Bluefield is a town in Tazewell County, United States, located along the Bluestone River. The population was 5,444 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Bluefield WV-VA micropolitan area which has a population of 107,342. The micropolitan area is the 350th largest statistical population area in the United States. Bluefield is located at 37°14′39″N 81°16′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.0 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,078 people, 2,134 households, 1,423 families residing in the town; the population density was 669.9 people per square mile. There were 2,349 housing units at an average density of 309.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.30% White, 4.86% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.42% Asian, 0.12% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.41% of the population. There were 2,134 households out of which 21.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.3% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families.
30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.77. In the town, the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 22.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,157, the median income for a family was $44,000. Males had a median income of $34,167 versus $18,875 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,755. About 3.9% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.6% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. Bluefield has not always borne the name Bluefield; the town developed around a small post office named "Pin Hook" in the 1860s, named for a small creek that ran through the community.
For a brief time it was known as the community of Harman, named after a Civil War hero from the area, shot during the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain in Pulaski County, Virginia. After coal was discovered and a company was formed to build a railroad to the coalfields, the community's name was changed again to "Graham" to honor Col. Thomas Graham, a Philadelphia capitalist; the town was first chartered by the Commonwealth of Virginia as the town of Graham in 1884. The Norfolk and Western railroad chose Bluefield, West Virginia over Graham as the place to build its regional headquarters and main docking yards for the Pocahontas region; as a result, West Virginia grew at a much faster rate than did Graham. Graham operated under that name until a referendum on June 10, 1924, voted to change its name to Bluefield, Virginia; the name change was celebrated in a mock marriage ceremony held in the city park between officials of Bluefield and Bluefield, West Virginia, to celebrate the renaming of Graham. Its community had borders that are the same as the downtown area alongside the railroad of today's Bluefield, Virginia.
Graham continued to hope for development as a major city in the region. The Great Depression of the 1930s caused development in the region to come to a halt; the current Bluefield did not start to expand beyond the downtown area until the 1950s, when it annexed the small town of West Graham, Virginia to the west. It began to develop land in the more open rural foothills to the south of the city; as the largest town in Tazewell County, Bluefield has expanded since the 1990s and the first decade of the new millennium. After a series of devastating floods in the early 21st century, the town has relocated its town council chambers and police department from the flood-prone historic downtown area to the southernmost point in the city at the foot of East River Mountain; the area has been developed with a Super Wal-Mart and numerous strip malls, a medical center operating along U. S. Route 460. Bluefield's most prominent residents are an NFL Hall of Famer; this is considered one of the most significant historic homes in the city.
The Sanders House is now operated as the Tazewell County Visitors Center. The Walter McDonald Sanders House and Alexander St. Clair House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the town was chosen by Hollywood film producers as the site for the 1994 remake of the classic movie, Lassie. It has been mentioned by musicians in numerous songs, including Blessed Union of Souls' "Oh Virginia". Educational institutions include Bluefield College; the Bluefield Blue Jays, a minor league baseball team, play their home games at Bowen Field, a stadium in the city park that serves both Bluefield and its neighbor of the same name in West Virginia. Although the park is operated by the West Virginia city, the stadium lies within Virginia. Bluefield College hosts many sports programs, including basketball, soccer and now football. Graham High School's football team won the Virginia High School League's... Class 2... State Football Championship in 2018; the G-Men defeated Goochland High School 31-9 on December 8 at Salem City Stadium for the state crown.
Previous state football titles were won in 1962, 1989, 1995. Bluefield, Virginia Bluefield, West Virgi
Morgantown, West Virginia
Morgantown is a city in and the county seat of Monongalia County, West Virginia, United States, situated along the banks of the Monongahela River. It is known as the home of West Virginia University and the Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit system. With a permanent population of 31,073 per the 2015 U. S. Census estimates, Morgantown is the largest city in North-Central West Virginia; the Morgantown metropolitan area has a population of 138,176. Morgantown is tied to the Anglo-French struggle for this territory; until the Treaty of Paris in 1763, what is now known as Morgantown was contested by white settlers and Native Americans, by British and French soldiers. The treaty decided the issue in favor of the British, but Indian fighting continued to the beginning of the American Revolutionary War in 1775. Zackquill Morgan, son of Morgan Morgan, his brother David entered the area of Virginia that would become Morgantown around 1767, although others such as Thomas Decker are recorded as attempting settlements in the area a decade earlier.
As well, several forts were built in the area during this time: Fort Pierpont near the Cheat River, in 1769. Fort Morgan, at the present site of Morgantown, in 1772. Zackquill Morgan settled the area about 1772 by establishing a homestead near present-day Fayette Street and University Avenue. Morgan fought in both the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of colonel. By 1783, following his wartime duties, Colonel Morgan commissioned Major William Haymond to survey his land and divide it into streets and lots. Colonel Morgan received a legal certificate for 400 acres in the area of his settlement near the mouth of Decker's Creek. 50 acres were appropriated for Morgan's Town by the Virginia General Assembly in October 1785. On February 3, 1838, the Virginia General Assembly enacted a municipal charter incorporating the city, now with a population of about 700, as Morgantown, Virginia; the town became part of the newly created state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863, through the Reorganized Government of Virginia.
Notable early structures still standing in Morgantown as of 2018 include the Old Stone House, built in 1795 by Jacob Nuce on Long Alley and the John Rogers family home on Foundry Street, built in 1840 and occupied as of 2011 by the Dering Funeral Home. During the 1970s, the U. S. Department of Transportation built an experimental driverless personal rapid transit system in the city, citing the area's variable seasonal climate and geographic elevations as factors in testing the technology's viability; the Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit has been in use since 1975. University students use the system for free to travel between the spread-out campuses. Morgantown is located 75 miles south of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 208 mi north-northwest of Washington, D. C. 81 mi east of Marietta, 156 mi northeast of Charleston, West Virginia. Morgantown is just south of the Mason–Dixon line. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.62 square miles, of which, 10.17 square miles is land and 0.45 square miles is water.
Morgantown lies in the transition between a humid subtropical and humid continental climate, with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool to cold with a January daily mean temperature of 31.3 °F, an average seasonal snowfall of 21.0 inches and 1.7 nights of sub-0 °F readings. Summers are hot and humid with a July daily mean temperature of 73.2 °F and 12 days of 90 °F + highs annually. Precipitation is generous, with winter being May through July the wettest. Extreme temperatures range from −25 °F on February 10, 1899, up to 105 °F on August 26, 1893. Morgantown is made up of several neighborhoods, some of, independent towns that were annexed by the city as it continued to grow. Neighborhoods include First Ward, South Park, Jerome Park, South Hills, Second Ward, Suncrest, Wiles Hill, Sabraton, the Mileground, North Hills. While some of these, such as the Mileground and Sabraton, are in part or outside the city limits, they are still considered part of Morgantown; the City of Morgantown contained an estimated 31,073 residents in 2014.
The Morgantown MSA contains 117,000 permanent residents, including over 30,000 full-time students at West Virginia University. Fort Burris was erected in 1774 in; the fort was a settler's blockhouse located in what is, as of 2019, the Summers Masonic Lodge at the intersection of Burroughs and Windsor streets. During 1885–1888, the land in the Evansdale/Suncrest area was agricultural, with farms of 400–1,000 acres. Drummond's Chapel was named after a minister who moved to Missouri; the Evans Farm was located on land near Riverview Drive and 8th Street and was named for Colonel John Evans, who fought in the American Revolution with Morgantown founder Zack Morgan. The Krepps farmhouse was located on land where the West Virginia University Creative Arts Center and Agricultural buildings would be built. Dilley Farm was located on the other side of 8th street; the Van Voorhis Farm was large. Down Collins Ferry Road was the Anderson Farm; the Jacobs Farm was
Ohio State University
The Ohio State University referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large public research university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university and the ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862, the university was known as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College; the college began with a focus on training students in various agricultural and mechanical disciplines but it developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of then-Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, in 1878 the Ohio General Assembly passed a law changing the name to "The Ohio State University", it has since grown into the third-largest university campus in the United States. Along with its main campus in Columbus, Ohio State operates regional campuses in Lima, Marion and Wooster; the university has an extensive student life program, with over 1,000 student organizations. Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes. Athletes from Ohio State have won 100 Olympic medals.
The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference for the majority of sports. The Ohio State men's ice hockey program competes in the Big Ten Conference, while its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. In addition, the OSU men's volleyball team is a member of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association. OSU is one of only 14 universities; the proposal of a manufacturing and agriculture university in central Ohio was met in the 1870s with hostility from the state's agricultural interests and competition for resources from Ohio University, chartered by the Northwest Ordinance, Miami University. Championed by the Republican stalwart Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, The Ohio State University was founded in 1870 as a land-grant university under the Morrill Act of 1862 as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College; the school was within a farming community on the northern edge of Columbus. While some interests in the state had hoped the new university would focus on matriculating students of various agricultural and mechanical disciplines, Hayes manipulated both the university's location and its initial board of trustees towards a more comprehensive end.
The university opened its doors to 24 students on September 17, 1873. In 1878, the first class of six men graduated; the first woman graduated the following year. In 1878, in light of its expanded focus, the Ohio legislature changed the name to "The Ohio State University", with "The" as part of its official name. Ohio State began accepting graduate students in the 1880s, in 1891, the school saw the founding of its law school, Moritz College of Law, it would acquire colleges of medicine, optometry, veterinary medicine and journalism in subsequent years. In 1916, Ohio State was elected into membership in the Association of American Universities. Michael V. Drake, former chancellor of the University of California, became the 15th president of The Ohio State University on June 30, 2014. Ohio State's 1,764-acre main campus is about 2.5 miles north of the city's downtown. The historical center of campus is a quad of about 11 acres. Four buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Hale Hall, Hayes Hall, Ohio Stadium, Orton Hall.
Unlike earlier public universities such as Ohio University and Miami University, whose campuses have a consistent architectural style, the Ohio State campus is a mix of traditional and post-modern styles. The William Oxley Thompson Memorial Library, anchoring the Oval's western end, is Ohio State library's main branch and largest repository; the Thompson Library was designed in 1913 by the Boston firm of Allen and Collens in the Italianate Renaissance Revival style, its placement on the Oval was suggested by the Olmsted Brothers who had designed New York City's Central Park. In 2006, the Thompson Library began a $100 million renovation to maintain the building's classical Italian Renaissance architecture. Ohio State operates the North America's 18th-largest university research library with a combined collection of over 5.8 million volumes. Additionally, the libraries receive about 35,000 serial titles, its recent acquisitions were 16th among university research libraries in North America. Along with 21 libraries on its Columbus campus, the university has eight branches at off-campus research facilities and regional campuses, a book storage depository near campus.
In all, the Ohio State library system encompasses specialty collections. Some more significant collections include The Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, which has the archives of Admiral Richard E. Byrd and other polar research materials. Anchoring the traditional campus gateway at the eastern end of the Oval is the 1989 Wexner Center for the Arts. Designed by architects Peter Eisenman of New York and Richard Trott of Columbus, the center was funded in large part by Ohio State alumnus Leslie Wexner's gift of $25 million in the 1980s; the center was founded to encompass all aspects of visual and performing art
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
October Sky is a 1999 American biographical drama film directed by Joe Johnston, starring Jake Gyllenhaal, Chris Cooper, Chris Owen, Laura Dern. It is based on the true story of Homer H. Hickam, Jr. a coal miner's son, inspired by the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957 to take up rocketry against his father's wishes and became a NASA engineer. "October Sky" is based on the lives of four young men who grew up in West Virginia. Most of the film was shot in rural East Tennessee, including Oliver Springs and Kingston in Morgan and Roane counties; the movie received a positive critical reception and is still celebrated in the regions of its setting and filming. October Sky is an anagram of the title of the 1998 book upon which the movie is based, it is used in a period radio broadcast describing Sputnik 1 as it crossed the "October sky". Homer Hickam stated that "Universal Studios marketing people got involved and they just had to change the title because, according to their research, women over thirty would never see a movie titled Rocket Boys" so Universal Pictures changed the title to be more inviting to a wider audience.
The book was re-released with the name in order to capitalize on interest in the movie. In October 1957, news of the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik 1 reaches the town of Coalwood, where most people work in the coal mines; as the townspeople gather outside on the night of the broadcast, they see the satellite orbit across the sky. Homer H. Hickam Jr. filled with awe, sets out to build his own rockets to get out of Coalwood. His family and classmates' do not respond kindly his father John, who wants Homer to join him in the mines. Despite this, Homer teams up with math geek Quentin Wilson, who has an interest in rocket engineering. While their first launches are failures, they experiment with new fuels and designs and succeed; the local paper runs a story about them after a few of their launches. They are accused of starting a forest fire with an astray rocket and are arrested. After John picks up Homer, Roy Lee is beaten up by Vernon. John intervenes and rescues Roy Lee, warning Vernon that he will protect Roy Lee as Roy Lee's late father would have.
The four destroy their launch site. After a mine disaster, John is injured while rescuing other men. One of the miners, Ike Bykovsky, a machine shop worker who let Homer use the shop for rocketry and transferred for better pay, is killed. Homer drops out of high school and works the mine to provide for the family while his father recovers. Homer is inspired to look at a rocket science book Miss Riley has given him, learning how to calculate the trajectory of a rocket. Using this, he and Quentin locate the rocket while proving that it could not have caused the fire, as it was unable to travel that far; the boys present their findings to Miss Riley and the school principal, Mr. Turner, who follows up and identifies the catalyst as a flare from a nearby airfield. Homer returns to school by special invitation; this gives them the opportunity to participate in the National Science Fair in Indianapolis. As only one of them can go there, they elect Homer. Meanwhile, the workers' union goes on strike against John.
That night, when the family eats dinner, Vernon misses John. Homer and Jim express their concern to their father. Fed up, Homer confronts his father, a heated argument ensues; the mines are set to close down and there is nothing but trouble and no future for Homer in the mines. He resents his father's pressures to follow in the mine work and storms out of the house, vowing to never return. At the fair, Homer's display is received well. After a scheduled few days show, the prizes are to be awarded, Homer enjoys top popularity and some sightseeing. Overnight, someone steals his machined rocket part model – the de Laval nozzle – as well as his autographed picture of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Homer makes an urgent phone call home for help, his mother, implores John to end the ongoing strike so that Mr. Bolden, Bykovsky's replacement, can use the mine's machine shop to build a replacement nozzle. John relents. With the town's support, Homer wins the top prize and is bombarded with scholarship offers from colleges.
He is congratulated by his inspiration, von Braun, but does not realize the engineer's identity until he has gone. Homer returns to Coalwood as a hero and visits Miss Riley, dying of Hodgkin's disease. A launch of their largest rocket yet is the last scene of the film. John, who never attended any of the launchings, attends and is given the honor of pushing the launch button; the Miss Riley reaches an altitude of 30,000 feet — higher than the summit of Mount Everest. As the crowd looks up to the skies, John puts his hand on Homer's shoulder and smiles, showing Homer that he is proud of him. At the end of the film, a series of vignettes reveals the true outcomes of the main characters' lives. Filming began on February 23, 1998 a year before the movie's release. Although the film takes place in West Virginia, Tennessee was the location of choice for filming in part because of the weather and area terrain. Film crews reconstructed the sites to look like the 1957 mining town setting; the weather of east Tennessee gav
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of