Brumleby is an enclave of terraced houses in Copenhagen, located between Østre Allé and Østerbrogade, just south of Parken Stadium and St. James Church. Built for indigent workers by the Danish Medical Association from 1854 to 1872, it is one of the earliest examples of housing in Denmark. The development was designed by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll and Vilhelm Klein in Neoclassical style, a major reason for the outbreak was the dismal conditions in the poorest parts of the city which suffered from overpopulation and lack of proper sanitary services. Copenhagens population had almost doubled since 1800 but the city had not been allowed to expand beyond its old fortification ring. Construction began in 1854 and the first stage of the development, due to the intervention of the Second Schleswig War, a planned extension did not begin until 1866. After Bindesbølls death in 1856, he was replaced by Vilhelm Klein, by the time the second stage was completed in 1872, Brumleby had 550 apartments which housed approximately 2,500 inhabitants.
Over the years there were numerous proposals to demolish Brumleby and replace it with more dense housing. The area was not originally known as Brumleby, but simply as Lægeforeningens Boliger, the prefix Brumle-, in the beginning seen as Brumme-, most likely was a reference to the sound from the grazing cattle on the surrounding commons. The suffix -by simply means town or area, as in the English by-law, Brumleby consists of four rows of two-storey houses with bicoloured facades, ochre coloured ground floors and white first floors, and slate roofs. The inspiration for the design came from Italian agricultural workers housing which Bindesbøll had seen during his years in Italy, Brumleby still serves as social housing, part of Københavns Almindelige Boligselskab. Today, after mergers during a renovation in the 1990s. The renovation fitted the apartments with private bathrooms and toilets, ilia Fibiger and Denmarks first professional nurse, lived there with six orphans in the 1860s. The writer Martin Andersen Nexø lived in the area as a child, from 1872 to 1877, mille Dinesen a Danish actress best known for starring in the film Nynne, as well as the title role in the television series Rita.
Danish Workers Building Society Architecture of Denmark Danish Culture Canon Official website
The Kiel Canal is a 98-kilometre long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The canal was finished in 1895, but widened, an average of 250 nautical miles is saved by using the Kiel Canal instead of going around the Jutland Peninsula. This not only time but avoids storm-prone seas and having to pass through the Øresund straits. Besides its two sea entrances, the Kiel Canal is linked, at Oldenbüttel, to the navigable River Eider by the short Gieselau Canal, the first connection between the North and Baltic Seas was constructed while the area was ruled by Denmark-Norway. It was called the Eider Canal, which used stretches of the Eider River for the link between the two seas. Completed during the reign of Christian VII of Denmark in 1784 and it was only 29 metres wide with a depth of 3 metres, which limited the vessels that could use the canal to 300 tonnes. In June 1887, construction started at Holtenau, near Kiel, the canal took over 9,000 workers eight years to build. On 20 June 1895 the canal was opened by Kaiser Wilhelm II for transiting from Brunsbüttel to Holtenau.
The next day, a ceremony was held in Holtenau, where Wilhelm II named it the Kaiser Wilhelm Kanal, the opening of the canal was filmed by British director Birt Acres, surviving footage of this early film is preserved in the Science Museum in London. The first Trans-Atlantic sailing ship to pass through the canal was Lilly, a barque, was a wooden sailing ship of about 390 tons built 1866 in Sunderland, U. K. She had a length of 127.5 ft. beam 28.7 ft. depth of 17.6 ft, in order to meet the increasing traffic and the demands of the Imperial German Navy, between 1907 and 1914 the canal width was increased. The widening of the canal allowed the passage of a Dreadnought-sized battleship and this meant that these battleships could travel from the Baltic Sea to the North Sea without having to go around Denmark. The enlargement projects were completed by the installation of two canal locks in Brunsbüttel and Holtenau. After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles required the canal to be open to vessels of commerce and of war of any nation at peace with Germany, the government under Adolf Hitler repudiated its international status in 1936.
After World War II the canal was reopened to all traffic, in 1948, the current name was adopted. The canal was closed in March 2013 after two lock gates failed at the western end near Brunsbüttel. Ships larger than 125 metres were forced to navigate via Skagerrak, the failure was blamed on neglect and a lack of funding by the German Federal Government which has been in financial dispute with the state of Schleswig-Holstein regarding the canal. Germanys Transport Ministry promised rapid repairs, there are detailed traffic rules for the canal
Nordhavnen, or Nordhavn, is a harbour area at the coast of the Øresund, founded at the end of the 19th century in Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of more than 2 km², most of Copenhagen Harbours traditional activities are situated in Nordhavn, including ferry berths, a container terminal and industrial companies. The S-train station Nordhavn station is located at Nordhavnen close to the city district Østerbro, the agency By og Havn has started the 668 million DKK expansion of Nordhavn into Øresund. The City Circle Line is extending into Nordhavn with at least one station, the cruise ship quay is 1, 100m long with 3 passenger terminals. The agency By og Havn has proposed plans to develop Nordhavn as a new city district that would have 40,000 residents and 40,000 jobs, the proposed district will be about six times larger than Indre Østerbro. The Municipality of Copenhagen plans to build 400,000 m² for residence and industry around Århusgade from 2008 onwards, the area is expected to be fully developed within 20–25 years and partially finances the expansion of the Copenhagen Metro.
In 2013, the United Nations campus UN City opened at the part of Marmormolen in the Nordhavn area. The 45,000 m² project will include most of the present UN activities in Copenhagen, pakhus 48 Portland Towers Construction photos Aerial photos
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Blegdamsvej is a street in Copenhagen, connecting Sankt Hans Torv in Nørrebro to Trianglen in Østerbro. The busy artery Fredensgade separates the Nørrebro and Østerbro sections of the street from each other, Blegdamsvej takes its name after the 24 ponds on the west side of Sortedam and Peblinge Lake, which was used for textile bleaching. They were established in about 1772 and had numbers from south to north, on the other side of the ponds was Blegedam Common, the oldest of Copenhagens commons, where the bleachers left the cloth to bleach in the sun. Lined with trees on both sides, mainly chestnut and lime trees. The north side of the street is dominated by the Panum Building and Rigshospitalet, the oldest building on the north side of the street is St. Johns Church. Completed in 1861, it was the first church to be built in the new districts which developed after Copenhagens Bastioned Fortifications were decommissioned, the Niels Bohr Institute from 1922 has housed the work of several Nobel Prize-winners.
23, roughly from the time, is the Freemasons Hall. The Danish branch of the Red Cross has its office at No. The building was built in 1952 as headquarters of Copenhagen County, Blegdamsvej Prison is the oldest prison still in use in Denmark. It was designed by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll and inaugurated in 1848 but has expanded and modernized several times. No.60 is a machine factory, Nielsen & Winther. The building was designed by Axel Berg and opened in 1899 and its neighbor, slightly older and designed by Ludvig Fenger, was originally a public school but taken over by Nielsen & Winther. No.104 is a former candle manufactury, Asp-Holmblad, which was in use until the 1940s but has now converted into apartments. No.124 was designed by Frederik Lauritz Levy for the company Siemens-Schuckert, at Rigshospitalet, on the corner of Blegdamsvej with Fredensgade, is Rudolph Tegners large group sculpture Towards the Light. It was installed in 1909 as a memorial to the physician and scientist Niels Ryberg Finsen who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1903
As industrial workers incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth. Later commentators have called this the First Industrial Revolution, the invention of the assembly line gave this phase a boost. Coal mines and textile factories replaced homes as the place of work, by the end of the 20th century, East Asia had become one of the most recently industrialised regions of the world. The BRICS states are undergoing the process of industrialisation, there is considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernisation and enterprise development. The concentration of labour into factories has increased urbanisation and the size of settlements, to serve, workers have to either leave their families or bring them along in order to work in the towns and cities where these industries are found. The family structure changes with industrialisation, the sociologist Talcott Parsons noted that in pre-industrial societies there is an extended family structure spanning many generations who probably remained in the same location for generations.
In industrialised societies the nuclear family, consisting of parents and their growing children. Families and children reaching adulthood are more mobile and tend to relocate to where jobs exist, extended family bonds become more tenuous. Currently the international development community endorses development policies like water purification or primary education and Co-Operation amongst third world communities, the relationships among economic growth and poverty reduction are complex. Higher productivity is argued to be leading to lower employment, division of labour Newly industrialised country Idea of Progress Chandler Jr. Alfred D. The Visible Hand, The Management Revolution in American Business, belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Hewitt, T. Johnson, H. and Wield, D. industrialisation and Development, Oxford University Press, Eric, The Age of Revolution. Kemp, Tom Historical Patterns of Industrialisation, London, ISBN 0-582-09547-6 Kiely, R industrialisation and Development, A comparative analysis, UCL Press, London.
The Unbound Prometheus, Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present, New York, Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. Pomeranz, Ken The Great Divergence, China and the Making of the Modern World Economy by Tilly, industrialization as an Historical Process, European History Online, Institute of European History,2010, retrieved,29 February 2011
Ryvangen or Ryvangskvarteret is a neighbourhood of single-family detached homes in the northern part of Østerbro, on the border with Hellerup, in Copenhagen, Denmark. The name Ryvangen translates to The Rye Field, the portion located to the west of the north-bound railway line was ceded to the Army in 1893 and used for the construction of the Svanemøllen Barracks. With improved infrastructure, they had increasingly been settling in either Frederiksberg or the northern suburbs, the new neighbourhood attracted a mixture of businessmen, editors and artists. A local plan for the area was adopted in 1995, one of Denmarks leading artists of the day, Jens Ferdinand Willumsen, built a combined home and studio to his own design at Strandagervej 28. The painter Johan Rohde lived at Norgesmindevej 16, the sculptor Anders Bundgaards home and studio was built in 1907 to a design by Aage Langeland-Mathiesen at Svanemøllevej 11
Amerika Plads is a public square and surrounding neighbourhood in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The former Free Port Station building was put in storage during the redevelopment and is now located in the middle of the square where it serves as a café. The name of the area, like that of the quay, is a reference to the passenger ships which used to transport Danish emigrants to New York City during the first half of the 20th century. Dating from circa 1903, the name Dampfærgevej refers to the ferries to Malmö which used to berth on the north side of the area. The Copenhagen-Malmö link was founded as a venture between the Swedish and Danish state railways in 1895 in connection with the opening of the new free port in Copenhagen. The Amerika Plads neighbourhood is located in the steam ferry terrain. The route was discontinued in 1974, in 1986, the premises were taken over by DanLink which operated a cargo line on the route Copenhagen-Helsingborg until 30 June 2000 when it closed due to the opening of the Øresund Bridge.
It happened as a joint venture between Port of Copenhagen and private development companies TK Development and Sjælsø Gruppen, in 2000, Port of Copenhagen commissioned Dutch architects West 8 to draw up a masterplan for the transformation of the area. The aim of the plan is to create a dense and active urban environment with multiple functions and diverse architecture. The neighbourhood comprises about 50,000 em2 of renovated buildings and 95,000 em2 of new buildings distributed on 53,000 em2 of offices and buildings and about 42,000 em2 of dwellings. The square is dominated by the former Free Port Railway Station which was dismantled in 2002, among the older buildings in the area is the former headquarters of Nordisk Fjer which was built in 1901. It now serves as headquarters for Banedanmark, the Twin Warehouses, known as Warehouse D and E, were built in the 1920s. Other historic buildings are found along Dampfærgevej, the most prominent modern buildings in the area are the Copper Tower on the north side of the area, next to the Ferry Terminal, and Fyrtårnet on its south side.
The Copper Tower is a 16-storey, copper-clad office building which was designed by Arkitema and it houses the law firm Plesner as well as an Italian supermarket in its ground floor. The Lighthouse is a tower block designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and was completed in 2007. Other modern buildings in the area have been designed by C. F. Møller Architects, Amerika Plads is located between Østerport station and Nordhavn station on the S-train main railway line through Copenhagen. Amerika Plads Amerika Plads on Copenhagen X
Holger Aagaard Hammerich was a Danish engineer and politician for the party Højre. He played a significant role in the foundation of the Freeport of Copenhagen in the 1890s as well as in the planning of rail lines and stations in Copenhagen. He was a member of the Danish Parliament from 1890 until his death in 1915, holger Hammerich was born in the Christianshavn neighbourhood of Copenhagen as the son of. He studied at the College of Advanced Technology from 1868 to 1871, in 1876 he travelled to America where he practiced until returning to Denmark in 1881 where he co-founded the machine factory Tuxen & Hammerich in Nakskov on the island of Lolland. In 1885 he made a proposal for a new arrangement of the network in Copenhagen which received considerable attention among politicians. His ideas were with certain modifications used by a commission which was established the following year, the establishment of the Boulevard Line was his proposal. In 1887 Hammerich was elected to the City Council in Copenhagen, in 1889 he was elected to the Folketinget, representing Nakskov, a mandate he kept until 1915.
He was involved in the masterplanning of the complex and its surroundings in collaboration with H. C. V, the creation of the Langelinie Pier which both protected the new harbour basins and restored the recreational values of the area was his idea