Norman Percevel Rockwell was an American author and illustrator. His works have a broad popular appeal in the United States for their reflection of American culture. Rockwell is most famous for the cover illustrations of everyday life he created for The Saturday Evening Post magazine over nearly five decades. Among the best-known of Rockwell's works are the Willie Gillis series, Rosie the Riveter, The Problem We All Live With, Saying Grace, the Four Freedoms series, he is noted for his 64-year relationship with the Boy Scouts of America, during which he produced covers for their publication Boys' Life and other illustrations. These works include popular images that reflect the Scout Oath and Scout Law such as The Scoutmaster, A Scout is Reverent and A Guiding Hand, among many others. Norman Rockwell was a prolific artist. Most of his works are either in public collections, or have been destroyed in fire or other misfortunes. Rockwell was commissioned to illustrate more than 40 books, including Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn as well as painting the portraits for Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy and Nixon, as well as those of foreign figures, including Gamal Abdel Nasser and Jawaharlal Nehru.
His portrait subjects included Judy Garland. One of his last portraits was of Colonel Sanders in 1973, his annual contributions for the Boy Scouts calendars between 1925 and 1976, were only overshadowed by his most popular of calendar works: the "Four Seasons" illustrations for Brown & Bigelow that were published for 17 years beginning in 1947 and reproduced in various styles and sizes since 1964. He painted six images for Coca-Cola advertising. Illustrations for booklets, posters, sheet music, playing cards, murals rounded out Rockwell's œuvre as an illustrator. Rockwell's work was dismissed by serious art critics in his lifetime. Many of his works appear overly sweet in the opinion of modern critics the Saturday Evening Post covers, which tend toward idealistic or sentimentalized portrayals of American life; this has led to the often-deprecatory adjective, "Rockwellesque". Rockwell is not considered a "serious painter" by some contemporary artists, who regard his work as bourgeois and kitsch.
Writer Vladimir Nabokov stated that Rockwell's brilliant technique was put to "banal" use, wrote in his book Pnin: "That Dalí is Norman Rockwell's twin brother kidnapped by Gypsies in babyhood". He is called an "illustrator" instead of an artist by some critics, a designation he did not mind, as, what he called himself. In his years, Rockwell began receiving more attention as a painter when he chose more serious subjects such as the series on racism for Look magazine. One example of this more serious work is The Problem We All Live With, which dealt with the issue of school racial integration; the painting depicts a young black girl, Ruby Bridges, flanked by white federal marshals, walking to school past a wall defaced by racist graffiti. This painting was displayed in the White House when Bridges met with President Obama in 2011. Norman Rockwell was born on February 3, 1894, in New York City, to Jarvis Waring Rockwell and Anne Mary "Nancy" Rockwell, born Hill, his earliest American ancestor was John Rockwell, from Somerset, who immigrated to colonial North America in 1635, aboard the ship Hopewell and became one of the first settlers of Windsor, Connecticut.
He had Jarvis Waring Rockwell, Jr. older by a year and a half. Jarvis Waring, Sr. was the manager of the New York office of a Philadelphia textile firm, George Wood, Sons & Company, where he spent his entire career. Rockwell transferred from high school to the Chase Art School at the age of 14, he went on to the National Academy of Design and to the Art Students League. There, he was taught by Thomas Fogarty, George Bridgman, Frank Vincent DuMond; as a student, Rockwell was given small jobs of minor importance. His first major breakthrough came at age 18 with his first book illustration for Carl H. Claudy's Tell Me Why: Stories about Mother Nature. After that, Rockwell was hired as a staff artist for Boys' Life magazine. In this role, he received 50 dollars' compensation each month for one completed cover and a set of story illustrations, it is said to have been his first paying job as an artist. At 19, he became the art editor for Boys' Life, published by the Boy Scouts of America, he held the job for three years, during which he painted several covers, beginning with his first published magazine cover, Scout at Ship's Wheel, which appeared on the Boys' Life September edition.
Rockwell's family moved to New York, when Norman was 21 years old. They shared a studio with the cartoonist Clyde Forsythe. With Forsythe's help, Rockwell submitted his first successful cover painting to the Post in 1916, Mother's Day Off, he followed that success with Circus Barker and Strongman, Gramps at the Plate, Redhead Loves Hatty Perkins, People in a Theatre Balcony, Man Playing Santa. Rockwell was published eight times on the Post cover within the first year. Rockwell published 323 original cover
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1936, it responded to needs for relief and recovery from the Great Depression. Major federal programs included the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Civil Works Administration, the Farm Security Administration, the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Social Security Administration, they provided support for farmers, the unemployed and the elderly. The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply. New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt; the programs focused on what historians refer to as the "3 Rs": relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy back to normal levels and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
The New Deal produced a political realignment, making the Democratic Party the majority with its base in liberal ideas, the South, traditional Democrats, big city machines and the newly empowered labor unions and ethnic minorities. The Republicans were split, with conservatives opposing the entire New Deal as hostile to business and economic growth and liberals in support; the realignment crystallized into the New Deal coalition that dominated presidential elections into the 1960s while the opposing conservative coalition controlled Congress in domestic affairs from 1937 to 1964. By 1936, the term "liberal" was used for supporters of the New Deal and "conservative" for its opponents. From 1934 to 1938, Roosevelt was assisted in his endeavors by a "pro-spender" majority in Congress. In the 1938 midterm election and his liberal supporters lost control of Congress to the bipartisan conservative coalition. Many historians distinguish between a First New Deal and a Second New Deal, with the second one more liberal and more controversial.
The First New Deal dealt with the pressing banking crises through the Emergency Banking Act and the 1933 Banking Act. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration provided $500 million for relief operations by states and cities, while the short-lived CWA gave locals money to operate make-work projects in 1933–1934; the Securities Act of 1933 was enacted to prevent a repeated stock market crash. The controversial work of the National Recovery Administration was part of the First New Deal; the Second New Deal in 1935–1938 included the Wagner Act to protect labor organizing, the Works Progress Administration relief program, the Social Security Act and new programs to aid tenant farmers and migrant workers. The final major items of New Deal legislation were the creation of the United States Housing Authority and the FSA, which both occurred in 1937; the FSA was one of the oversight authorities of the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, which administered relief efforts to Puerto Rican citizens affected by the Great Depression.
The economic downturn of 1937–1938 and the bitter split between the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations labor unions led to major Republican gains in Congress in 1938. Conservative Republicans and Democrats in Congress joined in the informal conservative coalition. By 1942–1943, they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and the CCC and blocked major liberal proposals. Nonetheless, Roosevelt turned his attention to the war effort and won reelection in 1940–1944. Furthermore, the Supreme Court declared the NRA and the first version of the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional, but the AAA was rewritten and upheld. Republican president Dwight D. Eisenhower left the New Deal intact expanding it in some areas. In the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society used the New Deal as inspiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs, which Republican Richard Nixon retained. However, after 1974 the call for deregulation of the economy gained bipartisan support.
The New Deal regulation of banking lasted. Several New Deal programs remain active and those operating under the original names include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority; the largest programs still in existence today are the Social Security System and the Securities and Exchange Commission. From 1929 to 1933 manufacturing output decreased by one third, which economists call the Great Contraction. Prices fell by 20 %. Unemployment in the United States increased from 4% to 25%. Additionally, one-third of all employed persons were downgraded to working part-time on much smaller paychecks. In the aggregate 50% of the nation's human work-power was going unused. Before the New Deal, there was no insurance on deposits at banks; when thousands of banks closed, depositors lost their savings as at that time there was no national safety net, no public unemployment insurance and no Social Security.
Relief for the poor was the respons
Fourth inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt
The fourth inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President of the United States was held on Saturday, January 20, 1945; the inauguration marked the commencement of the fourth term of Franklin D. Roosevelt as president and the only term of Harry S. Truman as Vice President; this was the only time a president has been inaugurated for a fourth term. Roosevelt died 82 days into this term, Truman succeeded to the presidency. Due to austerity measures in effect during World War II, the inauguration was held on the South Portico of the White House, rather than the Capitol; the parade and other festivities were canceled as well. The oath was administered by Chief Justice Harlan F. Stone and the subsequent address was one of the shortest on record; this was the last time that the outgoing Vice President swore in his successor, the practice. Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt First inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt Second inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt Third inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt United States presidential election, 1944 Newsreel footage of Roosevelt's 1945 inauguration from C-SPAN Text of Roosevelt's Fourth Inaugural Address Audio of Roosevelt's Fourth Inaugural Address
Public Works Administration
Public Works Administration, part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, it was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges and schools, its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, again in 1938. Called the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, it was renamed the Public Works Administration in 1935 and shut down in 1944; the PWA spent over $7 billion in contracts to private construction firms. It created an infrastructure that generated national and local pride in the 1930s and remains vital eight decades later; the PWA was much less controversial than its rival agency with a confusingly similar name, the Works Progress Administration, headed by Harry Hopkins, which focused on smaller projects and hired unemployed unskilled workers.
Frances Perkins had first suggested a federally financed public works program, the idea received considerable support from Harold L. Ickes, James Farley, Henry Wallace. After having scaled back the initial cost of the PWA, Franklin Delano Roosevelt agreed to include the PWA as part of his New Deal proposals in the "Hundred Days" of spring 1933; the PWA headquarters in Washington planned projects, which were built by private construction companies hiring workers on the open market. Unlike the WPA, it did not hire the unemployed directly. More than any other New Deal program, the PWA epitomized the progressive notion of "priming the pump" to encourage economic recovery. Between July 1933 and March 1939 the PWA funded and administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects including airports, large electricity-generating dams, major warships for the Navy, bridges, as well as 70% of the new schools and one-third of the hospitals built in 1933–1939. Streets and highways were the most common PWA projects, as 11,428 road projects, or 33% of all PWA projects, accounted for over 15% of its total budget.
School buildings, 7,488 in all, came in second at 14% of spending. PWA functioned chiefly by making allotments to the various Federal agencies. For example, it provided funds for the Indian Division of the CCC to build roads and other public works on and near Indian reservations; the PWA became, with its "multiplier-effect" and first two-year budget of $3.3 billion, the driving force of America’s biggest construction effort up to that date. By June 1934, the agency had distributed its entire fund to 13,266 federal projects and 2,407 non-federal projects. For every worker on a PWA project two additional workers were employed indirectly; the PWA accomplished the electrification of rural America, the building of canals, bridges, streets, sewage systems, housing areas, as well as hospitals and universities. The PWA electrified the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington, DC. At the local level it built courthouses, schools and other public facilities that remain in use in the 21st century.
Lincoln Tunnel in New York City Overseas Highway connecting Key West, Florida, to the mainland Triborough Bridge Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge Bourne Bridge Sagamore Bridge Hoover Dam Fort Peck Dam Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state Pensacola Dam Mansfield Dam Tom Miller Dam Upper Mississippi River lock & dams List of New Deal airports The PWA created three Greenbelt communities based on the ideas of Ebenezer Howard which are now the municipalities of Greenbelt, Greenhills and Greendale, Wisconsin. The PWA was the centerpiece of the New Deal program for building public housing for the poor people in cities; however it did not create as much affordable housing as supporters would have hoped, building only 29,000 units in 4 1⁄2 years. The PWA spent over $6 billion, but did not succeed in returning the level of industrial activity to pre-depression levels. Though successful in many aspects, it has been acknowledged that the PWA's objective of constructing a substantial number of quality, affordable housing units was a major failure.
Some have argued that because Roosevelt was opposed to deficit spending, there was not enough money spent to help the PWA achieve its housing goals. Reeves argues that the competitive theory of administration used by Roosevelt proved to be inefficient and produced delays; the competition over the size of expenditure, the selection of the administrator, the appointment of staff at the state level, led to delays and to the ultimate failure of PWA as a recovery instrument. As director of the budget, Lewis Douglas overrode the views of leading senators in reducing appropriations to $3.5 billion and in transferring much of that money to other agencies in lieu of their own specific appropriations. The cautious and penurious Ickes won out over the more imaginative Hugh S. Johnson as chief of public works administration. Political competition between rival Democratic state organizations and between Democrats and Progressive Republicans led to delays in implementing PWA efforts on the local level. Ickes instituted quotas for hiring skilled and unskilled black people in construction financed through the Public Works Administration.
Resistance from employers and unions was overcome by negotiations and implied
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a historic document, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France. Of the 58 members of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor, none against, eight abstained, two did not vote; the Declaration consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights which, although not binding in themselves, have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, economic transfers, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions, other laws. The Declaration was the first step in the process of formulating the International Bill of Human Rights, completed in 1966, came into force in 1976, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified them; some legal scholars have argued that because countries have invoked the Declaration for more than 50 years, it has become binding as a part of customary international law. However, in the United States, the Supreme Court in Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, concluded that the Declaration "does not of its own force impose obligations as a matter of international law."
Courts of other countries have concluded that the Declaration is not in and of itself part of domestic law. The underlying structure of the Universal Declaration was introduced in its second draft, prepared by René Cassin. Cassin worked from a first draft, prepared by John Peters Humphrey; the structure was influenced by the Code Napoléon, including a preamble and introductory general principles. Cassin compared the Declaration to the portico of a Greek temple, with a foundation, four columns, a pediment; the Declaration consists of a preamble and thirty articles: The preamble sets out the historical and social causes that led to the necessity of drafting the Declaration. Articles 1–2 established the basic concepts of dignity, liberty and brotherhood. Articles 3–5 established other individual rights, such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery and torture. Articles 6–11 refer to the fundamental legality of human rights with specific remedies cited for their defence when violated. Articles 12–17 established the rights of the individual towards the community.
Articles 18–21 sanctioned the so-called "constitutional liberties", with spiritual and political freedoms, such as freedom of thought, opinion and conscience, peaceful association of the individual. Articles 22–27 sanctioned an individual's economic and cultural rights, including healthcare. Article 25 states: "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing and medical care and necessary social services." It makes additional accommodations for security in case of physical debilitation or disability, makes special mention of care given to those in motherhood or childhood. Articles 28–30 established the general ways of using these rights, the areas in which these rights of the individual can not be applied, that they can not be overcome against the individual; these articles are concerned with the duty of the individual to society and the prohibition of use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the United Nations Organisation.
During World War II, the Allies adopted the Four Freedoms—freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from fear, freedom from want—as their basic war aims. The United Nations Charter "reaffirmed faith in fundamental human rights, dignity and worth of the human person" and committed all member states to promote "universal respect for, observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, language, or religion"; when the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany became apparent after World War II, the consensus within the world community was that the United Nations Charter did not sufficiently define the rights to which it referred. A universal declaration that specified the rights of individuals was necessary to give effect to the Charter's provisions on human rights. In June 1946, the UN Economic and Social Council established the Commission on Human Rights, comprising 18 members from various nationalities and political backgrounds; the Commission, a standing body of the United Nations, was constituted to undertake the work of preparing what was conceived as an International Bill of Rights.
The Commission established a special Universal Declaration of Human Rights Drafting Committee, chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, to write the articles of the Declaration. The Committee met in two sessions over the course of two years. Canadian John Peters Humphrey, Director of the Division of Human Rights within the United Nations Secretariat, was called upon by the United Nations Secretary-General to work on the project and became the Declaration's principal drafter. At the time, Humphrey was newly appointed as Director of the Division of Human Rights within the United Nations Secretariat. Other well-known members of the drafting committee included René Cassin of France, Charles Malik of Lebanon, P. C. Chang of the Republic of China. Humphrey provided the initial draft. According to Allan Carlson, the Declaration's pro-family phrases were the result of the Christian Democratic movement's influence on Cassin and Malik. Once the Committee finished its work in May 1948, the draft was further discussed by the Commission on Human Rights, the Economic and Social Council, the Third Committee of the General Assembly before being put to vote in December 1948.
During these discussions many amendments and propositions were made by UN Member States. British re
Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt
The presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt began on March 4, 1933, when he was inaugurated as the 32nd President of the United States, ended upon his death on April 12, 1945, a span of 12 years, 39 days. Roosevelt assumed the presidency in the midst of the Great Depression. Starting with his landslide victory over Republican President Herbert Hoover in the 1932 election, he would go on to win a record four presidential terms, became a central figure in world affairs during World War II, his program for relief and reform, known as the New Deal, involved a great expansion of the role of the federal government in the economy. Under his steady leadership, the Democratic Party built a "New Deal Coalition" of labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans, rural white Southerners, that would realign American politics for the next several decades in the Fifth Party System and define modern American liberalism. During his first hundred days in office, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented major legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform.
After his party's success in the 1934 mid-term elections, Roosevelt passed another package of domestic legislation that created Social Security, a national unemployment insurance program, the National Labor Relations Board. After winning re-election, Roosevelt sought to enlarge the Supreme Court, but his proposal was defeated in Congress. Roosevelt experienced less success in passing domestic legislation in his second term, as the bipartisan Conservative Coalition blocked most of his legislative proposals, aside from the Fair Labor Standards Act; when the war began and unemployment became a non-issue, Congress repealed the major relief programs, but many other New Deal programs and agencies remained intact. The international situation declined in the 1930s as Japan and Nazi Germany all made aggressive moves towards other countries. Though many in the United States were isolationist, Roosevelt gave diplomatic and financial support to China, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union via initiatives such as the Lend-Lease program.
The United States entered the war after Japan attacked the U. S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins, with strong national support, Roosevelt worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allies during World War II. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, the war saw the end of the massive unemployment that characterized the Great Depression. Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and the development of the world's first nuclear bomb. Roosevelt's health declined during the war years, he died in April 1945. Though he died months before the end of the war, his work on the post-war order shaped the new United Nations and the Bretton Woods international financial system. Roosevelt was succeeded by Vice President Harry S. Truman, who presided over the end of the war in September 1945.
It was on Roosevelt's watch that the Democratic Party was returned to dominance, prosperity returned, two great military enemies were destroyed. Scholars and the public rank Roosevelt alongside Abraham Lincoln and George Washington as one of the three greatest U. S. presidents. With the economy ailing after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, many Democrats hoped that the party would win its first presidential election since Woodrow Wilson's victory in 1916. Roosevelt's 1930 gubernatorial re-election victory in New York established him as the front-runner for the 1932 Democratic presidential nomination. With the help of allies such as Louis Howe, James Farley, Edward M. House, Roosevelt rallied the progressive supporters of Wilson while appealing to many conservatives, establishing himself as the leading candidate in the South and West. Roosevelt entered the convention with a delegate lead due to his success in the 1932 Democratic primaries, but most delegates entered the convention unbound to any particular candidate.
The chief opposition to Roosevelt's candidacy came from Northeastern conservatives such as Al Smith, the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee. Smith hoped to deny Roosevelt the two-thirds support necessary to win the party's presidential nomination at the 1932 Democratic National Convention, emerge as the nominee after multiple rounds of balloting. On the first presidential ballot of the convention, Roosevelt received the votes of more than half but less than two-thirds of the delegates, with Smith finishing in a distant second place. Speaker of the House John Nance Garner, who controlled the votes of Texas and California, threw his support behind Roosevelt after the third ballot, Roosevelt clinched the nomination on the fourth ballot. With little input from Roosevelt, Garner won the party's vice presidential nomination. Roosevelt flew in from New York after learning that he had won the nomination, becoming the first major party presidential nominee to accept the nomination in person. In the general election, Roosevelt faced incumbent Republican President Herbert Hoover.
Engaging in a cross-country campaign, Roosevelt promised to increase the federal government's role in the economy and to lower the tariff as part of a "New Deal." Hoover argued that the economic collapse had chiefly been the product of international disturbances, he accused Roosevelt of promoting class conflict with his novel economic policies. Un
National Recovery Administration
The National Recovery Administration was a prime New Deal agency established by U. S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933; the goal was to eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices. The NRA was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act and allowed industries to get together and write "codes of fair competition." The codes were intended to reduce "destructive competition" and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours, as well as minimum prices at which products could be sold. The NRA had a two-year renewal charter and was set to expire in June 1935 if not renewed; the NRA, symbolized by the Blue Eagle, was popular with workers. Businesses that supported the NRA put the symbol in their shop windows and on their packages, though they did not always go along with the regulations entailed. Though membership to the NRA was voluntary, businesses that did not display the eagle were often boycotted, making it seem mandatory for survival to many.
In 1935, the U. S. Supreme Court unanimously declared that the NRA law was unconstitutional, ruling that it infringed the separation of powers under the United States Constitution; the NRA stopped operations, but many of its labor provisions reappeared in the National Labor Relations Act, passed the same year. The long-term result was a surge in the growth and power of unions, which became a core of the New Deal Coalition that dominated national politics for the next three decades; as part of the "First New Deal," the NRA was based on the premise that the Great Depression was caused by market instability and that government intervention was necessary to balance the interests of farmers and labor. The NIRA, which created the NRA, declared that codes of fair competition should be developed through public hearings, gave the Administration the power to develop voluntary agreements with industries regarding work hours, pay rates, price fixing; the NRA was put into operation by an executive order, signed the same day as the passage of the NIRA.
New Dealers who were part of the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt saw the close analogy with the earlier crisis handling the economics of World War I, they brought ideas and experience from the government controls and spending of 1917–18. In his June 13, 1933 "Statement on the National Industrial Recovery Act," President Roosevelt described the spirit of the NRA: "On this idea, the first part of the NIRA proposes to our industry a great spontaneous cooperation to put millions of men back in their regular jobs this summer." He further stated, "But if all employers in each trade now band themselves faithfully in these modern guilds—without exception—and agree to act together and at once, none will be hurt and millions of workers, so long deprived of the right to earn their bread in the sweat of their labor, can raise their heads again. The challenge of this law is whether we can sink selfish interest and present a solid front against a common peril." The first director of the NRA was Hugh S. Johnson, a retired United States Army general and a successful businessman.
He was named Time magazine's "Man of the Year" in 1933. Johnson saw the NRA as a national crusade designed to regenerate industry. Johnson called on every business establishment in the nation to accept a stopgap "blanket code": a minimum wage of between 20 and 45 cents per hour, a maximum workweek of 35 to 45 hours, the abolition of child labor. Johnson and Roosevelt contended that the "blanket code" would raise consumer purchasing power and increase employment. Historian Clarence B. Carson noted: At this moment in time from the early days of the New Deal, it is difficult to recapture in imagination, the heady enthusiasm among a goodly number of intellectuals for a government planned economy. So far as can now be told, they believed that a bright new day was dawning, that national planning would result in an organically integrated economy in which everyone would joyfully work for the common good, that American society would be freed at last from those antagonisms arising, as General Hugh Johnson put it, from "the murderous doctrine of savage and wolfish individualism, looking to dog-eat-dog and devil take the hindmost.
The negotiations of a code for the bituminous coal industry came against the background of a swelling union, the United Mine Workers headed by John L. Lewis and an unstable truce in the Pennsylvania coal fields; the NRA tried to get the principals to compromise with a national code for a decentralized industry in which many companies were anti-union, sought to keep wage differentials, tried to escape the collective bargaining provisions of section 7A. Agreement among the parties was reached only after the NRA threatened that it would impose a code; the code did not establish price stabilization, nor did it resolve questions of industrial self-government versus governmental supervision or of centralization versus local autonomy, but it made dramatic changes in abolishing child labor, eliminating the compulsory scrip wages and company store, establishing fair trade practices. It paved the way for an important wage settlement. In early 1935 the new chairman, Samuel Williams, announced that the NRA would stop setting prices, but businessmen complained.
Chairman Williams told them plainly that, unless they could prove it would damage business, NRA was going to put an end to price control. Williams said, "Greater productivity and employment would result if greater price flexibility were attained." Of the 2,000 businessmen on hand 90% opposed Mr. Williams' aim, reported Time magazine: "To them a guaranteed price for their products looks like a royal road to pro