Freemium, a portmanteau of the words "free" and "premium", is a pricing strategy by which a product or service is provided free of charge, but money is charged for additional features, services, or virtual or physical goods that expand the functionality of the free version of the software. This business model has been used in the software industry since the 1980s. A subset of this model used by the video game industry is called free-to-play; the business model has been in use for software since the 1980s. This is in a time-limited or feature-limited version to promote a paid-for full version; the model is suited to software as the cost of distribution is negligible. Thus little is lost by giving away free software licenses as long as significant cannibalization is avoided; the term freemium to describe this model appears to have been created only much in response to a 2006 blog post by venture capitalist Fred Wilson summarizing the model:Give your service away for free ad supported but maybe not, acquire a lot of customers efficiently through word of mouth, referral networks, organic search marketing, etc. offer premium priced value added services or an enhanced version of your service to your customer base.
Jarid Lukin of Alacra, one of Wilson's portfolio companies suggested the term "freemium" for this model. In 2009, Chris Anderson published the book Free, which examines the popularity of this business model; as well as for traditional software and services, it is now often used by Web 2.0 and open source companies. In 2014, Eric Seufert published the book Freemium Economics, which attempts to deconstruct the economic principles of the freemium model and prescribe a framework for implementing them into software products; the freemium model is related to tiered services. It has become a popular model, with notable examples including LinkedIn, in the form of a "soft" paywall, such as those employed by The New York Times and by Press+. A freemium model is sometimes used to build a consumer base when the marginal cost of producing extra units is low. In the US, in the Christian 501 3 religious education sector, Christian Leaders Institute uses the freemium model to train Christian leaders. CLI offers free training to individuals, who receive "unofficial" certificates and degrees at no charge.
The infrastructure cost to provide this training and these "unofficial" awards is supported by donations to the mission, which receive tax deductions in the United States. If CLI students want official awards, they are required to make minimal "non-tax deductible" donations that cover the costs of individual processing and delivery. Other examples include free-to-play games -- video games. Video game publishers of free-to-play games rely on other means to generate revenue – such as optional in-game virtual items that can be purchased by players to enhance game-play or aesthetics. Ways in which the product or service may be restricted in the free version include: Limited features: A free video chat client may not include three-way video calling. Most free-to-play games fall into this category, as they offer virtual items that are either impossible or slow to purchase with in-game currency but can be purchased with real-world money. Limited capacity: For example, SQL Server Express is restricted to databases of 10GB or less.
Limited use license: For example, most Autodesk or Microsoft software products with full features are free for students with an educational license. Some apps, like CCleaner, are free for personal use only. Limited use time: Most free-to-play games permit the user to play the game consecutively for a limited number of levels or turns. Limited support: Priority or real-time technical support may not be available for non-paying users. For example, Comodo offers all its software products free of charge, its premium offerings only add various kinds of technical support. Limited or no access to online services that are only available by purchasing periodic subscriptionsSome software and services make all of the features available for free for a trial period and at the end of that period revert to operating as a feature-limited free version; the user can unlock the premium features on payment of a license fee, as per the freemium model. Some businesses use a variation of the model known as "open core", in which the unsupported, feature-limited free version is open-source software, but versions with additional features and official support are commercial software.
In June 2011, PC World reported that traditional anti-virus software had started to lose market share to freemium anti-virus products. By September 2012, all but two of the 50 highest-grossing apps in the Games section of Apple's iTunes App Store supported in-app purchases, leading Wired to conclude that game developers were now required to choose between including such purchases or foregoing a substantial revenue stream. Beginning in 2013, the digital distribution platform Steam began to add numerous Free to play and Early Access games to its library, many of which utilized Freemium marketing for their in-game economies. Due to criticism that the multiplayer games falling under this were pay-to-win in nature or were low-quality and never finished development, Valve has since added stricter rules to its Early Access and Free-to-play policies. Freemium games have come under criticism from critics. Many are labelled with the derogatory term Pay-to-Win, a term which criticizes freemium games for giving an advantage to players who pay more money as opposed to those
The following is a list of players, both past and current, who have been selected to play in the NFL's annual Pro Bowl game, beginning with the 1950 season. Between 1938 and 1942, an NFL all star team played the league champion in the NFL All-Star Game. Participants in these games are not recognized by the NFL as Pro Bowlers, they are not included in this list. No games were played between 1943 and 1950. Between 1961 and 1969, the NFL and AFL played separate all-star games; this list includes players who were selected to play in the American Football League All-Star game during that period. —Named as a starter —Did not participate #—Named Pro Bowl MVP/co-MVP —Named as a starter —Did not participate #—Named Pro Bowl MVP/co-MVP —Named as a starter —Did not participate #—Named Pro Bowl MVP/co-MVP —Named as a starter —Did not participate #—Named Pro Bowl MVP/co-MVP —Named as a starter —Did not participate #—Named Pro Bowl MVP/co-MVP
Conard Fowkes was an American actor. He was best known for acting in soap operas, including Kitty Foyle, Dark Shadows, The Edge of Night, The Secret Storm, Hidden Faces, Search for Tomorrow, A Flame in the Wind, As the World Turns, he appeared in feature films, including: 1968: What's So Bad About Feeling Good? as Board Member 1973: Serpico as Cop in Narcotics Raid 1974: Lovin' Molly as Eddie White 1981: Prince of the City as Agent Elroy Pendleton 1989: Family Business as'Caper' Detective In addition to his work in film and television, Fowkes did some stage acting. He performed in Jean-Claude van Itallie's America Hurrah during the 1960s at the Pocket Theater in Manhattan, he performed in Julie Bovasso's Standard Safety and The Nothing Kid at La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club in 1974 in Bovasso's Schubert's Last Serenade, The Final Analysis, The Super Lover at La MaMa in 1975. Fowkes was elected to Equity's Council in 1973, served as the Actors' Equity Association's secretary and treasurer from 1988-2009.
In 1977, he co-founded AEA's Volunteer Income Tax Assistance program. The program has assisted thousands of AEA members with their income taxes. Fowkes' advocacy contributed to the Qualified Performing Artist Deduction in the Federal Tax Code in 1986. Conard Fowkes on IMDb Conard Fowkes at the Internet Broadway Database Conard Fowkes at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Fowkes' page on La MaMa Archives Digital Collections
Acleris emargana, the notched-winged tortricid, is a moth of the family Tortricidae. The species was first described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1775. Acleris emargana emargana Acleris emargana tibetica Acleris emargana blackmorei, described as occurring in North America, was considered a subspecies of A. emargana. Per Karsholt et al.. Acleris emargana has a wingspan of 18–22 mm, it is a quite variable species. The forewings are greyish brown or yellow ochreous translucent more or less notched and hooked on the costa, with a reticulated pattern. Hindwings are translucent; the moths fly at dusk. The larvae can reach a length of about 15 mm, they are pale green, with a pale brown head. Caterpillars feed on the leaves and shoots of various trees, including Alnus glutinosa, Salix and Betula; the nominotypical subspecies Acleris emargana emargana is found from Europe to Siberia, northern China and Japan. In Tibet, ssp. Acleris emargana tibetica is found. Notched-winged tortricid on UKMoths BioLib.cz Eurasian Tortricinae Lepidoptera of Belgium Lepiforum e.
A meromictic lake is a lake which has layers of water that do not intermix. In ordinary, "holomictic" lakes, at least once each year, there is a physical mixing of the surface and the deep waters; the term meromictic was coined by the Austrian Ingo Findenegg in 1935 based on the older word holomictic. The concepts and terminology used in describing meromictic lakes were complete following some additions by G. Evelyn Hutchinson in 1937. Most lakes are holomictic. In so-called monomictic lakes, the mixing occurs once per year. In meromictic lakes, the layers of the lake water can remain unmixed for years, decades, or centuries. Meromictic lakes can be divided into three sections or layers; the bottom layer is known as the monimolimnion. The top layer is called the mixolimnion, behaves like a holomictic lake; the area in between is referred to as the chemocline. The lack of mixing between layers creates radically different environments for organisms to live in: among the consequences of this stratification, or stable layering, of lake waters is that the bottom layer receives little oxygen from the atmosphere, hence becomes depleted of oxygen.
While the surface layer may have 10 mg/L or more dissolved oxygen in summer, the depths of a meromictic lake can have less than 1 mg/L. Few organisms can live in such an oxygen-poor environment. One exception is purple sulfur bacteria; these bacteria found at the top of the monimolimnion in such lakes, use sulfur compounds such as sulfides in photosynthesis. These compounds are produced by decomposition of organic sediments in oxygen-poor environments; the monimolimnion is rich in phosphorus and nitrogen. These factors combine to create an ideal environment for bacterial growth; the mixolimnion can have similar qualities. However, the types of bacteria that can grow at the surface are determined by the amount of light received at the surface. A meromictic lake may form for a number of reasons: The basin is unusually deep and steep-sided compared to the lake's surface area The lower layer of the lake is saline and denser than the upper layers of waterThe layers of sediment at the bottom of a meromictic lake remain undisturbed because there is little physical mixing and few living organisms to agitate them.
There is little chemical decomposition. For this reason, cores of the sediment at the bottom of meromictic lakes are important in tracing past changes in climate at the lake, by examining trapped pollen grains and the types of sediments; when the layers do mix for whatever reason, the consequences can be devastating for organisms that live in the mixolimnion. This layer is much smaller in volume than the monimolimnion; when the layers mix, the oxygen concentration at the surface will decrease dramatically. This can result in the death such as fish, that require oxygen. Carbon dioxide or other dissolved gases can build up undisturbed in the lower layers of a meromictic lake; when the stratification is disturbed, as could happen from an earthquake, a limnic eruption may result. In 1986, a notable event of this type took place at Lake Nyos in Cameroon, causing nearly 1,800 deaths. While it is lakes that are meromictic, the world's largest meromictic basin is the Black Sea; the deep waters below 50 metres do not mix with the upper layers that receive oxygen from the atmosphere.
As a result, over 90% of the deeper Black Sea volume is anoxic water. The Caspian Sea is anoxic below 100 metres; the Baltic Sea is persistently stratified, with dense saline water comprising the bottom layer, large areas of hypoxic sediments. There are meromictic lakes all over the world; the distribution appears to be clustered. Depending on the exact definition of "meromictic", the ratio between meromictic and holomictic lakes worldwide is around 1:1000. Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun in Cameroon Lake Kivu in Rwanda, The DRC Lake Tanganyika in Burundi, The DRC, Tanzania and Zambia Lake Malawi, located between Malawi and Tanzania. Lake Vanda in Ross Dependency 21 lakes including Organic Lake in Vestfold Hills Pantai Keracut Lake, Penang National Park, northwest Penang island, Malaysia Jellyfish Lake, on Eil Malk in Palau Zigetangcuo Lake, a crenogenic lake in Nagqu Prefecture, the PRC, it is the meromictic lake located at the highest altitude. Kaptai Lake, in Rangamati District, at the south eastern part of Bangladesh.
Created by constructing a dam at Kaptai to set up a hydroelectric power plant. Bababu Lake, Dinagat Islands, Philippines Lake Fidler, in Tasmania's Wilderness World Heritage Area, Australia. Kärntner Seen. Alatsee Lake Vähä-Pitkusta in Finland. Lake Pakasaivo in Finland. Lough Furnace in Ireland. Salvatnet, Tronstadvatn, Birkelandsvatn, Rørholtfjorden, Botnvatn, Rørhopvatn and Strandvatn lakes in Norway. Lake Mogilnoye in Murmansk Oblast of Russia. Lake Cadagno is a "crenogenic" meromictic lake in Switzerland, the location of the Alpine Biology Center Lac Pavin and Lac du Bourget in France The Black Sea is considered to be meromictic. Lake A
Lateef Olalalekan Kayode is a Nigerian professional boxer. On December 3, 2010 Kayode knocked out American Edward Charles Perry on a Showtime boxing card. Kayode showed a much more relaxed demeanor in the ring than in his previous ShoBox appearances. In the 6th round he placed a right hand down the pipe that connected on the left side of Perry’s jaw, sending him sprawling to the ground once more. Perry had never touched the canvas in 13 years as a professional. On June 10, 2011, Kayode proved too much for a game Matt Godfrey 19-3 with 14 KOs, at the Chumash Resort Casino. Kayode controlled the entire fight and sent Godfrey to the canvas a total of three times winning by scores of 98-90, 97-90, 98-89, he knocked Godfrey to the floor in rounds one and nine with a devastating display of body shots and power punches to the head of Godfrey. Kayode was brutally knocked out by Denis Lebedev in his last fight in what seems to be a career coming to an end. Professional boxing record for Lateef Kayode from BoxRec