Freeware is software, most proprietary, distributed at no monetary cost to the end user. There is no agreed-upon set of license, or EULA that defines freeware unambiguously. For instance, redistribution by third parties, reverse engineering without the author's permission are permitted by some publishers but prohibited by others. Unlike with free and open-source software, which are often distributed free of charge, the source code for freeware is not made available. Freeware may be intended to benefit its producer by, for example, encouraging sales of a more capable version, as in the freemium and shareware business models; the term freeware was coined in 1982 by Andrew Fluegelman, who wanted to sell PC-Talk, the communications application he had created, outside of commercial distribution channels. Fluegelman distributed the program via a process now termed shareware. In the 1980s and 1990s, the term freeware was applied to software released without source code. Software classified as freeware may be used without payment and is either functional for an unlimited time or has limited functionality, with a more capable version available commercially or as shareware.
In contrast to what the Free Software Foundation calls free software, the author of freeware restricts the rights of the user to use, distribute, make derivative works, or reverse engineer the software. The software license may impose additional usage restrictions. Restrictions may be enforced by the software itself; the U. S. Department of Defense defines "open source software", as distinct from "freeware" or "shareware"; the "free" in "freeware" refers to the price of the software, proprietary and distributed without source code. By contrast, the "free" in "free software" refers to freedoms granted users under the software license, such software may be sold at a price. According to the Free Software Foundation, "freeware" is a loosely defined category and it has no clear accepted definition, although FSF asks that free software should not be called freeware. In contrast the Oxford English Dictionary characterizes freeware as being "available free of charge"; some freeware products are released alongside paid versions that either have more features or less restrictive licensing terms.
This approach is known as freemium, since the free version is intended as a promotion for the premium version. The two share a code base, using a compiler flag to determine, produced. For example, BBEdit has a BBEdit Lite edition. XnView must be licensed for commercial use; the free version may be advertising supported, as was the case with the DivX. Ad-supported software and free registerware bear resemblances to freeware. Ad-supported software does not ask for payment for a license, but displays advertising to either compensate for development costs or as a means of income. Registerware forces the user to subscribe with the publisher before being able to use the product. While commercial products may require registration to ensure licensed use, free registerware do not; the Creative Commons offer licenses, applicable to all by copyright governed works including software, which allow a developer to define "freeware" in a legal safe and internationally law domains respecting way. The typical freeware use case "share" can be further refined with Creative Commons restriction clauses like non-commerciality or no-derivatives, see description of licenses.
There are several usage examples, for instance The White Chamber, Mari0 or Assault Cube, all freeware by being CC BY-NC-SA licensed: free sharing allowed, selling not. Freeware cannot economically rely on commercial promotion. In May 2015 advertising freeware on Google AdWords was restricted to "authoritative source", thus web sites and blogs are the primary resource for information on which freeware is available, is not malware. However, there are many computer magazines or newspapers that provide ratings for freeware and include compact discs or other storage media containing freeware. Freeware is often bundled with other products such as digital cameras or scanners. Freeware has been criticized as "unsustainable" because it requires a single entity to be responsible for updating and enhancing the product, given away without charge. Other freeware projects are released as one-off programs with no promise or expectation of further development; these may include source code, as does free software, so that users can make any required or desired changes themselves, but this code remains subject to the license of the compiled executable and does not constitute free software.
List of freeware List of freeware video games List of commercial video games released as freeware Freely redistributable software Gratis versus Libre Freeware at Curlie freesoft: directory published by the Free Software Foundation
The first USS Greyhound was a U. S. Navy, two-masted schooner in commission from 1822 to 1824. Greyhound was one of several ships the U. S. Navy purchased in 1822 to augment Commodore David Porter's "Mosquito Fleet" combating piracy in the West Indies. With Master Commandant John Porter in command, she joined the West Indies Squadron in early 1823 and immediately was dispatched to Puerto Rico to seek Puerto Rican aid in suppressing the pirates. Returning from this mission, Greyhound was placed under the command of Lieutenant Lawrence Kearny and sent to patrol the coast of Cuba. While patrolling with the schooner USS Beagle on 21 July 1823, Greyhound gave chase to an unidentified ship off the Cuban coast near Vera Cruz. Lieutenant Kearny decided to go ashore in search of game to supplant his ship's food supply, his boat, when it neared the shore, was forced to return to Greyhound. When another attempt to land on 22 July 1823 met the same reception, Lieutenant Kearny sent ashore a party of United States Marines and U.
S. Navy sailors under the command of Lieutenant David Glasgow Farragut. Meanwhile Greyhound and Beagle closed the shore and began to bombard the camp trapping the pirates between the landing party and the sea. After a brief but fierce struggle, the pirates, including some women and children, fled inland. Exploring the village and his men discovered several large caves filled with rich plunder of all sorts, they burned the village and the eight small boats they found in the harbor returned to Greyhound and Beagle. Greyhound continued her coastal patrol duties until, with the onset of the yellow fever season in 1823, the "Mosquito Fleet" sailed north for healthier weather. Greyhound did not return to the Caribbean with Porter in the spring of 1824. After a survey found her unfit for further service, the Navy sold her at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1824. List of historical schooners ——. Piracy: The Complete History. Osprey Publishing. P. 336. ISBN 9781846032400. Url Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Admiral Farragut. D. Appleton and company, New York.
P. 333. E'Book Porter, David Dixon. Memoir of Commodore David Porter: of the United States Navy. J. Munsel, New York. P. 427. E'Book Spears, John Randolph. David G. Farragut. G. W. Jacobs, Philadelphia. P. 407. E'Book This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here
"Brian Song" is the title song from the 1979 film Monty Python's Life of Brian. It was released as a single in the UK on 16 November 1979 as a Double A side with "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life"; the song, which charts the growth of the Brian character to manhood, was composed by Andre Jacquemin and Dave Howman with lyrics by Michael Palin. It was performed by sixteen-year-old Sonia Jones with a string and brass accompaniment in the style of a John Barry film theme, it is included on the CD Monty Python Sings. In 2013 Martin Chilton, the Culture Editor for The Telegraph website, listed it as one of the five best Monty Python songs. In 2009, Jones re-recorded the song for the opening credits of the six-part documentary series Monty Python: Almost the Truth, with altered lyrics referring to "Python" rather than "Brian". Five different versions were used for the first five episodes, with Jones sounding fed up with performing the song. On the sixth and final episode she was replaced by Iron Maiden vocalist Bruce Dickinson