built by the Bishop of Basel, Heinrich II von Thun
Nationalism is a complex, multidimensional concept involving a shared communal identification with ones nation. It is contrasted by Anti-nationalism as a political ideology oriented towards gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, Nationalism therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism therefore seeks to preserve the nations culture and it often involves a sense of pride in the nations achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism. In these terms, nationalism can be considered positive or negative, from a political or sociological outlook, there are three main paradigms for understanding the origins and basis of nationalism. The first, known as Primordialism or Perennialism, sees nationalism as a natural phenomenon and it holds that although the concept nationhood may be recent, nations have always existed. The third, and most dominant paradigm is Modernism, which sees nationalism as a recent phenomenon that needs the structural conditions of society in order to exist.
There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation and this anomie results in a society or societies reinterpreting identity, retaining elements that are deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, in order to create a unified community. Nationalism means devotion for the nation and it is a sentiment that binds the people together. National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths, Nationalism is a newer word, in English the term dates from 1844, although the concept is older. It became important in the 19th century, the term increasingly became negative in its connotations after 1914. Glenda Sluga notes that The twentieth century, a time of disillusionment with nationalism, was the great age of globalism. Nationalism is the term used to characterize the modern sense of national political autonomy. For example, German nationalism emerged as a reaction against Napoleonic control of Germany as the Confederation of the Rhine around 1805–14, linda Colley in Britons, Forging the Nation 1707–1837 explores how the role of nationalism emerged about 1700 and developed in Britain reaching full form in the 1830s.
The early emergence of a popular patriotic nationalism took place in the mid-18th century, National symbols, myths and narratives were assiduously constructed by nationalists and widely adopted. The Union Jack was adopted in 1801 as the national one, Thomas Arne composed the patriotic song Rule, Britannia. in 1740, and the cartoonist John Arbuthnot invented the character of John Bull as the personification of the English national spirit in 1712. The political convulsions of the late 18th century associated with the American, the Prussian scholar Johann Gottfried Herder originated the term in 1772 in his Essay on the Origins of Language. Stressing the role of a common language, the political development of nationalism and the push for popular sovereignty culminated with the ethnic/national revolutions of Europe. During the 19th century nationalism became one of the most significant political and social forces in history, napoleons conquests of the German and Italian states around 1800–06 played a major role in stimulating nationalism and the demands for national unity
Right-wing populism is a political ideology that rejects the current political consensus and often combines laissez-faire and anti-elitism. It is considered populism because of its appeal to the man as opposed to the elites. Right wing populism in the Western world, is associated with ideologies such as New Nationalism, anti-globalization, protectionism. Although extreme right-wing movements in the US have been studied separately, other populist parties have links to fascist movements founded during the interwar period when Italian, Hungarian and Japanese fascism rose to power. Since the early 2010s, right wing populist movements such as the National Front in France, the Party for Freedom in the Netherlands, and UK Independence Party began to grow in popularity. In large part because of increasing opposition to immigration from the Middle East and Africa, rising euroscepticism, President Donald Trumps 2016 political views have been summarized by pundits as right wing populist and nationalist.
Also, unlike traditional parties, they do not belong to organizations of like-minded parties. One commonality though is that they are more right-wing than other parties on the left–right axis. Scholars use terminology inconsistently, sometimes referring to right-wing populism as radical right or other such as New Nationalism. Republican Party and Conservative Party of Canada include right-wing populist factions, Canada has a history of right-wing populist protest parties and politicians, most notably in Western Canada due to Western alienation. The highly successful Social Credit Party of Canada consistently won seats in British Columbia, Alberta, in recent years, right-wing populism exists within factions of the Conservative Party of Canada and is most notably espoused by Kellie Leitch, Kevin OLeary and the now-deceased Rob Ford. In 2016, the Czech Republic warned that Russia tries to divide, the Austrian Freedom Party established in 1955 by a former Nazi functionary claims to represent a Third Camp, beside the Socialist Party and the social Catholic Austrian Peoples Party.
It succeeded the Federation of Independents founded after World War II, from 1980, the Freedom Party adopted a more liberal stance. Upon the 1983 federal election it entered a government with the Socialist Party. The liberal interlude however ended, when Jörg Haider was elected chairman in 1986, by his down-to-earth manners and patriotic attitude, Haider re-integrated the partys nationalist base voters. Nevertheless, he was able to obtain votes from large sections of population disenchanted with politics by publicly denouncing corruption. The electoral success was boosted by Austrias accession to the EU in 1995, upon the 1999 federal election the Freedom Party with 26. 9% of the votes cast became the second strongest party in the National Council parliament. Having entered a government with the Peoples Party, Haider had to face the disability of several FPÖ ministers
National Council (Switzerland)
The National Council is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, the upper house being the Council of States. With 200 seats, the National Council is the larger of the two houses, adult citizens elect the councils members, who are called National Councillors for four year terms. These members are apportioned to the Swiss cantons in proportion to their population, both houses meet in the Federal Palace of Switzerland in Berne. With 200 members, the National Council is the house of the Swiss legislature. When the Swiss federation was founded in 1848, the number of seats was not yet fixed, according to the provisions of the federal constitution at that time, a canton was to receive one National Council member for every 20,000 citizens. Thus, the first National Council, which met in 1848, had 111 members, in 1963, the number of members was fixed at 200. The division of the seats between the individual cantons is determined by each percentage of the national population, as revealed in the national census.
A change in the division of the seats occurred in 2003, every canton is entitled to at least one seat in the National Council. Elections are held for the National Council every four years by the Swiss people, the most recent election took place on Sunday,18 October 2015. Since a popular initiative in 1918, elections have been by proportional representation, since 1971 women have been entitled to vote and stand in National Council elections. There is a proviso that each canton is entitled to at least one seat, the number of seats given to the cantons which are entitled to more than one seat is determined using the largest remainder method. Cantons which can are only entitled to send one councillor to the National Council, the cantons use a unique system of proportional representation, sometimes called a free list. Each citizen may cast as many votes as there are available to their constituency. For every vote received by a candidate, that candidates party receives a vote, voters list a party vote, in which all blank candidate votes contribute towards the parties total.
In elections, political parties publish lists in the cantons with their candidates, each list contains at most the number of candidates which the canton is entitled to send to the National Council. It is possible for one or more candidates to be listed twice, in addition, each party can produce multiple lists to the canton. It is possible for parties to enter a single shared list. Voters are entitled to choose a party list without making changes or they can alter it by cumulative voting or panachage
Swiss People's Party
The Swiss Peoples Party, known as the Democratic Union of the Centre, is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Albert Rösti, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, the SVP initially didnt witness any increased support beyond that of the BGB, retaining around 11% of the vote through the 1970s and 1980s. In line with the changes fostered by Blocher, the party started to focus increasingly on issues such as euroscepticism, when Blocher failed to win re-election as a Federal Councillor in 2007, moderates within the party split off, forming the Conservative Democratic Party. The early origins of the SVP go back to the late 1910s, while the Free Democratic Party had earlier been a popular party for farmers, this changed during World War I when the party had mainly defended the interests of industrialists and consumer circles. By 1929, the coalition of parties had gained enough influence to get one of their leaders, Rudolf Minger.
In 1936, a party was founded on the national level, called the Party of Farmers, Traders. During the 1930s, the BGB entered the mainstream of Swiss politics as a conservative party in the bourgeois bloc. In the partys fight against left-wing ideologies, sections of party officials and farmers voiced understanding, after World War II, the BGB contributed to the establishment of the characteristic Swiss post-war consensual politics, social agreements and economic growth policies. The party continued to be a political partner with the Swiss Conservative Peoples Party. In 1971, the BGB changed its name to the Swiss Peoples Party after it merged with the Democratic Party from Glarus, as the Democratic Party had represented centrist, social-liberal positions, the course of the SVP shifted towards the political centre following internal debates. The new party continued to see its level of support at around 11%. Blocher soon consolidated his power in Zürich, and began to renew the organisational structures, campaigning style and political agenda of the local branch.
The young members of the party was boosted with the establishment of a cantonal Young SVP in 1977 and this was contrasted with the stable level in the other cantons, although the support stagnated in Zürich through the 1980s. The struggle between the SVPs largest branches of Bern and Zürich continued into the early 1990s, while the Bern-oriented faction represented the old moderate style, the Zürich-oriented wing led by Christoph Blocher represented a new radical right-wing populist agenda. The Zürich wing began to politicise asylum issues, and the question of European integration started to dominate Swiss political debates and they adopted more confrontational methods. During the 1990s, the party doubled its number of cantonal branches. In 1991, the party for the first time became the strongest party in Zürich, the party broke through in the early 1990s in both Zürich and Switzerland as a whole, and experienced dramatically increasing results in elections. From being the smallest of the four governing parties at the start of the 1990s, at the same time, the party expanded its electoral base towards new voter demographics
Schaffhausen is a town in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name, it has an estimated population of 34,587 as of December 2008. The official language of Schaffhausen is the Swiss variety of Standard German, the old portion of the city has many fine Renaissance era buildings decorated with exterior frescos and sculpture, as well as the impressive old canton fortress, the Munot. A train runs out of town to the nearby Rhine Falls in Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Europes largest waterfall, the town is first mentioned in 1045 as Villa Scafhusun. There are at least two theories on the origin of this name, one is related to a mention of a ford across the Rhine River that first occurs in 1050. This ford may actually refer to a scapha or skiff which was used to disembark goods coming from Constance to move them around the Rhine Falls, the name Scafhusun arose from the scapha used at that point. Another theory is that Scafhusun comes from Schaf, as a ram formed the ancient arms of the town, derived from those of its founders, the counts of Nellenburg.
The blazon of the coat of arms is Or on a Base Vert issuant from sinister a Semi Castle Argent with tower with entrance from which is issuing a Semi Ram Sable. The canting coat of arms refers to the interpretation of the name. Schaffhausen was a city state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins from 1045, about 1050 the counts of Nellenburg founded the Benedictine monastery of All Saints, which became the centre of the town. Perhaps as early as 1190, certainly in 1208, it was a free city. The powers of the abbot were gradually limited and in 1277 the Emperor Rudolf I gave the town a charter of liberties, in 1330 the emperor Louis of Bavaria pledged it to the Habsburgs. In the early 15th century, Habsburg power over the city waned, by 1411 the guilds ruled the city. Then, in 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, as a result of the ban and Fredericks need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418.
The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454, Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1501. The Reformation was adopted, initially, in 1524 and completely in 1529, the town was heavily damaged during the Thirty Years War by the passage of Swedish and Bavarian troops and the very important bridge was burnt down. It was not until the early 19th century that the industrial development of the town made a fresh start. In 1857 the first railroad, the Rheinfall-Bahn running from Winterthur, Schaffhausen is located in a finger of Swiss territory surrounded on three sides by Germany. On 1 April 1944 Schaffhausen suffered a raid by United States Army Air Forces aircraft which strayed from German airspace into neutral Switzerland due to navigation errors
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions. Most long-standing spectra include a wing and left wing, which originally referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament after the Revolution. According to the simplest left–right axis and socialism are usually regarded internationally as being on the left, liberalism can mean different things in different contexts, sometimes on the left, sometimes on the right. Those with an intermediate outlook are classified as centrists or moderates, politics that rejects the conventional left–right spectrum is known as syncretic politics. Political scientists have noted that a single left–right axis is insufficient for describing the existing variation in political beliefs. As seen from the Speakers seat at the front of the Assembly, the aristocracy sat on the right, the defining point on the ideological spectrum was the Ancien Régime.
The Right thus implied support for aristocratic or royal interests, and the church, while The Left implied support for republicanism and civil liberties. Because the political franchise at the start of the revolution was relatively narrow, the original Left represented mainly the interests of the bourgeoisie and their political interests in the French Revolution lay with opposition to the aristocracy, and so they found themselves allied with the early capitalists. However, this did not mean that their interests lay with the laissez-faire policies of those representing them politically. As capitalist economies developed, the aristocracy became less relevant and were replaced by capitalist representatives. This evolution has often pulled parliamentary politicians away from laissez-faire economic policies, for almost a century, social scientists have considered the problem of how best to describe political variation. In 1950, Leonard W. Submitting the results to factor analysis and this system was derived empirically, rather than devising a political model on purely theoretical grounds and testing it, Fergusons research was exploratory.
As a result of method, care must be taken in the interpretation of Fergusons three factors, as factor analysis will output an abstract factor whether an objectively real factor exists or not. Although replication of the Nationalism factor was inconsistent, the finding of Religionism and Humanitarianism had a number of replications by Ferguson, shortly afterward, Hans Eysenck began researching political attitudes in Great Britain. He believed that there was something similar about the National Socialists on the one hand. Submitting this value questionnaire to the process of factor analysis used by Ferguson. Such analysis produces a factor whether or not it corresponds to a real-world phenomenon, Eysencks dimensions of R and T were found by factor analyses of values in Germany and Sweden and Japan. According to Eysenck, members of both ideologies were tough-minded, in this context, Eysenck carried out studies on nazism and communist groups, claiming to find members of both groups to be more dominant and more aggressive than control groups
Voting in Switzerland
Voting in Switzerland is the process by which Swiss citizens make decisions about governance and elect officials. The polling stations are opened on Saturdays and Sunday mornings but most people vote by post in advance, at noon on Sunday, voting ends and the results are usually known at the end of the afternoon. Direct democracy allows any citizen to challenge any law approved by the parliament or, at any time, in addition, in most cantons all votes are cast using paper ballots that are manually counted. Federal and municipal issues are polled simultaneously, and a majority of votes are cast by mail, between January 1995 and June 2005, Swiss citizens voted 31 times, to answer 103 questions. The most frequent themes are healthcare, welfare, drug policy, public transport, asylum, voter turnout in parliamentary elections saw a continuous decline since the 1970s, down to an all-time low of 42. 2% in 1995. In recent years however, voter participation has been slowly growing again and was at 48. 5% in 2011, the average turnout for referendums was at 49. 2% in 2011.
Voting can be done through hand counts, mail-in ballots, visits to polling booths, or, more recently, until 1971 some cantons punished citizens for not voting. In the canton of Schaffhausen, voting is still compulsory and this is one reason for the turnout there being usually a little higher than in the rest of the country. There are no voting machines in Switzerland, all votes are counted by hand, every municipality randomly recruits a number of citizens who have the duty of counting the ballots, but penalties for disobeying this duty have become rare. Vote counting is usually accomplished within five or six hours, but in cities, such as Zurich or Geneva. Voters are not required to register before elections in Switzerland, since every person living in the country must register with the municipality within two weeks of moving to a new place, the municipalities know the addresses of their citizens. Approximately two months before the date they send voters a letter containing an envelope, the ballot itself.
The booklet on the referendums includes texts by both the council and the proponents of each referendum, allowing them to promote their position. Once the voter has filled out his/her ballot these are put into a return envelope provided in the package. This first anonymous envelope and a signed transmission card that identify the voter is put into the return envelope sent back to the municipality. The return envelope is in fact the shipping envelope with an opening strip that allow it to be reused to send back the vote. Many voters, especially in villages and small cities, put the return envelope directly into the municipality mailbox, others return it by post, although not having to pay the postage. Once received at the municipality, the card is checked to verify the right of the voter
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since used to describe a wide range of views. There is no set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place. Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a range of issues. In contrast to the definition of conservatism, political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism primarily in terms of a general defense of social. In Great Britain, conservative ideas emerged in the Tory movement during the Restoration period, Toryism supported a hierarchical society with a monarch who ruled by divine right. Tories opposed the idea that sovereignty derived from the people, and rejected the authority of parliament, Robert Filmers Patriarcha, or the Natural Power of Kings, published posthumously in 1680 but written before the English Civil War of 1642–1651, became accepted as the statement of their doctrine.
However, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 destroyed this principle to some degree by establishing a government in England. Faced with defeat, the Tories reformed their movement, now holding that sovereignty was vested in the three estates of Crown and Commons rather than solely in the Crown, Toryism became marginalized during the long period of Whig ascendancy in the 18th century. Conservatives typically see Richard Hooker as the father of conservatism, along with the Marquess of Halifax, David Hume. Halifax promoted pragmatism in government, whilst Hume argued against political rationalism and utopianism, Burke served as the private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham and as official pamphleteer to the Rockingham branch of the Whig party. Together with the Tories, they were the conservatives in the late 18th century United Kingdom, Burkes views were a mixture of liberal and conservative. He supported the American Revolution of 1765–1783 but abhorred the violence of the French Revolution and he insisted on standards of honor derived from the medieval aristocratic tradition, and saw the aristocracy as the nations natural leaders.
That meant limits on the powers of the Crown, since he found the institutions of Parliament to be better informed than commissions appointed by the executive and he favored an established church, but allowed for a degree of religious toleration. Burke justified the order on the basis of tradition, tradition represented the wisdom of the species and he valued community. Burke was a leading theorist in his day, finding extreme idealism an endangerment to broader liberties, despite their influence on future conservative thought, none of these early contributors were explicitly involved in Tory politics. Hooker lived in the 16th century, long before the advent of toryism, whilst Hume was an apolitical philosopher, Burke described himself as a Whig. Shortly after Burkes death in 1797, conservatism revived as a political force as the Whigs suffered a series of internal divisions