French Dahomey was a French colony of and a part of French West Africa from 1894 to 1958. After World War II, by the establishment of the French Fourth Republic in 1947, Dahomey became part of the French Union with an increased autonomy. On 11 December 1958, the French Fifth Republic was established and the French Union became the French Community; the colony became the self-governing Republic of Dahomey within the Community, two years on 1 August 1960, it gained full independence. Kingdom of Dahomey During the 13th century, the indigenous Edo people of the west Niger area were run by a group of local chieftains, but by the 15th century a single ruler known as the'oba' had asserted control, creating the Kingdom of Dahomey. Under the dynasty established by Ewuare the Great, the most famous of the obas, Dahoney's territory expanded to cover a region between the Niger River delta and what is now the Nigerian city of Lagos; the obas brought great prosperity and a organized state to Benin. They established good relations and an extensive slave trade with the Portuguese and Dutch who arrived from the 15th century onwards.
The decline of the obas began in the 18th century when a series of internal power struggles began which lasted into the 19th century. ColonyThe French takeover and colonization of the Kingdom of Dahomey began in 1872; the First Franco-Dahomean War in 1890 further weakened it. The Second Franco-Dahomean War resulted in it becoming a French protectorate in 1894. A decree dated 22 June 1894 created the Colonie du Dahomey et dépendances, to be incorporated into French West Africa in 1904. Under the French, a port was constructed at Cotonou, railroads were built. School facilities were expanded by Roman Catholic missions. In 1946, Dahomey became an overseas territory with its own parliament and representation in the French national assembly. On 4 December 1958, it became the Republic of Dahomey. IndependenceOn 1 August 1960, the Republic of Dahomey gained full independence from France; the republic's first president was Hubert Maga, the Prime Minister during the overseas territory's last year under French rule.
List of the colonial governors of French Dahomey Kingdom of Dahomey French West Africa Chafer, Tony. The End of Empire in French West Africa: France's Successful Decolonization. Berg. ISBN 1-85973-557-6
The northern screamer known as the black-necked screamer, is a large species of bird in the small family Anhimidae, the screamers. It is a resident breeder in northern Colombia, in Chocó, Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Magdalena and Cesar Departments and northwestern Venezuela, in Zulia, Mérida, Trujillo States. On average, they weigh about 3.9 kg. They are designated as Near Threatened due to agriculture, biological resource use, water management, pollution from waste water and industry. Few zoos keep the northern screamer, most of those that do are located in Colombia; these zoos include the Cali Zoo, the Matecaña City Zoo in Pereira and the Guatika Zoo in Tibasosa, Boyacá. The National Aviary in Cartagena has these birds. Clements, The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World, Cornell University Press, Ithaca
Helena Lefroy was an Irish botanist known for her discovery of the only Euphorbia peplis specimen in Ireland. Helena Lefroy was born Helena Trench on the 27th of January 1820 in Dublin; the Trench family name originated from Dean of Kildare. Thomas was Born 10 May 1761. Married Mary Weldon of Rahinderry in the queens county, her parents were Reverend F. S. and Lady Helena Trench. When Helena was fourteen the family moved to Kilmorony where she developed an interest in botany and gardening, her interest for botany came from her mother. By living with her father she became fluent in many languages including French and Italian, her father was the Rector from this Helena's strong religious beliefs stemmed. Reverend Trench is buried at St. John's graveyard in Athy, she had a sister Maria Trench who became Maria Wilson after marriage. Maria, like Helena, died in 1908, she married Jeffry Lefroy in 1844, a Dean of Dromore. He was the son of the honorable Thomas Langlois Lefroy, lord chief justice of Ireland.
A book of memoirs is available where it shows Thomas writing to and about his son Jeffry as well as Lefroy and their two boys. Her two sons wrote a biography where they talk about her contributions, her husband Jeffry was a co-author of the journal article, The Great Famine: Some Correspondence relating to Social Conditions in the Loughbrickland Area 1840-1850. This book included a number of entries of famine relief correspondence and letters from the time of the famine. From these entries the authors write notes making relevance to, her two sons have written a book about Lefroy entitled'Helena Lefroy some simple recollections of her life and influence'. This can be found in the National library of Ireland. There are memoirs available about her son George Alfred Lefroy, the Bishop of Calcutta. In these memoirs it mentions. Lefroy was known for the discovery of the purple spurge. Purple spurge is a species of Euphorbia, it grows on gravelly and sandy beaches, it has traces to northern Africa. The plant is a prostrate plant with fours stems at the base growing between 10 -- 20 cm long.
She found this in Tramore, Waterford in 1839. Other botanists attempted to visit the area where she discovered it but they failed, which led people to believe it was rare and now extinct. Rob Randall mentions this plant in his annual report in 1978, he is puzzled by the fact that this plant is found on certain beaches on not others. In The Natural History Review, a quarterly journal of biological science there is a reference to a Miss Trench on page 538 upon which it claims that she discovered Acino vulgare." Found near Athy by Miss Trench, in 1838. Richard Barrington went searching for it to no avail; this was followed by Trinity College, Dublin student Henry Chichester Hart in 1882 without success. This resulted in the plant being classed as extinct. MacKay, James Townsend. Proceedings of the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association 1859
Pähkähullu Suomi is a 1967 comedy by Spede Pasanen. It's the third film starring Spede in a contemporary crazy comedy after he first appeared in X-Paroni and Millipilleri, his movies expanded to more ludicrous high concept pieces. The film's release coincided with the 50th anniversary of the Finnish declaration of independence, referenced in the film; the film is set to a frame-narrative about a film director and producer making a marketing film about Finland, using the visit of the son of a wealthy hair-creme tycoon, William Njurmi, as the premise. For the first two thirds, the film's events take place according to a conversation between the producer, director and a random Finnish tax-payer frozen by the narrator at the beginning of the film. William Njurmi and raised in the USA, is visiting the home of his ancestors who were Finnish. After an expansive tour and excessive time spent at a sauna Njurmi escapes the Finnish welcoming committee, runs into the woods and gets mistaken for a deer, he walks in on an exercise held by the Finnish Armed Forces.
Njurmi runs into an inventor living in the woods named Simo. After Njurmi is forced to marry a farm-girl by her redneck in-laws he is saved by Simo. Though Njurmi is open about his identity Simo remains in disbelief until Njurmi returns to the Commerce Council but not before the pair steal a car and tour the country covering every tourist-location in Finland. Becoming fed up with the Commerce Council Njurmi replaces himself with his body-guard, a stereotypical Italian mobster named Luigi with full rights to use Njurmi's name and wealth whilst he and Simo continue to go about Finland unrecognised, it is at this point that the director and producer from the beginning of the film, removing their wigs and revealing themselves to be bald, turn out to be undercover agents for a party, never identified during the film. Meanwhile, Luigi is harassed by the Finnish Commerce Council who are trying to get a sizable donation pleading pitifully. Luigi gives them a check but not before he has seen traditional Finnish winter-sports and dated the Miss Finland.
Luigi is caught double-timing by his wife terminating his role from the rest of the film. The film itself ends with Simo being chased by the agents and fighting them off as they do; the chase ends at the Olympic Stadium in Helsinki where after Njurmi and Simo fight off dozens of agents Njurmi decides to marry a Finnish girl who just conveniently shows up. However the woman is an agent, revealed when she removes her wig too. Afterwards Simo runs into the scene where Luigi had dumped Miss Finland into a swimming pool when his wife showed up. Simo breaks the fourth wall by talking to the narrator asking "What the heck is going on?" since he hasn't understood what's been going on for the past 15 minutes. He is given a brief and somewhat inaccurate explanation of the plot. Simo however seems to have no troubles understanding and after saving Miss Finland from the swimming pool and tells her they will go off to get married; the movie ends with Simo winking at the camera as the frame freezes and the words "Happy End" appear on screen.
The film was Spede's second to be directed by Jukka Virtanen, with him playing the role of the secret agent pretending to be a film-director within the film, the second written co-operatively between Pasanen and Ere Kokkonen. Kokkonen plays the role as his cohort pretending to be a film producer. Recurring actors from Spede's previous films include Marita Nordberg and Leo Jokela; some critics tend to call the film a "feature-length travel advertisement of Finland" rather than a movie because the main-characters manage to cover every Finnish tourist-trap in the duration of the film. Pähkähullu Suomi on IMDb
Oscar Cargill was an author and professor of English. He graduated in 1922 from Wesleyan University and became an English instructor at Marietta College and Michigan State University, he enrolled as a graduate student at Columbia University, studied in 1927–1928 at Stanford University on a Cutting fellowship from Columbia, received his doctorate from Columbia in 1930. Cargill became a professor at New York University, served for some years as the chair of the English department, from 1948 to 1966 was the director of N. Y. U.'s American civilization program. A consulting editor on English texts to the Macmillan Company, he edited more than 35 titles for the Gotham Library series of the N. Y. U. Press, he edited works of Whitman, Henry James, Frank Norris and O'Neill.... Dr. Cargill was a guiding force in building the English Department at N. Y. U. Distinguished scholars during his tenure included Gay Wilson Allen, Leon Edel, M. L. Rosenthal and David H. Greene. Most of Cargill's publications dealt with the works of nineteenth- and twentieth-century American authors.
Upon his death he was survived by his widow, two daughters, six grandchildren. Drama and liturgy. New York: Columbia University Press. 1930. as editor: Social revolt. New York: Macmillan. 1933. Intellectual America. New York: Macmillan. 1941. América intelectual, ideas en marcha, versión castellana y notas de Julio E. Payro. Buenos Aires: Editoria Guillermo Kraft. 1948. as editor: Henry D. Thoreau: Selected writings on nature and liberty. New York: Liberal Arts Press. 1952. With Thomas Clark Pollock: Thomas Wolfe add Washington Square. New York University Press. 1954. as editor with Thomas Clark Pollock: The correspondence of Thomas Wolfe and Homer Andrew Watt. New York University Press. 1954. Novels of Henry James. New York: Macmillan. 1961. as editor with N. Bryllion Fagin and William J. Fisher: O'Neill and his plays, four decades of criticism. New York: New York University Press. 1961. Toward a pluralistic criticism. With a preface by Harry T. Moore. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 1965
New Morgan is a borough in Berks County, United States. The population was 71 at the 2010 census. New Morgan is located near the southern corner of Berks County at 40°10′50″N 75°52′14″W, it is bordered to the north by Robeson Township. The unincorporated community of Morgantown is nearby to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 5.8 square miles, of which 5.5 square miles is land and 0.27 square miles, or 4.57%, is water. A small portion of Pennsylvania State Game Lands Number 52 is located in New Morgan. In 1987, Raymond Carr, the sole owner of Morgantown Properties, petitioned Berks County Court to create a new borough from 3,500 acres in Caernarvon and Robeson townships; the fate of the proposal was determined by the ten residents living within the boundaries of the proposed borough, most of whom were Carr's tenants. In an April 1988 election, those residents voted 9-1 in favor of forming the new borough; the state's procedures on formation of a new borough have since been revised to require new boroughs to have at least 500 residents.
According to court documents, "side from the landfill and trash to steam plant, Carr propose to develop the new borough with a Victorian village, planned residential developments, a cultural center, a mixed use center, commercial areas, agricultural areas and open space areas. The Victorian village would include a 1,000 room hotel and 18-hole golf course, would operate year round." Most of the borough's developed land is taken up by the Conestoga Landfill, while the Victorian village has yet to be built. There are plans in the works for the construction of a new residential area in the borough, called Bryn Eyre, as well as a hospital; as of the census of 2000, there were 35 people, 12 households, 9 families residing in the borough. The population density was 6.3 people per square mile. There were 12 housing units at an average density of 2.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 5.71 % African American and 11.43 % Asian. There were 12 households, out of which 50.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families.
25.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.33. In the borough the population was spread out, with 37.1% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 11.4% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females there were 133.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.0 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $45,250, the median income for a family was $53,750. Males had a median income of $45,250 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $27,769. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line. Interstate 176, the "Morgantown Expressway", follows the western edge of the borough and joins Interstate 76, the Pennsylvania Turnpike, just south of the borough at Morgantown. I-176 leads 14 miles away. Pennsylvania Route 10 runs north-south through the borough, connecting Reading and Morgantown.
New Morgan Borough website Twin Valley Fire Department