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French Air Force

The French Air Force is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army was made an independent military arm in 1934; the number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 225 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 117 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale; as of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve; the Chief of Staff of the French Air Force is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff. President Macron has stated the intent to rename the French Air Force into the Air and Space Force, in recognition of the increasing importance of the space domain. French military aviation was born in 1909. After the approval of the law by the French National Assembly on 29 March 1912, French Military Aeronautics became part of the French Army, alongside the four traditional branches of the French Army, the infantry, cavalry and engineers.

France was one of the first states to start building aircraft. At the beginning of World War I, France had a total of 148 planes (8 from French Naval Aviation and 15 airships. By the time of the armistice in November 1918, 3608 planes were in service. 5,500 pilots and observers were killed from the 17,300 engaged in the conflict, amounting to 31% of endured losses. A 1919 newspaper report reports. Military Aeronautics was established as a "special arm" by the law of 8 December 1922. However, the remained under the auspices of the French Army, it was not until 2 July 1934, that the "special arm" became an independent service and was independent. The initial air arm was the cradle of French military parachuting, responsible for the first formation of the Groupements de l'Infanterie de l'Air,'Air Infantry Groups', in the 1930s, out of which the Air Parachute Commandos descended; the French Air Force maintained a continuous presence across the French colonial empire from the 1920s to 1943. The French Air Force played an important role, most notable during the Battle of France of 1940.

The engagement of the Free French Air Forces from 1940 to 1943 the engagement of the aviators of the French Liberation Army, were marking episodes of the history of the French Air Force. The sacrifices of Commandant René Mouchotte and Lieutenant Marcel Beau illustrated their devotion; the Vichy French Air Force had a significant presence in the French Levant. After 1945, France rebuilt its aircraft industry; the French Air Force participated in several colonial wars during the Empire such as French Indochina after the Second World War. Since 1945, the French Air Force was notably engaged in Indochina; the French Air Force was active in Algeria from 1952 until 1962 and Suez Mauritania and Chad, the Persian Gulf, ex-Yugoslavia and more in Afghanistan and Iraq. From 1964 until 1971 the French Air Force had the unique responsibility for the French nuclear arm via Dassault Mirage IV or ballistic missiles of Air Base 200 Apt-Saint-Christol on the Plateau d'Albion. Accordingly, from 1962, the French political leadership reprioritized its military emphasis on nuclear deterrence, implementing a complete reorganisation of the Air Force, with the creation of four air regions and seven major specialised commands, among which were the Strategic Air Forces Command, COTAM, the Air Command of Aerial Defense Forces, the Force aérienne tactique.

In 1964 the Second Tactical Air Command was created at Nancy to take command of air units stationed in France but not assigned to NATO. The Military Air Transport Command had been formed in February 1962 from the Groupement d'Unités Aériennes Spécialisées. Created in 1964 was the Escadron des Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air grouping all FCA units; the Dassault Mirage IV, the principal French strategic bomber, was designed to strike Soviet positions as part of the French nuclear triad. In 1985, the Air Force had four major flying commands, the Strategic Air Forces Command, the Tactical Air Forces Command, the Military Air Transport Command, CAFDA. CFAS had two squadrons of S2 and S-3 IRBMs at the Plateau d'Albion, six squadrons of Mirage IVAs, three squadrons of C-135F, as well as a training/reconnaissance unit, CIFAS 328, at Bordeaux; the tactical air command included wings EC 3, EC 4, EC 7, EC 11, EC 13, ER 33, with a total of 19 squadrons of Mirage III, two squadrons flying the Mirage 5F, a squadron flying the Mirage F.1CR.

CoTAM counted 28 squadrons, of which ten were fixed-wing transport squadrons, the remainder helicopter and liaison squadrons, at least five of which were overseas. CAFDA numbered 14 squadrons flying the Mirage F.1C. Two other commands had flying units, the Air Force Training Command, the Air Force Transmissions Command, with four squadrons and three trials units. Dassault Aviation led the way with delta-wing designs, which formed the basis for the Dassault Mirage III series of fighter jets; the Mirage demonstrated its abilities in the Six-Day War, Yom Kippur War, the Falklands War, the Gulf War, becoming one of the most popular jet fighters of its day

Monmouth Poor Law Union

Monmouth Poor Law Union was formed on 11 July 1836 in Monmouth, Wales In 1835, Monmouth Workhouse, a parish workhouse, was located in Weirhead Street. The building was demolished; the Monmouth Poor Union served various parishes of Gloucestershire. They were: The Monmouth Union took over the existing Monmouth Parish workhouse at Weirhead Street in 1837. In 1870 a new Monmouth Union Workhouse was built to accommodate 200 inmates, it was located on the West side of Hereford Road and consisted of four blocks of buildings: The Lodge, a receiving building, the principal building and the infirmary. The buildings cost £10,000 to build by H. P. Bolt & Co, were designed by G C Haddon of Hereford; the buildings stopped operating as a workhouse sometime after 1932 and the buildings at Hereford Road now form part of the classroom complex for Haberdashers' Monmouth School for Girls. The first recorded Workhouse in Monmouth was in Weirhead street; the building dated from 1760. It was Monmouth's workhouse for about 100 years.

The parish gave up the control of the workhouse in 1836. As the Union work house it provided accommodation for up to around thirty parishes in the surrounding area including Gloucestershire and Herefordshire. In the time it was a parish workhouse, inmates would have known each other and families stayed together; when it became the Union workhouse occupants were strangers and husbands and children were separated. The building was old and space was cramped which led to violent behavior by inmates. In 1868 it was decided that a new building was needed and a prize of £50 was offered for the best design; the competition was won by G. C. Haddon; the new building was opened on the Hereford road in 1871. The new union workhouse was an unhappy place. Discipline was strict; the cane was used on all including the young and the old. Solitary confinement regimes were in place; the Guardians were all men until the first appointment of a woman was made in 1910. Assaults of staff members were publicised quite often.

Misfortune was taken into account when punishment was dished out. There was controversy regarding tenders and monopolies on goods and services provided to the workhouse. Undertakers complained of a single provider of coffins which were quite converted fruit boxes from Birmingham. There was a failure to distinguish local misfortune with habitual vagrancy; some local people set up an Anti-Mendacity society in order to dissuade people from giving money and food to tramps. In 1900 the Guardians of Monmouth Workhouse decided there would be no extra treats at Christmas to avoid the impression that the Union was a charitable institution; the same year the Monmouthshire Beacon reported that inmates were refusing to work at the Union in order to be sent to the Gaol at Usk where conditions were an improvement on the Union. In 1885 the workhouse came under attack when the Guardians found one Gallon of Gin on the books with £60 spent on liquor by the workhouse master who maintained that it was medicinal.

However the secretary of the Western Temperance league worked out that the 167 inmates of the Monmouth Union must have consumed as much wine and spirits as 20,542 less fortunate inmates elsewhere

Zig Zag (1970 film)

Zig Zag released as False Witness, is a 1970 American thriller drama film directed by Richard A. Colla and starring George Kennedy; the film was remade in India as Majboor. Paul Cameron is an insurance executive, his family will receive nothing under his current policies, but there is a huge reward for information leading to the arrest of the murderer of a businessman. Cameron frames himself for the murder in the hopes of collecting the reward money for his wife in an anonymous bank account. Cameron is found guilty and sentenced to death, but is cured of the disease, escapes in order to find the real killer and clear his name. George Kennedy as Paul Cameron Anne Jackson as Jean Cameron Eli Wallach as Mario Gambretti Steve Ihnat as Herb Gates William Marshall as Morris Bronson Joe Maross as Lieutenant Hines Dana Elcar as Harold Tracey Walter Brooke as Adam Mercer Anita O'Day as Sheila Mangan The film score was composed and conducted by Oliver Nelson, the soundtrack album was released on the MGM label.

Allmusic's Jason Ankeney noted that Nelson did "a strong job of evoking the grittiness of their urban setting" and said that "Recalling vintage jazz in both its atmosphere and vigor, the music navigates though a series of mood and tempo shifts with the precision of a race car moving in and out of traffic". The album included two tracks with lyrics by Hal David sung by Bobby Hatfield and Roy Orbison singing the Mike Curb composition "Zigzag". All compositions by Oliver Nelson escept as indicated "All You Did Was Smile" - 1:41 "Main Title from "Zigzag" - 2:30 "Guilty, Your Honor" - 1:50 "It Was You, It Was You" - 2:30 "Love Theme" - 2:39 "Earphones" - 2:03 "Zigzag" - 2:50 "The Other Car" - 3:55 "Variations of Themes" - 4:50 "I Call Your Name" - 2:32 "End Title" - 1:05 Orchestra arranged and conducted by Oliver Nelson except: Tracks 1 & 10: Arranged and conducted by Don Peak with Bobby Hatfield - vocalsTrack 7: Arranged and conducted by Don Peak with Roy Orbison - vocalsTrack 9: Buddy Collette - tenor saxophone Artie Kane - piano Joe Mondragon - bass John Guerin, Victor Feldman - drums The film has been remade in India four times: the Hindi film Majboor the Telugu film Raja the Tamil film Naan Vazhavaippen the Gujarati film Naseeb No Khel Zig Zag on IMDb Zig Zag at Rotten Tomatoes


Rasalgad is a fort in the Maharashtra state of India. It lies 15 km east of Khed City; the fort has been developed as tourist attraction. Its fortification in good condition; the fort lied on a south end of a narrow spur which joins with Suamargad and Mahipatgad in the north direction. In 2003 this fort was declared as protected monument by Archaeological Survey of India. Little history is known about this fort; this fort was in the captivity of Morè of Javli from. In 1818 British forces captured it from the Peshwas The fort has a rush of visitors on weekends, it is on a small triangular plateau of five acres, fortified on all the sides. The two entrance gates are in good condition. There is a Veer Maruti idol near the first gate. There is a Zolayidevi temple on the fort with a stone Tulsi Vrindavan in the front. There are two large rock cut water cisterns on the fort. There are 16 cannons on the fort. There is a storeroom in good condition. Chakdev and Parvatgad are seen from the Fort; the village Rasalwadi is located at the foothill.

It is well connected by road. It takes about 10 minutes to reach the fort from Rasalwadi; the temple on the fort is favourite amongst the trekkers for night halt. The journey to the Suamargad-Mahipatgad trek begins from the Rasalgad. List of forts in Maharashtra List of forts in India Ratnagiri Marathi People List of Maratha dynasties and states Maratha War of Independence Battles involving the Maratha Empire Maratha titles Military history of India List of people involved in the Maratha Empire

Magnificat (Pärt)

Arvo Pärt set the Latin text of the Magnificat canticle in 1989. It is a composition for five-part choir a cappella, with several divided parts, its performance time is seven minutes. The composition is in a style which Pärt had invented in the mid-1970s. Tintinnabulation is the most important aspect of Pärt's Magnificat. According to Pärt's biographer and friend Paul Hillier, the Magnificat "displays the tintinnabuli technique at its most supple and refined." Pärt uses drones. Hillier says that "many pieces tend through length and repetition to establish a sense of timelessness or a continual present. Arvo Pärt's wife Nora has said of his music, The concept of tintinnabuli was born from a rooted desire for an reduced sound world which could not be measured, as it were, in kilometres, or metres, but only in millimetres.... By the end the listening attention is utterly focused. At the point after the music has faded away it is remarkable to hear your breath, your heartbeat, the lighting or the air conditioning system, for example.

Structurally, the work can be divided into. The verse sections include one voice which remains on third-space C, as well as a lower, melodic line; the tutti sections make use of four, or six voice parts. The soprano soloist joins in the tutti sections at times; the progression of sections is: Setting text to music can be accomplished in many different ways. Hillier says that Pärt "works outwards from the structure of the text." In the tutti sections, "the number of syllables determines the notes to be used...the stressed syllable is alternately the pitch centre and, in the next word, the note furthest away from it." In verse sections, Pärt "seems to have allowed himself an unusual degree of freedom...the stressed syllables do coincide with a change of melodic direction."While the texture is homophonic, a new rhythmic device is introduced when the choir sings "dispersit superbos". As if taking instruction from the text, the choir does, in fact, divide; the other voices rest a beat before continuing with the second syllable.

In his book Arvo Pärt, Paul Hillier provides helpful hints for performance of Pärt's works. He notes the difficulty of singing tintinnabular music smoothly, because the tintinnabular part is by its nature never stepwise, he continues, Another possible source of lumpiness arises from the frequent occurrence of longer notes in the middle of a phrase. These longer notes can go'dead', as the end of the note approaches there is a slight push as the voices lurch toward the next pitch Hillier advises careful attention to tuning of pure intervals, as well as rehearsing the music extra to understand the gravitas that must be expressed, he says, "It is no coincidence that I have borrowed these techniques from my experience with early music." The score for Pärt's Magnificat is published by Universal Edition, Austria. It is dedicated to Christian Grube and the Staats- und Domchor Berlin, who performed it for the first time in Stuttgart on 24 May 1990, it has been recorded by many groups, including the Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir under Tõnu Kaljuste.

Hillier, Paul. Arvo Pärt, Oxford Studies of Composers ISBN 0-19-816550-1. Smith, Geoff. "An Interview with Arvo Pärt: Sources of Invention", The Musical Times 140 19-22 24-25 doi:10.2307/1004490

Mwata Bowden

Mwata Bowden is an American jazz reeds player associated with the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians and an instructor in improvisational Jazz at the University of Chicago. He is part of a group known as 8 bold souls but frequently engages in collaborations with Tatsu Aoki, helped establish the Miyumi Project, a blend of music with different ethnic backgrounds, highlighting contributions from Japanese taiko drumming in the framework of jazz music; as part of his regular repertoire, Mr. Bowden plays a range of saxophones and clarinets, as well as flute and didgeridoo, he teaches young aspiring musicians in the Chicago area. Mwata has a son who performs "Disco Poetry" under the name Khari B. Mwata Bowden page at AACM site Mwata Bowden page at University of Chicago Music Department site