Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps is a series of prehistoric pile-dwelling settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 B. C. on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands. 111 sites, located in Switzerland, Germany, France and Slovenia were added to UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 2011. In Slovenia, this was the first listed cultural world heritage site. Excavations, conducted in only some of the sites, have yielded evidence that provides insight into life in prehistoric times during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Alpine Europe, the way communities interacted with their environment; as the nomination stated, the settlements are a unique group of exceptionally well-preserved and culturally rich archaeological sites which constitute one of the most important sources for the study of early agrarian societies in the region. Contrary to popular belief, the houses were not erected on nearby marshy land, they were set on piles to protect against occasional flooding. Because the lakes have grown in size over time, many of the original piles are now under water, giving modern observers the false impression that they have always been this way.
Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps: UNESCO Official WebsiteOfficial website
Zürich District is a district of the Swiss canton of Zürich in Switzerland. In 1814, the former district of Zürich was established including the municipalities – "Landgemeinden des Bezirks Zürich" – surrounding the old city of Zürich, the so-called Altstadt; the district of Zürich as it exists today, was created on 1 July 1989, by splitting the former district of Zürich into three parts: The western part became the district of Dietikon. Therefore, since 1 July 1989, the district of Zürich shares the same area as the city of Zürich with its subdivisions totalling 409,241 inhabitants on an area of 87.78 km2. Since 1893 1934 the city of Zürich as well as the district of Zürich are formed by the old city of Zürich and by a total of 19 former politically independent municipalities: 1871: Schwamendingen excluded → Oerlikon 1893: Merger of Aussersihl, Fluntern, Hottingen, Riesbach, Wiedikon, Wipkingen and Altstadt → City of Zürich 1931: Merger of Niederurdorf and Oberurdorf → Urdorf 1934: Merger of Affoltern, Altstetten, Höngg, Schwamendingen, Witikon and Zürich → City of Zürich 1986: Zollikon excluded → Meilen District 1989: Exclusion of the remaining 13, excluding the city of Zürich, municipalities → Dietikon District Municipalities of the canton of Zürich Official website
The Obersee is the smaller of the two parts of Zürichsee in the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz in Switzerland. Zürichsee is the common name for the lower northwestern section of 68.2 square kilometres, while the smaller southeastern upper lake area measures 20.8 square kilometres, separated by the Seedamm causeway, a Molasse formation connecting Rapperswil with the Hurden peninsula. Before 1951 the annual water level fluctuated more than 1 metre, but since the water level is regulated and therefore between summer and winter differs an average of 40 centimetres; the average lake level is now at 406 metres above sea level, while Obersee and Untersee differ by only 1 centimetre. The Seedamm between Rapperswil and Hurden was used since about 5,000 years as a historical lake crossing. Since the 1870s a artificial road causeway and two bridges were added, to cross the most narrow and flatbedded area of the lake, carrying a railway line and road from Rapperswil to Pfäffikon. Seedamm divides the southeastern section of lower Zürichsee and Obersee, connected by the Hurden canal at Hurden, where the Frauenwinkel protected area is situated.
That bigger part of the Zürichsee to the west of the Seedamm, is situated in the canton of Zürich, smaller parts in the cantons of Schwyz and St. Gallen, whilst the upper lake is shared just between the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz. Zürichsee was formed by the Linth river. In 1811 the Escher canal was completed, which diverted the Linth river into Walensee from where its waters are carried to the east end of Obersee by the Linth canal, separated by the Buechberg hill. No other streams of importance flow into the Obersee besides the Linth and the much smaller Jona river. Obersee is characterized by its shallow depth and, compared to its volume, by the large inflow from the Linth canal; the theoretical residence time of water in the upper lake at medium Linth inflow is thus only around 10 weeks. In the near-surface layers of water, a slight upward trend in average temperature has been observed, resulting in the temperature stratification of the lake being more stable much longer into late summer.
The warm winters result in incomplete mixing of lake water to the depths. Walensee and Obersee are the main water supplier for Zürichsee, used in turn for more than a million inhabitants as drinking water storage. To ensure the quality of the drinking water supply, the water supply authorities of the city of Zürich therefore examine the quality of these two lakes; the neighboring cantons of Zürich, Glarus and St. Gallen participate in the monitoring costs. Since the early 1970s the water quality has improved thanks to extensive restructuring measures. All residents in the 1,740 square kilometres large catchment area are connected to sewage plants. Although every spring a circulation of the water occurs a visible lack of oxygen in July below a depth of 30 metres is observable, which lasts for several months. Following a 1978 inventory, in 1988 the University of Geneva took a second inventory of aquatic plants in the riparian zone of the entire lake area; the lake shore in the Canton of St. Gallen was divided into 50 portions of 500 metres in length and described by 12 different parameters.
The most important are the plants environmental information on aquatic plants, divided into reeds, floating plants and submerged vegetation. The dense vegetation zones are between 1 metre and 4 metres up to 5 metres depth. Instead of nutrients there is a high a load with floating mineral particles which prevents colonization of the sea floor in greater depths; the grade of colonization of the shallow water zone has risen again since the last observation in 1978, directly related to the increase in the maximum colonization zone. The vegetation consists only about one-fifth of emerging plants; the latter includes the reedbed: In 1850 90 hectares of reed beds were alone in the lower lake area yet been demonstrated. A comparison of aerial photographs from 1954 and 1987 shows in most shore sections of the machining area a significant decrease in the reed beds; the reed area has increased from 1978 to 1987 in the upper lake from 15 to 16 ha. It can be concluded that the reed banks are declined in the 1960s and 1970s, but that since at a low level takes place a slight recovery.
Lily as floating leaf plants covered with a declining trend. 56 of the 61 species in the entire Zürichsee colonize the upper lake and the lower lake 34. Most represented are the pondweed. In fact, there are no more original riverside forests on lake shore, except on steep slopes like the Fuchsberger Horn where a species-rich forest with oak and pine trees breeds. Worth mentioning is the small wooded area at the far end of the upper Bollingen peninsula. Outside of urban areas, the bank is planted with different density and broad trees stocks. Extensive shore sections are occupied by private gardens and parks. Although non-native and exotic shrubs and trees species occur and the lawns are intensively cultivated, the upstream water habitats form low-noise buffer areas to the underlying recreation and settlement areas. At several banks sections butt agricultural meadows and pastures directly to the wa
Seedamm is the artificial causeway and bridge at the most narrow area of Lake Zurich, between Hurden and Rapperswil. The Seedamm carries a road and a railway across the lake, with the railway being used by the S5 and S40 lines of the S-Bahn Zürich and by the Südostbahn Voralpen Express; the Seedam is based on an ice age moraine located between the three Swiss cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich; this morain formed a peninsula protruding from the south shore of the lake and containing the village of Hurden, a small island to the Rapperswil side of the lake, a section of shallow water dividing Lake Zürich and its upper part, Obersee. The causeway and bridges span this area of shallow water, are 1 kilometre in length and carry a road and a railway line. To the east of the modern causeway and bridge, there is the Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden, built in 2001 as a reconstruction of the first bridge between eastern and western lakesides around 1650 B. C. Situated to the southwest, Frauenwinkel is a mire landscape situated at the Seedamm' area on the easternly Zürichsee lakeshore between Hurden and Pfäffikon the Lützelau and Ufenau islands.
Around 1650 BC a first wooden footbridge led across Lake Zurich followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD when the Roman Empire built a 6 metres wide wooden bridge under Empire Marcus Aurelius. At Kempraten's Lake Zurich bay, the Roman transshipment harbour for goods was located that have been transported on the Roman streets, on the wooden bridge Rapperswil-Hurden and on the waterway Zürichsee-Obersee–Linth–Walensee. Historians mention a 10th-century ferry station assumably at the so-called Einsiedlerhaus in Rapperswil – in 981 AD as well as the vineyard on the Lindenhof hill – between Kempraten on lake shore, Lützelau and Ufenau island and assumably present Hurden, which allowed the pilgrims towards Einsiedeln to cross the lake before the prehistoric bridge at the Seedamm isthmus was re-built. By 1358, ferry services between Rapperswil and Hurden are mentioned. Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 metres in length and 4 metres wide.
A small wooden bridge from Ufenau island to Hurden is mentioned around 1430, so-called Kilchweg in die Ufenau. In 1873 the Swiss federal parliament approved the construction of the today's stone causeway and bridge. Construction works have been begun in 1875 and finished in 1878; the construction costs the sum of 1,462,000 Swiss Francs, of which 1,100,000 have been paid by the city of Rapperswil. In 1878 the Zürichsee-Gotthardbahn established the railway line from Rapperswil railway station via Seedamm. In 1939 and 1951 the now called. Whilst the bridge sections of the Seedamm allow smaller vessels to pass under them, the main shipping channel between the lower and upper halves of Lake Zürich now passes through the Hurden ship canal, cut through the base of the Hurden peninsular in 1942/43, thus placing the village of Hurden on an artificial island; this canal is spanned by the Sternenbrücke, which carries both road and railway. This bridge was November 2010 to allow 40 ton trucks to cross the Seedamm.
In 2001 a new wooden footbridge was opened alongside the causeway for the first 840 metres of the crossing. It was built in quite the same place as the historical lake bridge linking Rapperswil with the nearby Heilig Hüsli bridge chapel, built in 1551; this connection for centuries has been part of old pilgrimage routes, the so-called Jakobsweg to the Einsiedeln Abbey. At the beginning of the 21st-century, about 75 passenger trains and 24,000 vehicles crossed the causeway and the town of Rapperswil-Jona every day, as of 2016, an average of 26,000 vehicles. In order to relieve the traffic on road and rail during rush hours, Rapperswil-Jona is expected to participate as the first Swiss city in a pilot project for so-called Mobility pricing. Located on Obersee lakeshore at the Seedamm isthmus between the Zürichsee and the Obersee lake area, the area was in close vicinity to the Prehistoric lake crossings, neighbored by four Prehistoric pile dwelling settlements: Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld and Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum.
Because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO Worl Heritage Site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, the settlements are listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as Class A objects of national importance. Geneviève Lüscher: Brücken und Wege der Bronzezeit. Schweizerischer Nationalfonds. In: Horizonte, März 2005. Beat Eberschweiler: Ur- und frühgeschichtliche Verkehrswege über den Zürichsee: Erste Ergebnisse aus den Taucharchäologischen Untersuchungen beim Seedamm. In: Mitteilungen des Historischen Vereins des Kantons Schwyz, No. 96, Schwyz 2004. Hans Rathgeb: Brücken über den See. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Fussgänger-Holzsteg Rapperswil-Hurden, Rapperswil 2001. ISBN 3-9522511-1-9 Seedamm-Center Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden
Prehistoric pile dwellings around Lake Zurich
Prehistoric pile dwellings around Lake Zurich comprises 11 – or 10% of all European pile dwelling sites – of a total of 56 prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Lake Zurich in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich; these 11 – including one further on the nearby Greifensee and Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore – prehistoric pile-dwelling settlements were built from around 5000 BC to 500 BC and are concentrated within an area of about 40 square kilometres, on Lake Zurich Obersee lakeshore in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich; as part of a series of, in all, 111 European prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, they were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 2011. Archaeological excavations were conducted in only some of the sites, to preserve the heritage for future generations; the excavations yielded evidence that provides insight into life in prehistoric times during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Alpine Europe and the way communities interacted with their environment.
The settlements are a unique group of exceptionally well-preserved and culturally rich archaeological sites, which constitute one of the most important sources for the study of early agrarian societies. Contrary to popular belief, the settlements were not erected over water, but on nearby marshy land, among them on the Seedamm Frauenwinkel area, or, on the swamp land between the Limmat and Lake Zurich around Sechseläutzenplatz on small islands and peninsulas in Zürich; the settlements were set on piles to protect against occasional flooding by the Jona. Because the lake has grown in size over time, most of the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres, giving modern observers the false impression that they always had been. Of the transnational 111 serial sites are 56 – divided into 15 of 26 Swiss cantons – in Switzerland, where the excavations of the "Pan-European stilt house settlements" began. In spring 1855, in the context of work on land reclamation at Lake Zurich, the archaeologist Ferdinand Keller discovered the remains of the site Meilen–Rorenhaab.
The majority of the important sites of the so-called Horgen culture are situated on lakeshore, including Grosser Hafner on a former lake island and Kleiner Hafner on a peninsula at Sechseläutenplatz at the effluence of the Limmat, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai within an area of about 0.2 hectares in the city of Zürich. Worldwide unique are the prehistoric lake crossings on the upper lake between Rapperswil and Hurden on the Seedamm area, including the four pile dwellings Rapperswil-Jona-Technikum, Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn and Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld; the settlement Robenhausen at the Pfäffikersee is a unique site and researched by Jakob Messikommer at the end of the 19th century, as being continuously inhabited for thousands of years. Sources, among them area and location as well as coordinates and ID, used in the table base on Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, are listed as references; the list bases on the dates of December 2014. As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class A object of national importance.
Hence, the area of each settlement is provided as a historical site under federal protection, within the meaning of the Swiss Federal Act on the nature and cultural heritage of 1 July 1966. Unauthorised researching and purposeful gathering of findings represent a criminal offense according to Art. 24. Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps Peter J. Suter, Helmut Schlichtherle et al.: Pfahlbauten – Palafittes – Palafitte. Palafittes, Biel 2009. ISBN 978-3-906140-84-1. Beat Eberschweiler: Ur- und frühgeschichtliche Verkehrswege über den Zürichsee: Erste Ergebnisse aus den Taucharchäologischen Untersuchungen beim Seedamm. In: Mitteilungen des Historischen Vereins des Kantons Schwyz, Volume 96, Schwyz 2004. Official website
Lake Zürich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zürich. Depending on the context, Lake Zürich or Zürichsee can be used to describe the lake as a whole, or just that part of the lake downstream of the Seedamm at Rapperswil, whilst the part upstream of Rapperswil may be called the Obersee or Upper Lake. Lake Zürich is formed by the Linth river, which rises in the glaciers of the Glarus Alps and was diverted by the Escher canal into Lake Walen from where its waters are carried to the east end of Lake Zürich by means of the Linth canal; the waters of the Lake of Zürich flow out of the lake at its north-west end, passing through the city of Zürich. The culminating point of the lake's drainage basin is the Tödi at 3,614 metres above sea level. No streams of importance flow into the lake besides the Linth; the Seedamm, a artificial causeway and bridge, crosses a narrow point of the lake carrying a railway line and road from Rapperswil to Pfäffikon. The eastern section of the lake is known as the Obersee, German for "upper lake".
West of this dam lie the small islands of Lützelau and Ufenau, where in 1523 Ulrich von Hutten took refuge and died. Both shores are well fertile. Another touristic destination is the Au peninsula at the village of Au between Horgen. To the east – separated by Zürichberg-Adlisberg and Pfannenstiel – are two minor lakes: Greifensee and Pfäffikersee. Zimmerberg and the Etzel regions lie to the west. Administratively, Lake Zürich is split between the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz; the lower lake, to the west of the Seedamm, is in the canton of Zürich, whilst the upper lake is shared between the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz; the lake was frozen in the following years 1223, 1259, 1262 1407, 1491 1514, 1517, 1573 1600, 1660, 1684, 1695 1709, 1716, 1718, 1740, 1755, 1763, 1789 1830, 1880, 1891, 1895 1929, 1963 The three population and transportation centres are Zürich, Pfäffikon SZ and Rapperswil. Besides Bürkliplatz in Zürich and the Seedamm, there are no bridges across the lake; the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft – the Lake Zürich Navigation Company – provides with its 17-passenger ships touristic services on Lake Zürich.
There are a number of passenger ferry services, noticeably the Horgen–Meilen ferry, an auto ferry between Horgen and Meilen. Zürich, at the north-western end of the lake, is the largest city on Lake Zürich. On the west shore are Rüschlikon, Horgen, Wädenswil, Richterswil, Pfäffikon, Lachen. On the opposite shore are Küsnacht, Meilen, Stäfa, Rapperswil-Jona with the medieval town of Rapperswil, whose castle is home to the Polish museum. Schmerikon is close to the east end of the lake, a little further east is the larger town of Uznach. Lake Zürich's water is clean and reaches, during summer, temperatures well beyond 20 °C. Swimming in the public baths and beaches is popular; the best weather for swimming has been late August, with August 28 having the nicest weather at around 5:30pm. The lake's water is fed into Zürich's water system; the Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee comprises 11 of total 56 Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Zürichsee in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich.
Located on Zürichsee lakeshore, there are Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld, Rapperswil-Jona/Hombrechtikon–Feldbach, Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum, Erlenbach–Winkel, Meilen–Rorenhaab, Wädenswil–Vorder Au, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai, Grosser Hafner and Kleiner Hafner. Because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. On the small area of about 40 square kilometres around Zürichsee, there the settlements Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg on Greifensee and Wetzikon–Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore; as well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed as a Class object in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance. Obersee Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee Paddle steamer Stadt Rapperswil Paddle steamer Stadt Zürich Radio Zürisee Seedamm Zürichsee-Zeitung Media related to Lake Zurich at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Obersee at Wikimedia Commons Peter Ziegler: Zürichsee in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 28 February 2014.
Zürichsee Schifffahrtsgesellschaft—Boat schedules non-English. Zürichsee-Fähre Horgen-Meilen—Ferry schedules, in German. Waterlevels Lake Zürich at Zürich