The population was 55,468 at the 2010 census. Woodlands origins trace back to 1850 when California gained its statehood, since the town started growing in population and resources, it has not stopped. The area was well irrigated due to the efforts of James Moore, the endeavor was successful as people found the soil in the area very fertile. The city gained a federal post office and the year the county seat was moved from Washington to Woodland after Washington was flooded. The addition of a line, the close proximity to Sacramento. Before the settlement of the area by people of European descent, the Woodland area was inhabited by the Patwin, there are two main groups of Patwin and Coastal Patwin. Woodlands indigenous roots stem from the River Patwin who tended to stay closer to the Sacramento River, as opposed to the Coastal Patwin who lived in valleys in hills. The Yolotoi, a tribelet of the Patwin, occupied area near Woodland, although they didnt have a permanent settlement in present-day Woodland, it is believed that the River Patwin occupied the Woodland area in seasonal camps for hunting and seed gathering.
The Yolotoi and their neighboring tribelets had a main trading trail which followed Cache Creek, however, it has been found that some of the first farm hands in the earliest farms in Woodland were the Patwin people. In 1851, the year after California became a state and Yolo County was formed, Uncle Johnny Morris settled in what is now the corner of First, two years Henry Wyckoff arrived and built a store he named Yolo City. This new Yolo City might have stayed a singular store if Frank S. Freeman had not bought it, Freeman began to develop a town that he hoped would be a trading center for one of the richest crop-growing areas in America. He was giving land to anyone who would clear it and build their home on it, in 1859, Freeman suggested to the post office that the town be called Woodland and the post office accepted. Later, on July 5,1861, the Woodland Post Office was established and he lost no time in further developing the town by leasing or selling buildings for businesses to use. The 1860s were a time of opportunity for Woodland, the county seat was permanently moved to Woodland after Washington, California had flooded.
Schools, churches, and a cemetery were built at this time, the towns newspaper, the Daily Democrat, and a post office were established, and a rail line was built. In 1869, the California Pacific Railroad Company constructed a line between Davisville and Marysville with a Woodland station in the area of College Street and Lincoln Avenue, the rail line expanded and was eventually acquired by Southern Pacific Railroad. The track was relocated from College Street to East Street. The addition of the railroad is what led to the expansion of Woodland as a town, before the railroad came, people were building primarily on Main Street and northward
Sutter County, California
Sutter County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 94,737, the county seat is Yuba City. Sutter County is included in the Yuba City, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Sacramento-Roseville, the county is located along the Sacramento River in the Sacramento Valley. Sutter County was one of the counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the county were given to Placer County in 1852, Sutter County is named after one of the state’s more engaging and complex historical personalities, and an agricultural visionary. Sutter obtained the Rancho New Helvetia Mexican land grant, and called his first settlement New Helvetia, in 1850, Sutter retired to Hock Farm when gold seekers deprived him of most of his holdings at Sacramento. In the 1890s Sutter County was one of the two counties in California, the other was Riverside County. Both outlawed saloons and sale or consumption of alcohol in public, according to the U. S.
Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 608 square miles, of which 602 square miles is land and 6.1 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in California by total area, some 88 percent of the county is prime farmland and grazing land. Sutter County is home to the Sutter Buttes, known as the Worlds Smallest Mountain Range and this volcanic formation provides relief to the otherwise seemingly flat Sacramento Valley. Bordered by the Sacramento River on the west and the Feather River on the east, the Sutter Bypass, which diverts flood waters from the Sacramento River, cuts through the heart of Sutter County. Also, a 1795-acre State Park in the Sutter Buttes, in addition, there are the state public trust lands of the Feather and Sacramento rivers as well as smaller streams including Butte Creek and Butte Slough. State Route 20 State Route 70 State Route 99 State Route 113 Yuba Sutter Transit operates local bus service, Sutter County Airport is a general aviation airport located just south of Yuba City.
Sutter is a strongly Republican county in presidential and congressional elections, the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Franklin Roosevelt in 1940. In the United States House of Representatives, Sutter County is in Californias 3rd congressional district, in the California State Legislature, the county is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen, and the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher. On November 4,2008, Sutter County voted 70. 7% for Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages, the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. The 2010 United States Census reported that Sutter County had a population of 94,737. The racial makeup of Sutter County was 57,749 White,1,919 African American,1,365 Native American,13,663 Asian,281 Pacific Islander,14,463 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27,251 persons
The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, and is the largest river in California. Rising in the Klamath Mountains, the river flows south for 400 miles before reaching the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, the Sacramento and its wide natural floodplain were once abundant in fish and other aquatic creatures, notably one of the southernmost large runs of chinook salmon in North America. For about 12,000 years, humans have depended on the vast natural resources of the watershed, the river has provided a route for trade and travel since ancient times. Hundreds of tribes sharing regional customs and traditions inhabited the Sacramento Valley, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga named the river Rio de los Sacramentos in 1808, shortened and anglicized into Sacramento. In the 19th century gold was discovered on a tributary of the Sacramento River, starting the California Gold Rush, overland trails such as the California Trail and Siskiyou Trail guided hundreds of thousands of people to the gold fields.
By the late part of the mining had ceased to be a major part of the economy. Many populous communities were established along the Sacramento River, including the capital of Sacramento. Intensive agriculture and mining contributed to pollution in the Sacramento River, since the 1950s the watershed has been intensely developed for water supply and the generation of hydroelectric power. Today, large dams impound the river and almost all of its major tributaries, the Sacramento is used heavily for irrigation and serves much of Central and Southern California through the canals of giant state and federal water projects. The Sacramento River originates in the mountains and plateaus of far northern California as three major waterways that flow into Shasta Lake, the Upper Sacramento River, McCloud River and Pit River. The Upper Sacramento begins near Mount Shasta, at the confluence of North, Middle and it flows east into a small reservoir, Lake Siskiyou, before turning south. The river flows through a canyon for about 60 miles, past Dunsmuir and Castella, the Pit River, by far the largest of the three, begins in Modoc County in the northeastern corner of California.
Draining a vast and remote volcanic highlands area, it flows southwest for nearly 300 miles before emptying into Shasta Lake near Montgomery Creek, Goose Lake, straddling the Oregon–California border, occasionally overflows into the Pit River during wet years, although this has not happened since 1881. The Goose Lake watershed is the part of the Sacramento River basin extending into another state. Unlike most California rivers, the Pit and the McCloud Rivers are predominantly spring-fed, ensuring a large, at the lower end of Shasta Lake is Shasta Dam, which impounds the Sacramento River for flood control and hydropower generation. Before the construction of Shasta Dam the McCloud River emptied into the Pit River, the Pit River Bridge, which carries Interstate 5 and the Union Pacific Railroad over the reservoir, is structurally the highest double-decked bridge in the United States. The Upper Sacramento River canyon provides the route for I-5, below Shasta Dam the Sacramento River enters the foothills region of the northern Sacramento Valley.
It flows through Keswick Dam, where it receives about 1,200,000 acre feet of water per year diverted from the Trinity River and it swings east through Redding, the largest city of the Shasta Cascade region, and turns southeast, entering Tehama County
The Yolo Bypass is one of two flood bypasses in the Sacramento Valley located in Yolo and Solano Counties. It protects Sacramento and other communities from flooding through a system of weirs. These weirs connect the bypass to the Sacramento River as well as to various local creeks where the water is drained into the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Sacramento experienced several severe floods prior to construction of the bypass, during wet years, the bypass can be full of water. The main input to the bypass is through the passive Fremont Weir, the Sacramento Weir, just north of the city of West Sacramento, can be opened to divert additional waters to protect Sacramento and West Sacramento if needed. Cache Slough reconnects with the Sacramento River just North of Rio Vista, the Yolo Bypass contains the Fremont Weir Wildlife Area, Sacramento Weir Wildlife Area and Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area. Vic Fazio Yolo Wildlife Area is part of the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area and was the largest public/private restoration project west of the Florida Everglades, the entire bypass forms a valuable wetland habitat when flooded during the winter and spring rainy season.
In the summer, areas of the bypass outside the areas are used for agriculture. The bypass separates the city of West Sacramento from Davis, California and it is crossed by the Yolo Causeway, a long highway bridge on Interstate 80. To the north, Interstate 5 crosses the bypass on the Elkhorn Causeway, during the 1800s, the Yolo Basin would fill up in the winter months from three surrounding rivers water. This created a diverse ecosystem that could last more than 100 days. This resulted in limited travel and access between cities, the Congress approved the Sacramento River Flood Control Project in 1911, with a plan to divert the water through multiple weirs and bypasses. The Yolo Bypass is one of two major bypasses in the Sacramento Valley that helps deter urban flooding, the 59, 000-acre floodplain was designed in the early 1930s as part of the Sacramento Flood Control Project by the US Army Corps of Engineers. It lies just in between Yolo and Solano Counties, the Yolo Basin extends almost 40 miles long and 3 miles wide.
Almost 75% of the Yolo Bypass is privately owned, while the rest belongs to the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, most of the land is used for agriculture during the summer and spring, and the rest makes up marshland. This marshland is ideal for animal habitat, and is utilized for fishing, hunting. The Yolo Bypass provides habitat for over 280 terrestrial vertebrate species, the natural flooding provides an exceptionally good nursery habitat for native fish species, including the endangered Chinook salmon. Juvenile salmon have been found to grow better in the Yolo Bypass than the adjacent Sacramento River
A weir /ˈwɪər/ is a barrier across the horizontal width of the river that alters the flow characteristics of the water and usually results in a change in the vertical height of the river level. There are many designs of weir, but commonly water flows freely over the top of the weir crest before cascading down to a lower level, Weirs are commonly used to prevent flooding, measure discharge and help render rivers navigable. In some locations the terms dam and weir are synonymous, a dam is usually specifically designed to impound water behind a wall, whilst a weir is designed to alter the river flow characteristics. A common distinction between dams and weirs is that flows over the top of a weir or underneath it for at least some of its length. Accordingly the crest of a spillway on a large dam may therefore be referred to as a weir. Weirs can vary in size both horizontally and vertically, with the smallest being only a few inches in height whilst the largest may be hundreds of metres long, some common weir purposes are outlined below.
Weirs allow hydrologists and engineers a method of measuring the volumetric flow rate in small to medium-sized streams/rivers or in industrial discharge locations. Since the geometry of the top of the weir is known and all flows over the weir. However, this can only be achieved in locations where all water flows over the top of the weir crest, if these conditions are not met it can make flow measurement complicated, inaccurate or even impossible. The discharge calculation can be summarised as, Q = C L H n Where Q is flow rate of fluid C is the flow coefficent for the structure, Flow measurement weirs must be well maintained if they are to remain accurate. As weirs are a physical barrier they can impede the movement of fish and other animals up. This can have an effect of fish species that migrate as part of their breeding cycle. For example, weirs in the Great Lakes region have helped to prevent invasive Sea lamprey from colonising further upstream, mill ponds are created by a weir impounding water that flows over the structure.
The energy created by the change in height of the water can be used to power waterwheels and power mill, Weirs are commonly used to control the flow rates of rivers during periods of high discharge. Sluice gates can be altered to increase or decrease the volume of flowing downstream. Weirs of this purpose are commonly found upstream of towns and villages, by slowing the rate at which water moves downstream even slightly a disproportionate effect can be had on the likelihood of flooding. On larger rivers a weir can alter the characteristics of a river to the point that vessels are able to navigate areas previously inaccessible due to extreme currents or eddies. Many larger weirs will have built in that allow boats and river users to shoot the weir
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the portion of Californias expansive Central Valley. Its estimated 2014 population of 485,199 made it the sixth-largest city in California, Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento Americas Most Diverse City, Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr. his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr. and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutters Fort, which was established by Sutter in 1839, the city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento, California State University, Sacramento, is the largest university in the city and one of 23 campuses in the California State University system.
University of the Pacific is a university with one of its three campuses in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, located in nearby Davis, operates its UC Davis Medical Center and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the oak trees in the region, and by fruits, seeds. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley, a Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote, Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths, the air was like champagne, and drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. The valley and the river were christened after the Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, John Sutter first arrived on August 13,1839 at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutters Fort, representing Mexico, Sutter called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west, within just a few short years, John Sutter had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847, Sutter hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, Sutter received 2,000 fruit trees in 1847, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma and he hired topographical engineer William H
Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area
The Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area is located within the Yolo Bypass in Yolo County, California. The creation of the area was spearheaded by the Yolo Basin Foundation. The California Department of Fish and Wildlife and Yolo Basin Foundation are the partners in the operation of this unique community resource. Located at 38. 550515°N121. 626291°W /38.550515, in 1999, this 3, 700-acre restoration project was named the Vic Fazio Yolo Wildlife Area in honor of congressman Vic Fazio who lobbied hard for the funds needed to build the project. In 2001 the wildlife area expanded to over 16,000 acres with the acquisition of the Glide and these acquisitions included the 10, 000-acre Tule Ranch, a working cattle ranch with extensive vernal pool areas. Most wetland on the area are managed as seasonal wetlands. They go through a dry period during the spring and summer months. Typically these ponds are drained April 1 to stimulate the germination of Swamp Timothy and they may receive a brief summer irrigation and are flooded in September to provide wetland habitat for migratory waterfowl and shorebirds.
Permanent wetlands are flooded year round and tend to be deeper and have more emergent vegetation and these ponds provide important brood water for resident aquatic birds such as mallards, common moorhens and pied-billed grebes. They provide drinking water for wildlife as well as relief from summer heat. This habitat is used extensively for roosting by black-crowned night herons, the giant garter snake occurs in this habitat. Upland habitats are used extensively by ground nesting birds such northern harriers, western meadowlarks, vegetation is typically dominated by annual rye grass, curly dock and wild sunflower. Rodent populations in these areas provide prey for large numbers of wintering birds of prey, approximately 1,800 acres of natural uplands occur in the southwest portion of the wildlife area. There are several pools in this area that are home to such invertebrate species as tadpole shrimp, clam shrimp. Rare and endangered plants include Heckerts pepperweed and Ferris alkali milk vetch, grassland bird species in this area include grasshopper sparrow, Savannah sparrow and burrowing owl.
Riparian vegetation consists of willows, black walnut and other tree species, nesting species here include Swainsons hawks, great-horned owls, wood ducks, tree swallows, and black phoebe. This habitat is important for neo-tropical migrants such as blue grosbeak, ash-throated flycatchers. Most riparian vegetation is located along Putah Creek in the part of the wildlife area
Yolo County, California
Yolo County, officially the County of Yolo, is a county located in the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,849, Yolo County is included in the Sacramento-Roseville-Arden-Arcade, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county is located in the Sacramento Valley, much of Yolo County remains a relatively rural agricultural region. In the original act of 1850 the name was spelled Yola, Yolo is a Native American name variously believed to be a corruption of a tribal name Yo-loy meaning a place abounding in rushes or of the name of the chief, Yodo, or of the village of Yodoi. Yolo County was one of the counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. The county is governed by a board of five district supervisors as well as the governments of its four incorporated cities, West Sacramento and Woodland. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,024 square miles. Transportation in Yolo County is based on a system of numbered county roads, the numbering system works in the following way, North–south roads have numbers from 41 to 117 and increase from west to east.
East–west roads have numbers from 1 to 38A, and from 151 to 161, each integer road number is generally one mile apart, with letters designating occasional roads less than one mile apart. County roads entering urban areas generally are named once they cross the city boundary, some examples include County Road 101 in Woodland being renamed Pioneer Ave and County Road 102 in Davis being named Pole Line Road. Yolobus runs buses throughout Yolo County and into Sacramento, and Sacramento International Airport, the University of California and the city of Davis jointly run Unitrans, a combination local city bus and campus shuttle. Fairfield-Suisun Transit Line 30 stops in Davis on its runs between Fairfield and Sacramento, amtrak has a station in Davis. It is 79 nautical miles northeast of San Francisco, and is centered in the California Central Valley, the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. Yolo is a strongly Democratic county in Presidential and congressional elections, the last Republican Presidential candidate to win a majority in the county was Dwight Eisenhower in 1952, which is the longest drought for Republicans in any California county.
However, some Republican Governors have carried Yolo county since then, in the United States House of Representatives, Yolo County is split between Californias 3rd and 6th congressional districts, represented by John Garamendi and Doris Matsui, respectively. In the California State Senate, the county is split between the 3rd and 6th Senate districts, represented by Bill Dodd and Richard Pan, respectively. In the California State Assembly, the county is split between the 4th and 7th Assembly districts, represented by Cecilia Aguiar-Curry and Kevin McCarty, respectively. In November 2008, Yolo was one of just three counties in Californias interior in which voters rejected Proposition 8 to ban gay marriage, Yolo voters rejected Proposition 8 by 58.4 percent to 41.6 percent