California State Route 14
State Route 14 is a north–south state highway in the U. S. state of California in the Mojave Desert. The southern portion of the highway is signed as the Antelope Valley Freeway; the route connects Interstate 5 on the border of the city of Santa Clarita to the north and the Los Angeles neighborhoods of Granada Hills and Sylmar to the south, with U. S. Route 395 near Inyokern. Legislatively, the route extends south of I-5 to SR 1 in the Pacific Palisades area of Los Angeles; the southern part of the constructed route is a busy commuter freeway serving and connecting the cities of Santa Clarita and Lancaster to the rest of the Greater Los Angeles area. The northern portion, from Vincent to US 395, is legislatively named the Aerospace Highway, as the highway serves Edwards Air Force Base, once one of the primary landing strips for NASA's Space Shuttle; this section is rural, following the line between the hot Mojave desert and the forming Sierra Nevada mountain range. Most of SR 14 is loosely paralleled by a main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, used for the Antelope Valley Line of the Metrolink commuter rail system as well as a connection between Los Angeles and the Central Valley via Tehachapi Pass.
Linked with US 395, this road connects Los Angeles with such places as Mammoth Mountain, Mono Lake, Yosemite National Park and Reno, Nevada. SR 14 was part of US 6 prior to truncation in 1964, when US 6 was a coast-to-coast route from Long Beach to Provincetown, Massachusetts; the non-freeway segment of SR 14 from Silver Queen Road north of Rosamond to Mojave is known as Sierra Highway, as is the old routing between I-5 and Silver Queen Road where SR 14 has been moved to a newer freeway alignment. Portions of SR 14 remain signed with names associated with US 6, including Midland Trail, Theodore Roosevelt Highway, Grand Army of the Republic Highway. SR 14 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration; the southern portion of the freeway, from I-5 to the Avenue D exit near Lancaster, has been designated the Antelope Valley Freeway by the state legislature.
The Antelope Valley Freeway begins in the Santa Susana Mountains at the Newhall Pass interchange by splitting from the Golden State Freeway. This is the busiest portion of the route with an annual average daily traffic count of 169,000 vehicles per day; the freeway forms much of the eastern boundary of Santa Clarita along its route. Past Santa Clarita, the road continues northeast and crosses the Sierra Pelona Mountains and western San Gabriel Mountains via the canyon of the seasonal Santa Clara River; the ascent is rugged and rural terrain, with only two small towns along the ascent, first Agua Dulce and Acton. Between the two towns, the freeway forms the southern boundary of a county park; the highway crests the Sierra Pelona Mountains via Escondido Summit, at an elevation of 3,258 feet, before descending and passing by Acton to the north. The highway crests the San Gabriel Mountains via Soledad Pass, at an elevation of 3,209 feet; the route of the highway through the mountains loosely parallels that of the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, used for the Metrolink Antelope Valley Line.
After cresting both mountain passes, the highway descends into the Antelope Valley, a large valley within the Mojave Desert. The highway crosses the California Aqueduct in the descent. SR 14 serves as the primary north -- south thoroughfare for the communities of Lancaster. Between Palmdale Boulevard and Avenue D in Lancaster, SR 14 runs concurrently with SR 138. From the Pearblossom Highway exit south of Palmdale to its northern terminus at US 395 near Inyokern, SR 14 has been designated the Aerospace Highway. Between Pearblossom Highway and Avenue S, there is a vista point overlooking Lake Palmdale, which features a historic plaque that honors aviation accomplishments including the space shuttle, breaking the sound barrier and the speed record; the freeway passes the Los Angeles–Kern county line at Avenue A, continues to run north through Rosamond and Mojave. In Rosamond, the highway passes close to Edwards Air Force Base, used as one of the main landing strips for NASA's space shuttle, as the base for the X-15 and many other air and spacecraft.
The freeway portion terminates just south of Mojave, where SR 14 serves as the main street and runs through the downtown area. To the east of the route is Mojave Air & Space Port, home to the National Test Pilot School and SpaceShipOne, the first funded human spaceflight, as well as a vast airplane graveyard. SR 58 was routed concurrently with SR 14 through Mojave, before it was rerouted onto a bypass running north and east of the town; the character of the highway changes. The road, now a divided highway with at-grade intersections, departs the corridor of the main Southern Pacific Line, to follow the crest of the forming Sierra Nevada mountains; the route continues to follow a branch line of the Southern Pacific used as a connector for the Trona Railway. The main line of the railroad proceeds towards the Central Valley via Tehachapi Pass. Though SR 14 heads away from the pass, the highway has views of the mountains and the Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm; the scenery changes, as the highway departs the Mojave Desert and crosses Red Rock Canyon State Park.
Traffic counts drop as the highway becomes more rural
Darwin is a census-designated place in Inyo County, United States. Darwin is located 22 miles southeast of Keeler, at an elevation of 4,790 ft; the population was 43 at the 2010 census, down from 54 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all of it land. It is named after either Charles Dr. Darwin French. According to Erwin Gudde, Dr French of Fort Tejon was with a party of prospectors in the area during the fall of 1850. Dr French led a party into Death Valley in 1860 to search for the mythical Gunsight Lode via the local wash, lending his first name to the wash and future town. Silver and lead discovery at the place led to the founding of a settlement in 1874. A post office opened in 1875, closed for a time in 1902, remains open; the town prospered. When Death Valley became a National Monument in 1933 it was decided to buy the toll road to allow free access to the new park. In 1937, a new cutoff bypassed Darwin. In 2011, the town was the subject of a documentary film, titled Darwin.
In April 2012, BBC News featured a video of local residents describing their wishes to replace dial-up Internet access with broadband. The 2010 United States Census reported that Darwin had a population of 43; the population density was 32.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Darwin was 38 white, 0 black, 2 Native American, 1 Asian American, 1 Pacific Islander, 0 from other races, 1 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2 people; the Census reported that 43 people lived in households. There were 28 households, out of which 0 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 11 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 0 had a female householder with no husband present, 1 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships and 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 14 households were made up of individuals, 9 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.5. There were 12 families.
The population was spread out with 0 people under the age of 18, 0 people aged 18 to 24, 2 people aged 25 to 44, 20 people aged 45 to 64, 21 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 63.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 168.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 168.8 males. There were 46 housing units at an average density of 34.2 per square mile, of which 28 were occupied, of which 24 were owner-occupied and 4 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4%. 37 people lived in owner-occupied housing units, 6 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 54 people, 36 households, 14 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 39.3 people per square mile. There were 54 housing units at an average density of 39.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91% White, 2% Black or African American, 4% Native American, 4% from two or more races. 6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 36 households out of which 8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22% were married couples living together, 14% had a female householder with no husband present, 6% were non-families. 56% of all households were made up of individuals and 8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.5 and the average family size was 2.0. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 6% under the age of 18, 2% from 18 to 24, 17% from 25 to 44, 59% from 45 to 64, 17% who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 53 years. For every 100 females, there were 145.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 142.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $13,333, the median income for a family was $15,000. Males had a median income of under $2500 versus $36,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $11,048. There were 33% of families and 38% of the population living below the poverty line, including 100% of under eighteens and none of those over 64.
In the state legislature, Darwin is in the 8th Senate District, represented by Republican Andreas Borgeas, the 26th Assembly District, represented by Republican Devon Mathis. Federally, Darwin is in California's 8th congressional district, represented by Republican Paul Cook. Darwin Falls Darwin Falls Wilderness Darwin Hills Darwin, a 2011 documentary film about Darwin, CA Palazzo, Robert P. Darwin, Lake Grove, OR: Western Places, 1996; the history of the boom and bust of this mining town from 1874-1878. Palazzo, Robert P. "Post Offices and Postmasters of Inyo County, California 1866-1966", Fernley, NV: MacDonald, 2005
Los Angeles Aqueduct
The Los Angeles Aqueduct system, comprising the Los Angeles Aqueduct and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct, is a water conveyance system and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. The Owens Valley aqueduct was designed and built by the city's water department, at the time named The Bureau of Los Angeles Aqueduct, under the supervision of the department's Chief Engineer William Mulholland; the system delivers water from the Owens River in the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains to Los Angeles, California. In 1971 it was recognized by the American Society of Civil Engineers on the List of Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks, its construction was controversial from the start, as water diversions to Los Angeles all but ended agriculture in the Owens Valley. Since its continued operation has led to public debate and court battles over the environmental impacts of the aqueduct on Mono Lake and other ecosystems; the aqueduct project began in 1905 when the voters of Los Angeles approved a US$1.5 million bond for the'purchase of lands and water and the inauguration of work on the aqueduct'.
On June 12, 1907 a second bond was passed with a budget of US$24.5 million to fund construction. Construction was divided into 11 divisions and a cement plant; the number of men who were on the payroll the first year was 2,629 and this number peaked at 6,060 in May 1909. In 1910, employment dropped to 1,150 due to financial reasons but rebounded in the year. Between 1911 and 1912 employment ranged from 2,800 to 3,800 workers; the number of laborers working on the aqueduct at its peak was 3,900. In 1913 the City of Los Angeles completed construction of the first Los Angeles Aqueduct; the aqueduct as constructed consisted of six storage reservoirs and 215 mi of conduit. Beginning three and one half miles north of Black Rock Springs, the aqueduct diverts the Owens River into an unlined canal to begin its 233 mi journey south to the Lower San Fernando Reservoir; this reservoir was renamed the Lower Van Norman Reservoir. The original project consisted of 24 mi of open unlined canal, 37 mi of lined open canal, 97 mi of covered concrete conduit, 43 mi of concrete tunnels, 12.00 mi steel siphons, 120 mi of railroad track, two hydroelectric plants, three cement plants, 170 mi of power lines, 240 mi of telephone line, 500 mi of roads and was expanded with the construction of the Mono Extension and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct.
The aqueduct uses gravity alone to move the water and uses the water to generate electricity, which makes it cost-efficient to operate. The aqueduct system is still in operation; the construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct eliminated the Owens Valley as a viable farming community and devastated the Owens Lake ecosystem. A group labeled the "San Fernando Syndicate" – including Fred Eaton, Harrison Otis, Henry Huntington, other wealthy individuals – were a group of investors who bought land in the San Fernando Valley based on inside knowledge that the Los Angeles aqueduct would soon irrigate it and encourage development. Although there is disagreement over the actions of the "syndicate" as to whether they were a "diabolical" cabal or only a group that united the Los Angeles business community behind supporting the aqueduct, Eaton and others connected with the project have long been accused of using deceptive tactics and underhanded methods to obtain water rights and block the Bureau of Reclamation from building water infrastructure for the residents in Owens Valley.
By the 1920s, the aggressive pursuits of the water rights and the diversion of the Owens River precipitated the outbreak of violence known as the California Water Wars. Farmers in Owens Valley attacked infrastructure, dynamiting the aqueduct numerous times and opening sluice gates to divert the flow of water; the aqueduct's water provided developers with the resources to develop the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles through World War II. Mulholland's role in the vision and completion of the aqueduct and the growth of Los Angeles into a large metropolis is recognized and well-documented; the William Mulholland Memorial Fountain, built in 1940 and located at Riverside Drive and Los Feliz Blvd. in Los Feliz, is dedicated to his memory and contributions. Mulholland Drive and Mulholland Dam are both named for him as well. In an effort to find more water, the city of Los Angeles reached farther north. In 1930, Los Angeles voters passed a third US$38.8 million bond to buy land in the Mono Basin and fund the Mono Basin extension.
The 105 mile extension diverted flows from the Rush Creek, Lee Vining Creek and Parker Creeks that would have flowed into Mono Lake. The construction of the Mono extension consisted of an intake at Lee Vining Creek, the Lee Vining conduit to the Grant Reservoir on Rush Creek, which would have a capacity of 48,000 acre⋅ft, the 12.7 mile Mono Craters Tunnel to the Owens River and a second reservoir named Crowley Lake with a capacity of 183,465 acre⋅ft in Long Valley at the head of the Owens River Gorge. Completed in 1940, diversions began in 1941; the Mono Extension has a design capacity of 400 cu ft/s of flow to the aqueduct however the flow was limited to 123 cu ft/s due to the limited downstream capacity of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Full appropriation of the water could not be met until the second aqueduct was completed in 1970. Between 1940 and 1970, water exports through the Mono Extension averaged 57
A bedrock mortar is an anthropogenic circular depression in a rock outcrop or occurring slab, used by people in the past for grinding of grain, acorns or other food products. There are a cluster of a considerable number of such holes in proximity indicating that people gathered in groups to conduct food grinding in prehistoric cultures. Correspondingly the alternative name gossip stone is sometimes applied, indicating the social context of the food grinding activity. Typical dimensions of the circular indentations are 12 centimeters in diameter by 10 centimeters deep, although a considerable range of depths of the cavities have been documented; the bedrock mortar has been identified in a number of world regions, but has been intensely documented in the Americas. An alternative term for the bedrock mortar site is bedrock milling station. A bedrock mortar should not be confused with a bedrock metate, a flat, trough-shaped depression found with bedrock mortars. Southern Arizona: In the Santa Catalina, Santa Rita, Rincon and Tucson Mountains, in rock outcroppings in the valleys Along the north banks of the middle reaches of the Merced River in Mariposa County, United States In Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties on the California Central Coast In northern Mexico within the Sierra Tarahumara of Southern Chihuahua The Upper Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, United States Inside many rock shelters in Menifee County, United States The Cueva de los Corrales region of northwestern Argentina Mortar and pestle Grinding slab Mano
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Ridgecrest is a city in Kern County, United States. It is located along U. S. Route 395 in the Indian Wells Valley in northeastern Kern County, adjacent to the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake; the population was 27,616 at the 2010 census, up from 24,927 at the 2000 census. It was incorporated as a city in 1963. Ridgecrest is surrounded by four mountain ranges, it is 82 miles from the Lancaster/Palmdale area, 110 miles from Bakersfield, 120 miles from San Bernardino, the three nearest major urban centers. Private air travel in and out of the city is provided through the Inyokern Airport. There are no scheduled commercial flights in or out of Ridgecrest. Ridgecrest is within two hours of the highest and the lowest points in the contiguous U. S; the settlement began as a farming community called Crumville in 1912, honoring James and Robert Crum, local dairymen. The first post office opened in 1941. By 1943, Ridgecrest had grown to 196 residents. NOTS was established in November 1943. Ridgecrest incorporated in 1963.
During this era the growth of Ridgecrest was governed by the continuing needs of the high tech industries coupled to the Naval Station's programs for testing arms and guidance systems. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.4 square miles, of which 20.8 sq mi is land and 0.7 sq mi of it is water. Ridgecrest is located in Indian Wells Valley, a southern extension of Owens Valley, broken up by the volcanic Coso Range; the area, associated with the Eastern California Shear Zone, has experienced numerous earthquake swarms in the past with no obvious mainshock. The 1995 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence started on August 17, when a magnitude 5.4 quake, centered 18 kilometers north of the town of Ridgecrest, shook the area and spawned over 2,500 aftershocks over the course of the following five weeks. On September 20, 1995, the second large quake struck the area: it measured magnitude 5.8, was at that time the largest earthquake to hit southern California since the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake.
The weather in the Indian Wells Valley is predominantly influenced by its high desert location. The climate is characterized by hot days and cool nights with arid conditions prevailing throughout the summer months; the mean annual maximum temperature for the Ridgecrest area is 75 °F while the mean annual minimum temperature is 48 °F. There are wide annual temperature fluctuations that occur from a high of 119 °F to a low of 1 °F; the area is known to have wind as high as 75 mph on a sunny day. Whenever winds exceed 30 mph dust devils and dust clouds form in the area. December is the coolest month with an average maximum temperature of 60 °F and an average minimum temperature of 30 °F; the all-time minimum temperature of 1 °F was recorded on December 23, 1963, January 7, 1973. Ridgecrest is a desert, with an average of less than 5 inches "equivalent rainfall" per year, which includes less than 2 inches of snow. July is the hottest month with an average maximum temperature of 103 °F and an average minimum temperature of 66 °F.
The all-time maximum temperature of 119 °F was recorded on July 31, 1971. The 2010 United States Census reported that Ridgecrest had a population of 27,616; the population density was 1,289.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Ridgecrest was 21,387 White, 1,113 African American, 341 Native American, 1,209 Asian, 143 Pacific Islander, 1,836 from other races, 1,587 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,941 persons; the Census reported that 27,420 people lived in households, 109 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 87 were institutionalized. There were 10,781 households, out of which 3,901 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,211 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,352 had a female householder with no husband present, 609 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 681 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 64 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,978 households were made up of individuals and 1,001 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54. There were 7,172 families; the population was spread out with 7,544 people under the age of 18, 2,654 people aged 18 to 24, 7,157 people aged 25 to 44, 6,844 people aged 45 to 64, 3,417 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.9 males. There were 11,915 housing units at an average density of 556.3 per square mile, of which 6,525 were owner-occupied, 4,256 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.9%. 16,520 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 10,900 people lived in rental housing units. According to the census of 2000, there were 24,927 people, 9,826 households, 6,691 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,179.9 i
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the U. S. state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: The first, only, or most significant of its type in the state or within a large geographic region. California Historical Landmarks of number 770 and above are automatically listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event, of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. Why Stop? A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. P. 213. ISBN 9780884159230. OCLC 32168093. Official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP: California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county