Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature, it is an reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine. The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times. Around 1630, chlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance. Carl Wilhelm Scheele wrote a description of chlorine gas in 1774, supposing it to be an oxide of a new element. In 1809, chemists suggested that the gas might be a pure element, this was confirmed by Sir Humphry Davy in 1810, who named it from Ancient Greek: χλωρός, translit. Khlôros, lit.'pale green' based on its colour.
Because of its great reactivity, all chlorine in the Earth's crust is in the form of ionic chloride compounds, which includes table salt. It is the second-most abundant halogen and twenty-first most abundant chemical element in Earth's crust; these crustal deposits are dwarfed by the huge reserves of chloride in seawater. Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis; the high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial bleaches and disinfectants, a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry. Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride, many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element; as a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-generating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. Elemental chlorine at high concentrations is dangerous and poisonous for all living organisms, was used in World War I as the first gaseous chemical warfare agent.
In the form of chloride ions, chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Other types of chlorine compounds are rare in living organisms, artificially produced chlorinated organics range from inert to toxic. In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion. Small quantities of elemental chlorine are generated by oxidation of chloride to hypochlorite in neutrophils as part of the immune response against bacteria; the most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times. Its importance in food was well known in classical antiquity and was sometimes used as payment for services for Roman generals and military tribunes. Elemental chlorine was first isolated around 1200 with the discovery of aqua regia and its ability to dissolve gold, since chlorine gas is one of the products of this reaction: it was however not recognised as a new substance. Around 1630, chlorine was recognized as a gas by the Flemish chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont.
The element was first studied in detail in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, he is credited with the discovery. Scheele produced chlorine by reacting MnO2 with HCl: 4 HCl + MnO2 → MnCl2 + 2 H2O + Cl2Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: the bleaching effect on litmus, the deadly effect on insects, the yellow-green color, the smell similar to aqua regia, he called it "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air" since it is a gas and it came from hydrochloric acid. He failed to establish chlorine as an element. Common chemical theory at that time held that an acid is a compound that contains oxygen, so a number of chemists, including Claude Berthollet, suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muriatic acid air must be a combination of oxygen and the yet undiscovered element, muriaticum. In 1809, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard tried to decompose dephlogisticated muriatic acid air by reacting it with charcoal to release the free element muriaticum, they did not succeed and published a report in which they considered the possibility that dephlogisticated muriatic acid air is an element, but were not convinced.
In 1810, Sir Humphry Davy tried the same experiment again, concluded that the substance was an element, not a compound. He announced his results to the Royal Society on 15 November that year. At that time, he named this new element "chlorine", from the Greek word χλωρος, meaning green-yellow; the name "halogen", meaning "salt producer", was used for chlorine in 1811 by Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger. This term was used as a generic term to describe all the elements in the chlorine family, after a suggestion by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1826. In 1823, Michael Faraday liquefied chlorine for the first time, demonstrated that what was known as "solid chlorine" had a structure of chlorine hydrate. Chlorine gas was first used by French chemist Claude Berthollet to bleach textiles in 1785. Modern bleaches resulted from further work by Berthollet, who first produced sodium hypochlorite in 1789 in his laboratory in the town of Javel, by passing chlorine gas through a solution of sodium carbonate; the resulting liqu
John Wilkes Booth
John Wilkes Booth was an American actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D. C. on April 14, 1865. He was a member of the prominent 19th-century Booth theatrical family from Maryland and a well-known actor in his own right, he was a Confederate sympathizer, vehement in his denunciation of Lincoln and opposed to the abolition of slavery in the United States. Booth and a group of co-conspirators plotted to kidnap Lincoln but planned to kill him, Vice President Andrew Johnson, Secretary of State William H. Seward in a bid to help the Confederacy's cause. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia had surrendered four days earlier, but Booth believed that the American Civil War was not yet over because Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston's army was still fighting the Union Army. Booth was successful in carrying out his part of the plot, he shot Lincoln once in the back of the head, the President died the next morning. Seward was wounded but recovered, Vice President Johnson was never attacked.
After the assassination, Booth fled on horseback to southern Maryland and, 12 days arrived at a farm in rural northern Virginia where he was tracked down. Booth's companion gave himself up, but Booth refused and was shot by Union soldier Boston Corbett after the barn in which he was hiding was set ablaze. Eight other conspirators were tried and convicted, four were hanged shortly after. Booth's parents were noted British Shakespearean actor Junius Brutus Booth and his mistress Mary Ann Holmes, who moved to the United States from England in June 1821, they purchased a 150-acre farm near Bel Air, where John Wilkes Booth was born in a four-room log house on May 10, 1838, the ninth of ten children. He was named after a distant relative. Junius' wife Adelaide Delannoy Booth was granted a divorce in 1851 on grounds of adultery, Holmes wed Junius on May 10, 1851, John Wilkes' 13th birthday. Nora Titone suggests in her book My Thoughts Be Bloody that the shame and ambition of Junius Brutus Booth's illegitimate actor sons Edwin and John Wilkes spurred them to strive for achievement and acclaim as rivals—Edwin as a Unionist and John Wilkes as the assassin of Abraham Lincoln.
Booth's father built Tudor Hall on the Harford County property as the family's summer home in 1851, while maintaining a winter residence on Exeter Street in Baltimore. The Booth family was listed as living in Baltimore in the 1850 census; as a boy, Booth was athletic and popular, he became skilled at horsemanship and fencing. He attended the Bel Air Academy and was an indifferent student whom the headmaster described as "not deficient in intelligence, but disinclined to take advantage of the educational opportunities offered him; each day he rode back and forth from farm to school, taking more interest in what happened along the way than in reaching his classes on time". In 1850–1851, he attended the Quaker-run Milton Boarding School for Boys located in Sparks, St. Timothy's Hall, an Episcopal military academy in Catonsville, Maryland. At the Milton school, students recited classical works by such authors as Cicero and Tacitus. Students at St. Timothy's wore military uniforms and were subject to a regimen of daily formation drills and strict discipline.
Booth left school at 14 after his father's death. While attending the Milton Boarding School, Booth met a Gypsy fortune-teller who read his palm and pronounced a grim destiny, telling him that he would have a grand but short life, doomed to die young and "meeting a bad end", his sister recalled that he wrote down the palm-reader's prediction, showed it to his family and others, discussed its portents in moments of melancholy. By age 16, Booth was interested in the theater and in politics, he became a delegate from Bel Air to a rally by the Know Nothing Party for Henry Winter Davis, the anti-immigrant party's candidate for Congress in the 1854 elections. Booth aspired to follow in the footsteps of his father and his actor brothers Edwin and Junius Brutus, Jr, he began studying Shakespeare. Booth made his stage debut at age 17 on August 14, 1855 in the supporting role of the Earl of Richmond in Richard III at Baltimore's Charles Street Theatre; the audience jeered at him. He began acting at Baltimore's Holliday Street Theater, owned by John T. Ford, where the Booths had performed frequently.
In 1857, he joined the stock company of the Arch Street Theatre in Philadelphia, where he played for a full season. At his request, he was billed as "J. B. Wilkes", a pseudonym meant to avoid comparison with other members of his famous thespian family. Jim Bishop wrote that Booth "developed into an outrageous scene stealer, but he played his parts with such heightened enthusiasm that the audiences idolized him." In February 1858, he played in Lucrezia Borgia at the Arch Street Theatre. On opening night, he stumbled over his line. Instead of introducing himself by saying, "Madame, I am Petruchio Pandolfo", he stammered, "Madame, I am Pondolfio Pet—Pedolfio Pat—Pantuchio Ped—dammit! Who am I?", causing the audience to roar with laughter. That year, Booth played the part of Mohegan Indian Chief Uncas in a play staged in Petersburg and became a stock company actor at the Richmond Theatre in Virginia, where he became popular with audiences for his energetic performances. On October 5, 1858, he played the part of Horatio in Hamlet, alongside his older brother Edwin in the title role.
Afterward, Edwin led him to the theater's footlights and said to the audience, "I think h
Fort Presque Isle
Fort Presque Isle was a fort built by French soldiers in summer 1753 along Presque Isle Bay at present-day Erie, Pennsylvania, to protect the northern terminus of the Venango Path. It was the first of the French posts built in the Ohio Country, was part of a line that included Fort Le Boeuf, Fort Machault, Fort Duquesne; the fort was built as part of the French military occupation of the Ohio Country. After the 1759 British victory at the Battle of Fort Niagara, the French burned the fort and retreated from the area; the British built a new Fort Presque Isle, captured by American Indians during Pontiac's Rebellion. On June 19, 1763, the fort was surrounded by about 250 Ottawas, Ojibwas and Senecas. After holding out for two days, the garrison of sixty men surrendered on the condition that they could return to Fort Pitt. Most were instead killed after emerging from the fort. General Anthony Wayne first arrived in the area of Presque Isle in 1786. In 1795, 200 Federal troops from Wayne's army, under the direction of Captain John Grubb, built a blockhouse on Garrison Hill, in present-day Erie, Pennsylvania.
Named Fort Presque Isle, the blockhouse was used as part of a defense against Native American uprisings. It was used during the War of 1812. General Wayne was stricken ill at Fort Presque Isle and died there in 1796. At his request, his body was buried under the flagpole of the northwest blockhouse of the fort; this blockhouse burned in 1852. In 1880, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania reconstructed the blockhouse at Second and Ash Streets, Erie, as a memorial to General Wayne; the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission has recognized the reconstructed blockhouse as eligible for placement on the National Register of Historic Places. The blockhouse is located at N 42° 08.400, W 80° 04.463. References "The Frontier Forts of Western Pennsylvania," Albert, George Dallas, C. M. Busch, state printer, Harrisburg, PA, 1896. Tracing of plan of Erie, on pg. 536b, shows the "old French fort" between Front Street and Second Street, on the northeast side of Parade Street. Google Earth indicates this position is 42.137085 -80.079374 2002 Congressional Resolution to Reconstruct the fort Location of the General Wayne Blockhouse Sackville-Stoner Winifred, "Sketches of Fort Presque Isle", Pennsylvania, 1903
John Abeel III, known as Gaiänt'wakê or Kaiiontwa'kon in the Seneca language and thus known as Cornplanter, was a Seneca war chief and diplomat of the Wolf clan. As a chief warrior, Cornplanter fought in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. In both wars, the Seneca and three other Iroquois nations were allied with the British. After the war Cornplanter led negotiations with the United States and was a signatory of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, he helped gain Iroquois neutrality during the Northwest Indian War. In the postwar years, Cornplanter worked to learn more about European-American ways and invited Quakers to establish schools in Seneca territory. Disillusioned by his people's poor reaction to European-American society, he had the schools closed and followed his half-brother Handsome Lake's movement returning to the traditional Seneca way and religion; the United States government granted him about 1500 acres of former Seneca territory in Pennsylvania in 1796 for "him and his heirs forever", which became known as the Cornplanter Tract.
Still occupied by his descendants and holding his and many of their graves, the tract was planned by the federal government to be flooded as the site of a man-made reservoir after 1965 by completion of the Kinzua Dam on the Allegheny River. The remains of Cornplanter, his descendants, an 1866 monument to him were relocated. Most of the remaining residents were forced to relocate to the Allegany Reservation of the federally recognized Seneca Nation of New York. Cornplanter was born between 1732 and 1746 at Canawaugus on the Genesee River in present-day New York State, he was the son of a Seneca woman, Gah-hon-no-neh, a Dutch trader, Johannes "John" Abeel II. The Dutch had settled in the area generations before, Cornplanter's father, an Albany fur trader, was part of an established family; the Abeel family name was sometimes Gaelicized to O'Beal and Abeele. John Abeel II was connected to leaders in business and politics; the grandfather after whom he was named, Johannes Abeel I, was a trader and merchant who built up links with the indigenous people along his trade routes, who served as the second mayor of Albany the capital of New York.
The younger John Abeel was a gunsmith and was gladly accepted into the Indian community to repair their guns. Cornplanter was raised by his mother among the Seneca, his Seneca name, Gaiänt'wakê, means "the planter," and another variation, means "by what one plants." As the Seneca and other Iroquois nations had a matrilineal system of kinship, Cornplanter was considered a member of his mother's clan, the Wolf Clan, which included many leaders in the relations between settlers and Indians, gained his status from them. Males of the Wolf clan had a traditional function as war chiefs. Cornplanter first became known as war chief of the Seneca when they allied with the French against the English during the French and Indian War, he was present at Braddock's defeat. During the American Revolution, both Cornplanter and his uncle, Chief Guyasutha, wanted the Iroquois nations to remain neutral, he believed. "War is war," he told other Iroquois. "Death is death. A fight is a hard business." Both the British and the American Patriots had urged the Iroquois nations to stay neutral.
Both sides told Indians that there was no need for their involvement. When the fighting between the Colonists and the British heated up, however; the British offered large amounts of goods rum and other goods, built on their long trading relationship. The Iroquois League met together at Oswego in July 1777. Although Guysutha and Cornplanter voted for neutrality, when the majority of chiefs voted to side with the British, they both honored the majority decision; because of the status of the Seneca as war chiefs among the Iroquois, most of the Iroquois Confederacy followed suit. Still, bands made their own decisions as the people were decentralized; the Iroquois named Sayenqueraghta and Cornplanter as war chiefs of the four nations that allied with the British: the Mohawk, Seneca and Cayuga. Cornplanter joined forces with the Loyalist Lt. Colonel John Butler and his rangers at the 1778 Battle of Wyoming Valley in present-day Pennsylvania, they killed many settlers and destroyed their properties, in what the rebel Americans called the Wyoming Massacre.
Fighting on the frontier was fierce. Patriot forces under Colonel Thomas Hartley burned the Seneca village of Tioga. In reprisal and Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant participated in the 1778 Loyalist-Iroquois attacks led by Captain Walter Butler and Butler's Rangers in Cherry Valley, New York; the Americans called these events the Cherry Valley Massacre. During this offensive many unarmed patriot civilians were captured. During this campaign, Cornplanter's men happened to capture his father Johannes Abeel after burning his house. Cornplanter, who had once gone as a young man to see Abeel, offered apology, he invited Abeel to go back to his white family. When his father chose the latter, Cornplanter had Seneca warriors accompany him in safety. After the victories of the Loyalist and Iroquois forces, commander-in-chief General George Washington commissioned Major General John Sullivan to invade Six Nation territory throughout New York an
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream. Riparian is the proper nomenclature for one of the terrestrial biomes of the Earth. Plant habitats and communities along the river margins and banks are called riparian vegetation, characterized by hydrophilic plants. Riparian zones are important in ecology, environmental resource management, civil engineering because of their role in soil conservation, their habitat biodiversity, the influence they have on fauna and aquatic ecosystems, including grasslands, wetlands, or non-vegetative areas. In some regions the terms riparian woodland, riparian forest, riparian buffer zone, riparian corridor and riparian strip are used to characterize a riparian zone; the word riparian is derived from Latin ripa. Riparian zones may be natural or engineered for soil restoration; these zones are important natural biofilters, protecting aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, polluted surface runoff and erosion. They supply shelter and food for many aquatic animals and shade that limits stream temperature change.
When riparian zones are damaged by construction, agriculture or silviculture, biological restoration can take place by human intervention in erosion control and revegetation. If the area adjacent to a watercourse has standing water or saturated soil for as long as a season, it is termed a wetland because of its hydric soil characteristics; because of their prominent role in supporting a diversity of species, riparian zones are the subject of national protection in a biodiversity action plan. These are known as a "Plant or Vegetation Waste Buffer". Research shows that riparian zones are instrumental in water quality improvement for both surface runoff and water flowing into streams through subsurface or groundwater flow. Riparian zones can play a role in lowering nitrate contamination in surface runoff, such as manure and other fertilizers from agricultural fields, that would otherwise damage ecosystems and human health; the attenuation of nitrate or denitrification of the nitrates from fertilizer in this buffer zone is important.
The use of wetland riparian zones shows a high rate of removal of nitrate entering a stream and thus has a place in agricultural management. Riparian zones dissipate stream energy; the meandering curves of a river, combined with vegetation and root systems, slow the flow of water, which reduces soil erosion and flood damage. Sediment is trapped, reducing suspended solids to create less turbid water, replenish soils, build stream banks. Pollutants are filtered from surface runoff; the riparian zones provide wildlife habitat, increased biodiversity, wildlife corridors, enabling aquatic and riparian organisms to move along river systems avoiding isolated communities. Riparian vegetation can provide forage for wildlife and livestock. Riparian zones are important for the fish that live within rivers, such as brook and charr. Impacts to riparian zones can affect fish, restoration is not always sufficient to recover fish populations, they provide native landscape irrigation by extending perennial flows of water.
Nutrients from terrestrial vegetation are transferred to aquatic food webs. The vegetation surrounding the stream helps to shade the water, mitigating water temperature changes; the vegetation contributes wood debris to streams, important to maintaining geomorphology. From a social aspect, riparian zones contribute to nearby property values through amenity and views, they improve enjoyment for footpaths and bikeways through supporting foreshoreway networks. Space is created for riparian sports such as fishing and launching for vessels and paddlecraft; the riparian zone acts as a sacrificial erosion buffer to absorb impacts of factors including climate change, increased runoff from urbanization and increased boat wake without damaging structures located behind a setback zone. The protection of riparian zones is a consideration in logging operations; the undisturbed soil, soil cover, vegetation provide shade, plant litter, woody material, reduce the delivery of soil eroded from the harvested area.
Factors such as soil types and root structures, climatic conditions and vegetative cover determine the effectiveness of riparian buffering. The assortment of riparian zone trees varies from those of wetlands and consists of plants that are either emergent aquatic plants, or herbs and shrubs that thrive in proximity to water. Herbaceous Perennial: Herbaceous Perennial: In western North America and the Pacific coast, the riparian vegetation includes: Riparian trees Riparian shrubs Other plants In Asia there are different types of riparian vegetation, but the interactions between hydrology and ecology are similar as occurs in other geographic areas. Typical riparian vegetation in Temperate New South Wales, Australia include: Typical riparian zone trees in Central Europe include: Land clearing followed by floods can erode a riverbank, taking valuable grasses and soils downstream, allowing the sun to bake the land dry. Natural Sequence Farming techniques have been used in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia, in an attempt to restore eroded farms to optimum productivity.
The Natural Sequence Farming technique involves placing obstacles in the water's pathway to lessen the energy of a flood, help the water to deposit soil and seep into the flood zone. Another technique is to establish ecological succession by encouraging fast-growing plants such as "weeds" to grow; these may spread along the watercourse and cause enviro
Saegertown is a borough in Crawford County, United States. The population was 997 at the 2010 census, it was established in 1824. "The settlement began at was is now known. 1795, when the brothers and Patrick McGill, came to Woodcock Township. After Major Roger Alden built a sawmill in Saegertown 1800, the settlement was known for several years as Aldens Mill. In 1824, Daniel Saeger bought Alden's mill and adjacent lands and at the age of 44, he laid out the town under its present name. Saeger, a native of Pennsylvania of German descent, left Egypt, Pa. in 1823 to find a suitable place to settle. After he arrived in Saegertown, he attracted to the area a large number of German Yeomanry from Lehigh and other eastern Pa. counties. Being active in the community, Saeger was an early member of the Lutheran Church, the owner of a sawmill and general store, a justice of the peace, he was a member of the Pa. State Legislature." The Edward Saeger House was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.
Saegertown is located north of the center of Crawford County at 41°43′10″N 80°8′44″W. It is bordered to the north and south by Woodcock Township and to the west, across French Creek, by Hayfield Township. U. S. Route 19 and 6 pass together through the center of town, leading northeast 8 miles to Cambridge Springs and south 6 miles to Meadville, the Crawford County seat. Pennsylvania Route 198 leads southeast 6 miles to Blooming Valley and west 3 miles to Exit 154 on Interstate 79. Via I-79 it is 95 miles south to Pittsburgh. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.5 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,071 people, 361 households, 251 families residing in the borough; the population density was 743.5 people per square mile. There were 378 housing units at an average density of 262.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 95.05% White, 2.52% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.65% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.65% of the population. There were 361 households, out of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.94. In the borough the population was spread out, with 20.5% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 122.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 125.1 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $32,500, the median income for a family was $39,688. Males had a median income of $28,281 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $16,163. About 4.0% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
Borough of Saegertown official website