A pickup truck is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate. Once a work tool with few creature comforts, in the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle reasons, by the 1990s, less than 15% of owners reported use in work as the pickup truck's primary purpose. Today in North America, the pickup is used like a passenger car and accounts for about 18% of total vehicles sold in the United States. Full-sized pickups and SUVs are an important source of revenue for GM, FCA's Ram, accounting for more than two-thirds of their global pretax earnings, though the vehicles make up just 16% of North American vehicle production; the vehicles have a high profit margin and a high price, with 40% of Ford F-150s selling for US$40,000 or more. The term pickup is of unknown origin, it was used by Studebaker in 1913 and by the 1930s, "pick-up" had become the standard term. In Australia and New Zealand, "ute", short for utility vehicle, is used for both pickups and coupé utilities.
In South Africa, people of all language groups use the term bakkie, a diminutive of bak, Afrikaans for bowl/container, due to the cargo area's similarities with a bowl. In the early days of automobile manufacturing, vehicles were sold as a chassis only, third parties added bodies on top. In 1913, the Galion Allsteel Body Company, an early developer of the pickup and dump truck and installed hauling boxes on modified Ford Model T chassis, from 1917 on the Model TT. Seeking part of this market share, Dodge introduced a 3/4-ton pickup with cab and body constructed of wood in 1924. In 1925, Ford followed up with a Model T-based, steel-bodied, half-ton with an adjustable tailgate and heavy-duty rear springs. Billed as the "Ford Model T Runabout with Pickup Body", it sold for US$281. In 1928, it was replaced by the Model A which had a closed-cab, safety-glass windshield, roll-up side windows and three-speed transmission. In 1931, Chevrolet produced its first factory-assembled pickup. Ford Australia produced the first Australian "ute" in 1932.
During the Second World War, the United States government halted the production of owned pickup trucks. In the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle rather than utilitarian reasons. Car-like, smooth-sided, fenderless trucks were introduced, such as the Chevrolet Fleetside, the Chevrolet El Camino, the Dodge Sweptline, in 1957, Ford's purpose-built Styleside. Pickups began to feature comfort items such as air conditioning. Trucks became more passenger oriented with the introduction of crew cabs in the Toyota Stout and the Hino Briska, was introduced in 1962. Dodge followed with a crew cab in 1963, Ford in 1965, General Motors in 1973. In 1963, the U. S. chicken tax directly curtailed the import of the Volkswagen Type 2, distorting the market in favor of American manufacturers. The tariff directly affected any country seeking to bring light trucks into the U. S. and "squeezed smaller Asian truck companies out of the American pickup market." Over the intervening years, Detroit lobbied to protect the light-truck tariff, thereby reducing pressure on Detroit to introduce vehicles that polluted less and that offered increased fuel economy.
The US government's 1973 Corporate Average Fuel Economy policy sets higher fuel-economy requirements for cars than pickups. CAFE led to the replacement of the station wagon by the minivan, the latter being in the truck category, which allowed it compliance with less-strict emissions standards; this same idea led to the promotion of sport utility vehicles. Pickups, unhindered by the emissions controls regulations on cars, began to replace muscle cars as the performance vehicle of choice; the Dodge Warlock appeared in Dodge's "adult toys" line, along with the Macho Power Wagon and Street Van. The gas guzzler tax, which taxed fuel-inefficient cars while exempting pickup trucks, further distorted the market in favor of pickups. In the 1980s, the compact Mazda B-series, Isuzu Faster, Mitsubishi Forte appeared. Subsequently, American manufacturers built their own compact pickups for the domestic market: the Ford Ranger, the Chevrolet S-10. Minivans make inroads into the pickups' market share. In the 1990s, pickups' market share was further eroded by the popularity of SUVs.
While the Ford F-150 has been the best-selling vehicle in the United States since 1982, the Ford F-150, or indeed any full-sized pickup truck, is a rare sight in Europe, where high fuel prices and narrow city roads make it difficult to use daily. In America, pickups are favored by a cultural attachment to the style, low fuel prices, taxes and regulations that distort the market in favor of domestically built trucks; as of 2016, the IRS offers tax breaks for "any vehicle equipped with a cargo area... of at least six feet in interior length, not accessible from the passenger compartment". In Europe, pickups represent less than 1% of light vehicles sold, the most popular being the Ford Ranger with 27,300 units sold in 2015. Other models include the Renault Alaskan, the Toyota Hilux; the NOx law and other differing regulations prevent pickups from being imported to Japan, but the Japanese Domestic Market Mitsubishi Triton was available for a limited time. The most-recent pickup truck on sale in Japan is Toyota Hilux.
In China the Great Wall Wingle is exported to Australia. In Thailand pickups manufactured for local sale and export include the Isuzu D-Max and the Mitsubishi Triton. In Latin and South America, the Toyota Hilux, Ford Ranger, VW Amarok, Dodge Ram, Chevrolet S-10, Chevrolet D-20, Chevrolet Montana are sold. In S
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
Intelligent transportation system
An intelligent transportation system is an advanced application which, without embodying intelligence as such, aims to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and'smarter' use of transport networks. Although ITS may refer to all modes of transport, the directive of the European Union 2010/40/EU, made on the 7 July 2010, defined ITS as systems in which information and communication technologies are applied in the field of road transport, including infrastructure and users, in traffic management and mobility management, as well as for interfaces with other modes of transport. ITS may improve the efficiency of transport in a number of situations, i.e. road transport, traffic management, etc. Recent governmental activity in the area of ITS — is further motivated by an increasing focus on homeland security. Many of the proposed ITS systems involve surveillance of the roadways, a priority of homeland security.
Funding of many systems comes either directly through homeland security organisations or with their approval. Further, ITS can play a role in the rapid mass evacuation of people in urban centers after large casualty events such as a result of a natural disaster or threat. Much of the infrastructure and planning involved with ITS parallels the need for homeland security systems. In the developing world, the migration from rural to urbanized habitats has progressed differently. Many areas of the developing world have urbanised without significant motorisation and the formation of suburbs. A small portion of the population can afford automobiles, but the automobiles increase congestion in these multimodal transportation systems, they produce considerable air pollution, pose a significant safety risk, exacerbate feelings of inequities in the society. High population density could be supported by a multimodal system of walking, bicycle transportation, motorcycles and trains. Other parts of the developing world, such as China and Brazil remain rural but are urbanising and industrialising.
In these areas a motorised infrastructure is being developed alongside motorisation of the population. Great disparity of wealth means that only a fraction of the population can motorise, therefore the dense multimodal transportation system for the poor is cross-cut by the motorised transportation system for the rich. Intelligent transport systems vary in technologies applied, from basic management systems such as car navigation. Additionally, predictive techniques are being developed to allow advanced modelling and comparison with historical baseline data; some of these technologies are described in the following sections. Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. Radio modem communication on UHF and VHF frequencies are used for short and long range communication within ITS. Short-range communications of 350 m can be accomplished using IEEE 802.11 protocols WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation.
Theoretically, the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad hoc networks or Mesh networking. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX, Global System for Mobile Communications, or 3G. Long-range communications using these methods are well established, unlike the short-range protocols, these methods require extensive and expensive infrastructure deployment. There is lack of consensus as to. Auto insurance companies have utilised ad hoc solutions to support eCall and behavioural tracking functionalities in the form of Telematics 2.0. Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move towards fewer, more capable computer processors on a vehicle. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems; the current trend is toward fewer, more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and real-time operating systems.
The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented, including model-based process control, artificial intelligence, ubiquitous computing. The most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence. "Floating car" or "probe" data collected other transport routes. Broadly speaking, four methods have been used to obtain the raw data: Triangulation method. In developed countries a high proportion of cars contain one or more mobile phones; the phones periodically transmit their presence information to the mobile phone network when no voice connection is established. In the mid-2000s, attempts were made to use mobile phones as anonymous traffic probes; as a car moves, so does the signal of any mobile phones that are inside the vehicle. By measuring and analysing network data using triangulation, pattern matching or cell-sector statistics, the data was converted into traffic flow information. With more congestion, there are
United States Department of Transportation
The United States Department of Transportation is a federal Cabinet department of the U. S. government concerned with transportation. It was established by an act of Congress on October 15, 1966, began operation on April 1, 1967, it is governed by the United States Secretary of Transportation. Prior to the Department of Transportation, the Under Secretary of Commerce for Transportation administered the functions now associated with the DOT. In 1965, Najeeb Halaby, administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency – the future Federal Aviation Administration – suggested to U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that transportation be elevated to a cabinet-level post, that the FAA be folded into the DOT. Federal Aviation Administration Federal Highway Administration Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Federal Railroad Administration Federal Transit Administration Maritime Administration National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Office of Inspector General Office of the Secretary of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Bureau of Transportation Statistics Transportation Security Administration – transferred to Department of Homeland Security in 2003 United States Coast Guard – transferred to Department of Homeland Security in 2003 Surface Transportation Board – spun off as an independent federal agency in 2015 In 2012, the DOT awarded $742.5 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to 11 transit projects.
The awardees include light rail projects. Other projects include both a commuter rail extension and a subway project in New York City, a bus rapid transit system in Springfield, Oregon; the funds subsidize a heavy rail project in northern Virginia, completing the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority's Metro Silver Line to connect Washington, D. C. and the Washington Dulles International Airport. President Barack Obama's budget request for fiscal year 2010 included $1.83 billion in funding for major transit projects, of which more than $600 million went towards 10 new or expanding transit projects. The budget provided additional funding for all of the projects receiving Recovery Act funding, except for the bus rapid transit project, it continued funding for another 18 transit projects that are either under construction or soon will be. Following the same the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014 delegates $600 million for Infrastructure Investments, referred to as Discretionary Grants.
The Department of Transportation was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2016 of $75.1 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act FOIA requests, published in 2015, the Department of Transportation earned a D by scoring 65 out of a possible 100 points, i.e. did not earn a satisfactory overall grade. Title 23 of the Code of Federal Regulations American Highway Users Alliance National Highway System National Transportation Safety Board Passenger vehicles in the United States Transportation in the United States United States Federal Maritime Commission Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center Official website United States Department of Transportation in the Federal Register This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Transportation
A highway patrol is either a police unit created for the purpose of overseeing and enforcing traffic safety compliance on roads and highways, or a detail within an existing local or regional police agency, concerned with such duties. They are referred to in many countries as traffic police, although in other countries this term is more used to refer to foot officers on point duty who control traffic at junctions. Duties of highway patrols or traffic police may include the following: Accident investigation Gathering evidence to determine the cause of a roadway accident. Commercial vehicle enforcement Enforcing highway laws related to commercial transport, including weight limits and hazardous materials rules. Education Providing public information and displays to encourage safe driving and usage of the roads. Emergency response Securing the scene of a traffic accident by using cones and flares as well as providing first aid to the injured. Law enforcement Assisting local police in rural areas, keeping an eye out for non-traffic violations.
Maintenance Observing and reporting damage to the roadways, conducting hasty road surveys after disasters or the passage of inclement weather. Traffic enforcement Enforcing laws and regulations intended to improve traffic safety, such as speed limits. In Argentina, traffic policing is the responsibility of the Argentine National Gendarmerie. In Australia, traffic policing is the responsibility of the state police forces; each force has its own traffic sections a local section in each area and a statewide section. Australian Capital Territory: Traffic Operations New South Wales Police Force: Traffic and Highway Patrol Command Northern Territory Police: Highway Patrol Unit Queensland Police Service: Traffic Branch, State Traffic Task Force South Australia Police: Traffic Services Branch Tasmania Police: Traffic Division Victoria Police: Highway Patrol, State Highway Patrol Western Australia Police: Highway Patrol, Traffic Enforcement Group In Belgium, traffic policing on highways is the responsibility of the Wegpolitie - Police de la Route a section of the Federal Police.
Wiki page about the WPR In Brazil, traffic policing is the responsibility of state and federal police forces accordingly to the highway administration status. State administered highways are policed by a branch of the Military Police forces, called State Highway Military Police. At the same time Federal highways and roads are the responsibility of the Federal Highway Police. In Canada, traffic policing on highways is the responsibility of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, except for the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Ontario Provincial Police Sûreté du QuébecThere is a third police force in Newfoundland known as the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, which serves several metropolitan areas. Although this police force no longer exists as the main provincial police service, it is in competition with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for the role; the provincial sheriffs' service in Alberta maintains a highway patrol that shares traffic duties with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and several provinces, e.g.
New Brunswick, have had their own highway patrols. Quebec operates the Contrôle routier Québec, who enforce traffic laws in relation heavy vehicles. In Colombia, traffic policing on highways is the responsibility of the Highway Police. In Croatia, traffic police special department is the national motorway patrol, patrols the motorways in Croatia. Missions include the detection of driving offences; the car fleet is BMW 330d, Mercedes-Benz C 320 CDI, Skoda Superb, VW Passat, VW Tuareg, Audi A4, Honda Accord, Ford Mondeo, Opel Vectra and Porsche Carrera 997. In the Czech Republic, traffic policing on highways is the responsibility of the Policie CR. In the Finland, traffic policing on highways is the responsibility of the Finnish National Police. In France, traffic policing on highways is the responsibility of dedicated units of the Gendarmerie Nationale, the Escadron départementaux de sécurité routière and the CRS autoroutières of the National Police. In Germany, traffic policing on highways is the responsibility of the Autobahnpolizei section of the Landespolizei.
In, traffic policing on highways is the responsibility of the Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service section of the Rendőrség. In India, traffic policing on highways are carried out by state police forces. Andaman and Nicobar Police Andhra Pradesh Police Arunachal Pradesh Police Assam Police Bihar Police Chandigarh Police Chhattisgarh Police Dadra and Nagar Haveli Police Daman and Diu Police Goa Police Gujarat Police Haryana Police Himachal Pradesh Police Jammu and Kashmir Police Jharkhand Police Karnataka Police Kerala Police Lakshadweep Police Madhya Pradesh Police Maharashtra Police Manipur Police Meghalaya Police Mizoram Police Nagaland Police Orissa Police Pondicherry Police Punjab Police Rajasthan Police Sikkim Police Tamil Nadu Police Telangana Police Tripura Police Uttar Pradesh Police Uttarakhand Police West Bengal Police In Indonesia, traffic policing is the responsibility of the Indonesian National Police's Traffic corps; the Indonesian Police Traffic corps oversees several units which regard to traffic policing including the highway patrol unit.
It conducts activities such as traffic law enforcement, control, accident handling and prevention and patrolling affairs in the country. The issuing of a driver's license is conducted by this u
Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows. The equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Compared with a full-size van, a minivan is based on a passenger car platform and has a less tall body; the largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. These have platforms derived from D-segment passenger cars or compact pickups. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to the largest size; the term minivan originated in North America in order to differentiate the smaller passenger vehicles from full-size vans, which were simply called'vans'.
The first known use of the term minivan was in 1959, however it was not until the 1980s that the term became used. The 1936 Stout Scarab is regarded as the first minivan; the passenger seats in the Scarab were moveable and could be configured for the passengers to sit around a table in the rear of the cabin. Passengers exited the Scarab via a centrally-mounted door; the DKW Schnellaster— manufactured from 1949 to 1962— featured front-wheel drive, a transverse engine, flat floor and multi-configurable seating, all of which would become characteristics of minivans. In 1950, the Volkswagen Type 2 adapted a bus-shaped body to chassis of a small passenger car; when Volkswagen introduced a sliding side door to the Type 2 in 1968, it had the prominent features that would come to define a minivan: compact length, three rows of forward-facing seats, station wagon-style top-hinged tailgate/liftgate, sliding side door, passenger car base. The 1956-1969 Fiat Multipla had many features in common with modern minivans.
The Multipla had a rear engine and cab forward layout. The Ford Carousel was a prototype developed in 1973 and intended to be released in 1975, however the model was cancelled as a result of the mid-1970s fuel crisis and company financial difficulties; the Carousel was designed as a family car that would fit into a typical 7 ft tall American garage door opening and had interior trim levels equivalent to a passenger car rather than a cargo van. In the late 1970s, Chrysler began a development program to design "a small affordable van that looked and handled more like a car"; the result of this program was the 1984 Plymouth Voyager. The Voyager debuted the minivan design features of front-wheel drive, a flat floor and a sliding door for rear passengers; the badge-engineered Dodge Caravan was released in for the 1984 model year, was sold alongside the Voyager. The term minivan came into use in comparison to size to full-size vans. In 1984, The New York Times described minivans "the hot cars coming out of Detroit," noting that "analysts say the mini-van has created an new market, one that may well overshadow the... station wagon."In response to the popularity of the Voyager/Caravan, General Motors released the 1985 Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari badge-engineered twins, Ford released the 1986 Ford Aerostar.
These vehicles used a traditional rear-wheel drive layout, unlike the Voyager/Caravan. By the end of the 1980s, demand for minivans as family vehicles had superseded full-size station wagons in the United States. During the 1990s, the minivan segment underwent several major changes. Many models switched to the front-wheel drive layout used by the Voyager/Caravan minivans, for example Ford replaced the Aerostar with the front-wheel drive Mercury Villager for 1993 and the Ford Windstar for 1995; the models increased in size, as a result of the extended-wheelbase versions of the Voyager and Caravan which were in 1987. An increase in luxury features and interior equipment was seen in the 1988 Ford Aerostar Eddie Bauer, the 1990 Chrysler Town & Country and the 1990 Oldsmobile Silhouette; the third-generation Plymouth Voyager, Dodge Caravan and Chrylser Town & Country— released for the 1996 model year— were available with an additional sliding door on the drivers side. The highest selling year for minivans was in 2000.
However in the following years, the increasing popularity of sport utility vehicles began to erode sales of minivants. North American sales of the Volkswagen Transporter ceased in 2003. Ford exited the segment in 2006, when the Ford Freestar was cancelled, Chrysler discontinued its short-wheelbase minivans in 2007 and General Motors exited the segment in 2009 with the cancellation of the Chevrolet Uplander, it has been suggested that the lesser popularity of minivans than SUVs is due to the minivan's image as a vehicle for older drivers. In 2013, sales of the segment reached 500,000. Despite the declining sales for the segment in the late 2000s, several European brands launched minivans in the North American market; the Volkswagen Routan was sold from 200
Highway Emergency Response Operators
The Highway Emergency Response Operators program is a freeway service patrol operated in metro Atlanta, United States by the Georgia Department of Transportation. It is a part of the GDOT's Office of Traffic Operations. Both the program and the individual vehicles are referred to by the bacronym HERO; the program began in Atlanta in 1994 as the city prepared for the 1996 Olympics and has since been expanded with GDOT's 511 Navigator Intelligent Transportation System program. The HERO unit's primary purpose is to minimize traffic congestion by clearing wrecked or disabled vehicles from the travel lanes and providing traffic control at incident scenes; as a secondary service, HERO operates as a service patrol. In addition to their normal patrol duties in metro Atlanta, HERO is deployed to assist with traffic control at the Masters Tournament in Augusta and along Interstates 16, 75, 95 during hurricane evacuations. HERO Operators are GDOT employees, distinguishing the program from freeway service patrols in other states, such as California, which are operated under contract by private tow truck companies.
The HERO day is split into four shifts: Alpha, Bravo and Delta. HERO operates seven days a week. HERO and CHAMP Operators work between 75,000 and 80,000 incidents per year. In Georgia, motorists needing HERO or CHAMP assistance dial 511 to reach the Traffic Management Center, GDOT's primary center for incident management. 511 is the number for general traffic information throughout the state of Georgia. State Farm began sponsoring the program in 2009 during state budget constraints; the HERO Unit now operates independent of state funding receiving its funds from the State Farm sponsorship, 511 sign sponsors, Federal Highway funding. In February 2017, GDOT expanded it to east Georgia with the Coordinated Highway Assistance & Maintenance Program, which performs all of the HERO functions, in addition to monitoring for any maintenance needs along rural state roads, it began at first by covering I-20 east from metro Atlanta to the state line including I-520 around Augusta, the middle of I-16 around Dublin.
The CHAMP program expand statewide in May 2017. To minimize major disruption of freeway traffic flow at incident locations. To focus on the factors that cause disruption in the flow of traffic and remove those factors. To relieve congestion and maintain a consistent flow of traffic at incident locations To reduce response time to traffic-related incidents The HERO Unit: Patrols the Atlanta-area Interstates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week Initiate measures to reduce traffic congestion and delays Provide support to law enforcement, first-response and other emergency agencies Assist in clearing stalled vehicles from the travel lanes Remove debris from the travel lanes Help stranded motorists with minor mechanical problems including: Changing flat tires and inflating flats Jump start weak batteries Provide fuel or water Provide transportation to safer areas The HERO unit is the only agency in Georgia that patrols the Interstates in Georgia 24 hours a day. HERO patrols: I-20 from Douglasville to Conyers I-75 from Emerson to McDonough I-85 from Newnan to Buford GA-400 from Atlanta to Cumming US-78 from Atlanta to Stone Mountain All of I-285 All of I-675 All of I-575 All of I-985 The HERO fleet consists of the Ford F450 utility box configuration as their primary patrol vehicle, the International Rescue Truck, the Ford F250 and Ford Expedition as supervisor vehicles, all painted in bright green.
A HERO truck can pull a loaded tractor trailer out of the travel lanes. Inside the trucks there are enough supplies to handle incidents from accidents and debris to the tools to get motorists back on the road. In 2017, GDOT began upgrading the fleet to the Ford F550 in both the traditional enclosed utility box design and a new utility half-box design. Since the HERO Unit was established in 1994, two operators have been killed in the line of duty. Spencer Pass was struck and killed in January 2011 while jumping a stalled car on I-85 in South Atlanta; the motorist survived after being pushed out of harms way. In 2016, the overpass at I-85 and Cleveland Ave was renamed in his honor. Moses King was killed in August 2015 when he was struck by an impaired driver that crashed into him on Atlanta's I-75/I-85 while providing traffic control for an earlier accident scene; the driver was arrested at the scene. Under Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue's Fast Forward Congestion Relief program, the HERO program was expanded.
Before the 2005 expansion, the HERO program consisted of 48 operators. This expansion as well as several others since added new routes to the HERO coverage area; as of 2015, GDOT's fleet of 90 HERO trucks cover over 420 miles of roads. The HERO units oversee the TRIP program which now requires an accident to be cleared enough to have traffic improved in 90 minutes from the time that the towing company arrives on scene and is given notice to proceed. Most towing companies pass this requirement because of assistance from GDOT in getting to the scene. Towing companies in the TRIP program must meet a minimum set of standards and pass inspections by GDOT; the approved equipment is issued a TRIP certification sticker. HERO Website Georgia Navigator website"Georgia DOT Office of Traffic Operations Highway Emergency Response Operators Official Web Site". Georgia Dept. of Transportation. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008