Chadema is a center-right political party in Tanzania. It campaigns on an anti-corruption platform; the name is short for Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo, Swahili for Party for Democracy and Progress. In the 1995 general election, the party won 4 out of 269 seats in the National Assembly and 42 councillors nationwide. In 2000 election, the party did not have the presidential candidate but it won five seats in National Assembly elections held on the same day. 75 Councillors and three district councils: Kigoma and Tarime. In the 2005 elections Chadema's presidential candidate, Freeman Mbowe, finished third out of ten candidates, with 5.88% of the vote. Further increased its share in the national assembly as it continued becoming more popular and popular among the youths and managed to get eleven members of parliament 103 Councillors and retained the district councils of Kigoma and Karatu. In the 2010 general elections, Chadema increased its share of the national vote. Dr. Willbrod Peter Slaa, Secretary General of the party until August 2015, gained 27.1% of the vote in the presidential election, a substantial increase on the 5.88% of the vote gained by the Chadema candidate in the 2005 election.
The party won 48 seats making it the second-largest party in the National Assembly for the first time and a further 467 Councillors and 7 Districts councils most of the seats won by Chadema geographically are constituencies found in major towns and urban areas of Tanzania like Moshi urban, Arusha, Mbeya city and Dar es Salaam in particular. In the general election of October 2015, Chadem joined with other political parties CUF, NLD, NCCR-Mageuzi to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi and the union was represented by one presidential candidate, Edward Lowassa. Chadema official website
Zitto Zuberi Ruyagwa Kabwe was born on 24 September 1976 in the village of Mwandiga, Kigoma district, Tanzania. He is popularly known as Zitto Kabwe, is a Tanzanian politician, he was a member of the opposition party, from 1992 until his expulsion in March 2015. He served as a two term Member of Parliament for the Kigoma North constituency from 2005 to 2015, he was the Chairman of the parliamentary Public Accounts Committee as well as the chair of the parliamentary standing committee where he oversaw more than 250 State Owned Companies. On 19 March 2015, he joined the Alliance for Change and Transparency and serves as its leader. Zitto Kabwe was born in Kigoma, his mother, Shida Salum Mohammed had six girls and 4 boys. On June 14, 2014, Kabwe's mother died in Dar es Salaam after years of suffering from cervical cancer. At the time of her death, she was the chairperson for Chama cha Watu Wenye Ulemavu wa Viungo. Now married Kabwe is the father of a son named Wiza-Chachage and daughter Josina-Machel.
Kabwe joined Kigoma Primary School in 1984 and sat for the CPEE in 1990. He went on to advance to Kigoma Secondary School in 1991 and was enrolled there until 1994. In 1994 he transferred to Kibohehe Secondary School where he sat for his CSEE in 1995 and went on to proceed to Galanos Secondary School for the 1996 academic year. In 1997 he joined Tosamaganga Secondary School and sat for his ACSEE in 1998. In 1999 Kabwe joined the University of Dar es Salaam and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics in 2003. After working for 6 years, Zitto enrolled at Bucerius Law School located in Hamburg, Germany where he graduated with a Master of Law and Business degree in 2010. In 2011 Zitto Kabwe enrolled as a PhD student at the Otto Beisheim School of Management in Vallendar, Germany; as the Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee, Mr. Kabwe campaigned for a strong conflict of interest code as a measure to fight corruption by public office holders, he served as a bridge between political parties and civil society organizations so that they could act together on matters of national interests.
Zitto Kabwe is associated with the passage of the Mining Act, 2010, Cap 123. Kabwe was involved in cross-party negotiation and consultation with civil society as the law was drafted and considered; the act came in the wake of public concerns that Tanzania was getting meager royalties from the mining sector. The act places mining rights in the hands of Tanzanian nationals and required mining companies to list with the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange; the mining act restricted participation of non-Tanzanians in small scale mining, dealing in minerals and gemstone operations. Official websiteTemplate:Current ACT MPs
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Joshua Samwel Nassari is a Tanzanian CHADEMA politician and Member of Parliament for Arumeru East constituency since 2012
Kilimanjaro Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions with a postcode number 25000. The regional capital is the municipality of Moshi. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 1,640,087, lower than the pre-census projection of 1,702,207. For 2002-2012, the region's 1.8 percent average annual population growth rate was the 24th highest in the country. It was the eighth most densely populated region with 124 people per square kilometer; the region forms part of the Northern Tourism Circuit in Tanzania. It is home to the Kilimanjaro National Park, the Mkomazi National Park, the Pare Mountains, Lake Jipe, Lake Chala, tropical forests and waterfalls; the region is bordered to the north and east by Kenya, to the south by the Tanga Region, to the southwest by the Manyara Region, to the west by the Arusha Region. The region is administratively divided into six districts; each district has one local government council except Moshi District which has two, one of which serves as the capital of the region.
Kilimanjaro region was established in 1963 with two districts: Kilimanjaro and Pare. The region was part of the Northern Province in the pre-independence Tanganyika. Northern Province’s districts included Arusha and Mbulu, while Pare District was a part of Tanga Province. Of the region's six districts, four traditionally had Chagga settlements, which are Hai District, Moshi District, Rombo District, Siha District; the other two, Mwanga District and Same District, have included Pare settlements. However, during colonial rule in the late 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, the region was divided into two main districts: Moshi district, composed of all the areas settled by the Chagga people on the slopes of the mountain, Pare district, a Pare tribe settlement; the region, from earlier times, had been settled by the people collectively called the Chagga, the Maasai and Waarusha, the Pare on the Pare mountains. These have been intermingling and fighting from time to time for various socio-political reasons.
Other tribes migrated to the area. Mount Kilimanjaro lies on a tectonic plate line intersection 80 kilometres east of the tectonically active Rift Valley; the activity that created this stratovolcano dates back less than a million years. Steam and sulphur fumaroles here are indicative of residual activity. At one stage, most of the summit of Kilimanjaro was covered by an ice cap more than 100 metres deep. Glaciers extended well down the mountain forming moraine ridges visible now on the southern flanks down to about 4,000 metres. At present only a small fraction of the glacial cover remains. Chaga people Kilimanjaro National Park Marangu Mkomazi National Park Moshi, Tanzania Pare people Kilimanjaro Official page
National Assembly (Tanzania)
The National Assembly of Tanzania and the President of the United Republic make up the Parliament of Tanzania. The current Speaker of the National Assembly is Job Ndugai, who presides over a unicameral assembly of 393 members; the National Assembly of Tanzania was formed as the Legislative Council of Tanzania Mainland – known as Tanganyika – in 1926. The Council was formed under a law enacted by the British Parliament called the Tanganyika Legislative Council Order and Council; the law was gazetted in Tanganyika on 18 June 1926. The Council consisted of 20 members when it was formed on 7 December 1926 under the Chairmanship of the Governor of Tanganyika, Sir Donald Cameron; the first Speaker was appointed to replace the Governor as the Chairman of the Council in 1953. The office of Speaker was first occupied on 1 November 1953. In 1958, the Council got a few elected representatives for the first time; this was the first election allowed in the colony. Of the three political parties which participated in the elections, namely Tanganyika African Union, United Tanganyika Party and African National Congress, only TANU won in some constituencies, thus becoming the first party to have elected members on the Council.
Second elections for positions on the Council were held in 1960. These elections were part of the preparations being made to make Tanganyika an independent nation. All members appointed by the Governor were abolished and the people of Tanganyika were allowed to elect all members of the Council. In the same year, the name of the Council was changed to Legislative Assembly; the changes made in this year were constitutionally necessary so as to allow the President of Tanganyika to give assent to all laws passed instead of the Queen of the United Kingdom. The Parliament – the National Assembly and the President of the United Republic - obtains its mandate and functions from Chapter 3 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania; the Constitution contains Articles that grant for the establishment and functions of the Parliament. The Parliament has powers to deal with both Union and non-Union issues which are not in the scope of the Zanzibar Government, it is responsible for passing laws. It scrutinizes the actions of the Executive arm of the Government.
Article 66 of the Constitution of Tanzania outlines the following categories of members: List of Speakers of the National Assembly of Tanzania Politics of Tanzania Zanzibar House of Representatives Official website
Mwananchi Communications Ltd is a company based in Tanzania. Mwananchi Communications Ltd, engages in the print media and radio, is the publisher of Tanzania's leading daily newspaper and others such as The Citizen, Sunday Citizen, Mwananchi Jumapili, Mwanaspoti; the executive editor is Bakari Steven Machumu and the Mwananchi daily managing editor is Frank Sanga. Abdul Mohamed heads Mwanaspoti in Kenya. Sanga is regarded as the sports journalism guru in the region, his influence in sports led Kenyan media to start sports newspapers, such as Sports On and Game Yetu. Thomas Mosoba is the managing editor of The Citizen Daily, which has contributed much to socio-economic changes in Tanzania and in the region as well; the company was established in May 1999 by Ambassador Ferdinand Ruhinda as Media Communications Ltd. But in April 2001, a new business was established and a new company was formed—Mwananchi Communications Ltd. In the same year Mwananchi Communications Ltd was acquired by the Nation Media Group, based in Nairobi, Kenya.
It is headquartered at Plot No. 34/35 Tabata Relini on Mandela Road, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is part of the Nation Media Group, a publicly listed company, quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, has about 7,500 shareholders, its principal shareholder is the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development, an agency of the Aga Khan Development Network. The history of Mwananchi Communications Ltd. can be traced back to 1999 when Hon. Ferdinand Ruhinda started a communications company known as Media Communications Ltd, which saw an important need to introduce a daily Swahili paper registered on April 20, 2000. On May 27, 2000, the first copy of Mwananchi was launched, it was a 12-page newspaper retailing at Sh150. The market at the time was not as fragmented as it is now, as there were only three mainstream daily Swahili newspapers in the market as opposed to the eight mainstream daily Swahili papers today; this paper has since had continuous improvement for format and presentation that has seen its leadership position in the market sustained.
Shortly after the launch of Mwananchi, a biweekly sports newspaper Mwanaspoti was launched on February 12, 2001, respectively. It was a 12-page sports paper retailing at only Sh100; this paper has gone through tremendous improvement for content and format to ensure that the changing needs of its readers are met. After two and half years of successful operations of the two products, in April 2001, the role of publishing was handed over from Media Communications to a newly registered publishing company, Mwananchi Communications Ltd. In December 2002, Nation Media Group of Kenya purchased controlling interests in the company and this has since helped to ingrain the company with world class values in editorial management including standardizing the group's editorial policies. Having registered The Citizen with Tanzania Information Services on March 2, 2001, the paper was only launched and published on September 16, 2004, to become the 5th English daily newspaper in the market; the Company's publications were printed by contract until 2005, when it acquired a secondhand printing press from Australia.
English language newspapers The Citizen – An independent English newspaper in Tanzania The Citizen on Sunday – The Sunday edition of The CitizenSwahili-language newspapers Mwananchi – Leading daily newspaper in Tanzania Mwanaspoti – A biweekly sports and entertainment newspaper Mwananchi Jumapili – The Sunday edition of Mwananchi newspaper English language magazines Your Health – a health magazine published every Monday and carried in The Citizen Political Platform – a political review magazine published every Wednesday and carried in The Citizen Success – an education review magazine published every Monday and carried in The Citizen The Beat – a magazine focusing on entertainment and showbiz issues published every Friday and carried in The Citizen Business Week – a business magazine published every Thursday and carried in The Citizen Woman – a woman's magazine published every Saturday and carried in The Citizen Sound Living- A family magazine that features uplifting stories that happen in societySwahili-language magazines SpotiMikiki – a sports magazine published every Monday and carried in The Mwananchi Siasa – focuses on analysis of the recent political events and investigative stories.
It is a pullout published every Wednesday and carried in The Mwananchi Uchumi – a magazine that focuses on business news and economic matters, it is published every Thursday and carried in The Mwananchi Jungukuu – a society issues magazine published every Friday and carried in The Mwananchi Starehe – a sports magazine published every Saturday and carried in The Mwananchi Johari – a special pull-out magazine targeted at the female reader, with articles on fashion, beauty, short stories, parenting advice etc. published every Sunday and carried in The Mwananchi Jumapili thecitizen.co.tz – official website for The Citizen mwananchi.co.tz – official website for The Mwananchi mwanaspoti.co.tz – official website for Mwanaspoti mcl.co.tz – official website for Mwananchi Communications Ltd