Louis Auguste Blanqui
Louis Auguste Blanqui was a French socialist and political activist, notable for his revolutionary theory of Blanquism. Blanqui was born in Puget-Théniers, Alpes-Maritimes, where his father, Jean Dominique Blanqui and he was the younger brother of the liberal economist Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui. He studied both law and medicine, but found his vocation in politics, and quickly became a champion of the most advanced opinions. A member of the Carbonari society since 1824, he took a part in most republican conspiracies during this period. In 1827, under the reign of Charles X, he participated in a fight in Rue Saint-Denis. In 1829, he joined Pierre Lerouxs Globe newspaper before taking part in the July Revolution of 1830 and he joined the Amis du Peuple society, where he made acquaintances with Philippe Buonarroti and Armand Barbès. He was condemned to repeated terms of imprisonment for maintaining the doctrine of republicanism during the reign of Louis Philippe, in May 1839, a Blanquist inspired uprising took place in Paris, in which the League of the Just, forerunners of Karl Marxs Communist League, participated.
Implicated in the outbreak of the Société des Saisons, of which he was a leading member, Blanqui was condemned to death on 14 January 1840. He was released during the revolution of 1848, only to resume his attacks on existing institutions, the revolution had not satisfied him. While in prison, he sent an address to a committee of social democrats in London. The text of the address was noted and introduced by Karl Marx, upon the fall of the Empire, through the revolution of 4 September, Blanqui established the club and journal La patrie en danger. He was one of the group that briefly seized the reins of power on 31 October and for his share in that outbreak he was again condemned to death in absentia on 9 March of the following year. On 17 March, Adolphe Thiers, aware of the represented by Blanqui, took advantage of his resting at a friend physicians place, in Bretenoux in Lot. A few days afterwards the insurrection which established the Paris Commune broke out, the Communards offered to release all of their prisoners if the Thiers government released Blanqui, but their offer was met with refusal, and Blanqui was thus prevented from taking an active part.
Karl Marx would be convinced that Blanqui was the leader that was missed by the Commune, nevertheless, in 1872 he was condemned along with the other members of the Commune to transportation, on account of his broken health this sentence was again commuted to one of imprisonment. On 20 April 1879 he was elected a deputy for Bordeaux, although the election was pronounced invalid, Blanqui was freed, as a socialist, Blanqui favored what he described as a just redistribution of wealth. But Blanquism is distinguished in various ways from other socialist currents of the day and this period of transitional tyranny would permit the implementation of the basis of a new order, after which power would be handed to the people. In this he differs from the Utopian Socialists, for the Blanquists, the overturning of the bourgeois social order and the revolution are ends sufficient in themselves, at least for their immediate purposes
Amable de Courtais
Amable-Gaspard-Henri, vicomte de Courtais was a French soldier and politician. During the Second French Republic he was made a General and head of the National Guard of Paris and he failed to suppress the invasion of the Constituent Assembly by a mob on 15 May 1848 and was accused of being a traitor, but was acquitted. The family owned the château of Chassignole at Doyet, amable de Courtais was born on 10 January 1790 in Montluçon, Allier. He served in the army under Napoleon and during the Bourbon Restoration, on 5 September 1813 he was granted the Knights Cross of the Legion of Honor. He retired with the rank of squadron leader. On 9 July 1842 he was elected to the National Assembly for the college of Allier. His predecessor, Charles Gilbert Tourret, had resigned so he could be elected, the election went to a second round, in which Courtais was elected. He took his seat on the far left and he was reelected on 1 August 1846. He was a signatory in 1848 to the demand for impeachment of the ministry of François Guizot, the provisional government invited Courtais to assume the rank of General and the command of the National Guard of Paris.
On 23 April 1848 he was elected by a majority to represent Allier in the Constituent Assembly. He was both a representative and leader of the National Guard when the Assembly was invaded by the mob on 15 May 1848, General Courtais acted indecisively, and told the guard not to use force against the people. Some managed to enter, but most tried to enter through the rue de Bourgogne, Courtais tried to harangue the crowd and persuade them to disperse, but with no effect. The crowd forced through the gate, knocking him down, the few guardsmen who were present ran for their arms. Courtais went to Alphonse de Lamartine for advice, but although he was told to himself at the head of his troops. He returned to the Assembly at five oclock, when the room had been emptied of demonstrators and he told the National Guard to withdraw. He was attacked by some of the representatives, who called him a traitor, seized his sword, other representatives intervened, and took him to the library where he was held in custody.
Léon Faucher formally proposed that the general be declared a traitor, Courtais submitted to a year of pre-trial detention before being given his freedom by the High Court of Bourges on 2 April 1849. He returned to the Constituent Assembly, and participated in its sessions in April
The Palais Bourbon is a government building located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine, across from the Place de la Concorde. It is the seat of the French National Assembly, the legislative chamber of the French government. The Palace was originally beginning in 1722 by Louise-Françoise de Bourbon, the duchesse de Bourbon. It was nationalized during the French Revolution, and from 1795 to 1799, during the Directory, it was the place of the Council of Five Hundred. Beginning in 1806, Napoleon Bonaparte added the colonnade, to mirror that of Church of the Madeleine, facing it across the Seine. The Palace complex today includes the Hôtel de Lassay, on the west side of the Palais Bourbon, the palace was built for Louise-Françoise de Bourbon, the duchesse de Bourbon, the legitimized daughter of Louis XIV and Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan. Until that time, the area, called the Pré-au-Clercs, an area popular for fighting duels. After the death of Louis XIV in 1715, following the example of the Regent, the Duchesse de Bourbon had been known for frivolity at the Court in Versailles, but by the 1720s she had had seven children and was widowed.
The parcel of land for the new palace was large, extending from the Seine to the rue de lUniversité. The original plan called for a country surrounded by gardens, modeled after the Grand Trianon Palace at Versailles, designed by Jules Hardouin Mansart. The Italian architect Lorenzo Giardini made the first plan, but he died in 1722, having made little, the project was taken over by Pierre Cailleteau, known as Lassurance, who had been an assistant to Hardouin-Mansart. Cailleteau had worked on the palace of Versailles and Les Invalides, and knew the style very well. He was replaced by Jean Aubert, an assistant of Hardouin-Mansart. Aubert had built one of the grandest projects of the time, both buildings were finished in 1728. Both the Palais Bourbon and the Hôtel de Lassay were in the Italian style, with roofs hidden by balustrades, the Palais Bourbon was in a U-shape. The Hôtel de Lassay was rectangular, and more modest in size, the two buildings had identical facades facing the Seine. The facades featured alternating columns and windows, and decoration on the themes of the seasons, the elements, the space between the buildings, and between the buildings and the Seine, was filled with gardens.
In addition to the reception rooms, the interior of the house had many small salons which could be arranged for a variety of purposes
June Days uprising
The June Days uprising was an uprising staged by the workers of France from 23 June to 26 June 1848. The National Guard, led by General Louis Eugène Cavaignac, was called out to quell the protests, things did not go peacefully and over 10,000 people were either killed or injured, while 4,000 insurgents were deported to Algeria. This marked the end of the hopes of a Democratic and Social Republic, during this time, France was in a period of internal turmoil and had gone through many revolutions, such as the 1830 Revolution and the 1848 Revolution. A provisional government, called the Second Republic, was declared after the abdication of Louis Philippe in February 1848 and this was a democratic republic and immediately democratic reforms were being enacted, including universal male suffrage. To combat unemployment, the National Workshops were created which provided jobs and these Workshops were a tremendous success attracting many unemployed persons, however, to fund these Workshops new taxes were applied to lands.
This alienated land owners, among peasants, from the provisional government as they did not like the idea of paying money so that the unemployed could have the right to work. As a result, these taxes were not adhered to. On 23 April the French people elected a mainly moderate and conservative constituent assembly, this angered radicals in Paris, the radicals invaded the assembly, as they believed that their democratic republic was being eroded away. This action was quickly thwarted, however, it sparked fear in conservatives, the conservative majority closed down the National Workshops, which sparked three days of bloody unrest. The anger surrounding the closing of the Workshops increased, and shortly after the June Days began, in sections of the city hundreds of barricades were thrown up which blocked communication and reduced the mobility of persons. The National Guard was called out to halt rioting, this sparked fighting once the guard, the labourers had now become insurgents and were breaking stones to use as barricades.
The insurgents seized many armories to gather weapons, regardless they were running low on ammunition. However, the revolutionaries would rather die than to return to their lives of poverty, large amounts of blood were shed on the streets as the National Guard fired on the barricades, but the National Guards men were not the only ones firing. The insurgents inflicted heavy casualties to the Guard, who lost many of their men, by 26 June, the revolution was over and more than 10,000 people were either killed or injured, over 4,000 insurgents were deported to Algeria. After the insurgents were crushed, all ideas of a revolution were abandoned, the French Constitution of 1848 was put in place stating that executive power should be wielded by the President of the Republic and that the people should elect this president every four years. Once a president was elected he would have the power to appoint Ministers, the constitution provided provision for an Assembly of 750 legislators who were to be elected by the people every three years.
After the constitution was enacted, elections were held and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte was elected, after three years in power, Bonaparte staged a coup détat, thereby becoming the Emperor of the Second French Empire
Raymond-Jean-Baptiste de Verninac Saint-Maur
Raymond-Jean-Baptiste de Verninac Saint-Maur was a French naval officer who became a Minister of the Navy and Colonies in the Cabinet of General Cavaignac, and an Admiral in the Navy. The Verninac family originated in Gourdon, Lot in the province of Quercy. Jean de Verninac was a counsellor of the king in Villefranche in 1696, another family member was vicar-general of Rodez in 1786. His nephew was the diplomat Raymond de Verninac Saint-Maur, raymond-Jean-Baptiste de Verninac Saint-Maur was the son of François de Verninac and Marie Delphy de Lisle of Salignac in Périgord. His father was brother of the diplomat Raymond de Verninac, He was born in Souillac on 11 June 1794 and he entered the navy as a midshipman in 1812. He advanced slowly during the peace that followed the end of the Napoleonic Wars and he was promoted to sublieutenant in 1819 and lieutenant in 1824. In 1829 Verninac took command of the corvette LAstrolabe, with which Jules Dumont dUrville had made his first voyage around the world and he went to Alexandria to pick up the mission led by Jean-François Champollion, which had completed three years of exploration and studies in the Nile Valley.
He took them back to Toulon, and made friends with Champollion on the voyage and he participated in the Invasion of Algiers in 1830. He was promoted to Lieutenant Commander in 1833, muhammad Ali, effective ruler of Egypt, made a gift to France of an obelisk at Luxor weighing 230 tons, which had to be transported from Luxor back to France. Verninac was given command of the expedition on Champollions recommendation, Verninac published an account of the voyage in 1834, Le voyage du Luxor en Égypte. The obelisk remained on the quay of the Seine for two years before being erected in the Place de la Concorde on 25 October 1836, in 1838 he was made director of the steam packet boats carrying mail in the Mediterranean. He was promoted to Captain in 1842, Verninac was appointed a member of a commission to organize and arm steam boats. He was one of the first captains to enter the Admiralty council in 1848 and he was always interested in new ideas, and was quick to recognize the revolutionary impact of steam on naval warfare.
He became a deputy for Lot in July 1848, severe cuts to the naval budget prevented Verninac from implementing his ideas for reform of the navy and construction of modern vessels. He was named Rear Admiral on 16 December 1848 and he left office fours days when Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was announced winner of the presidential elections. Verminac chose to remain faithful to Cavaignac, on 8 July 1849 Verninac was elected representative for Lot in the Legislative Assembly. He was general councillor for Lot from 1848 to 1852, Verninac did not sit in the Assembly after the coup détat of 2 December 1851. Bonaparte named him governor of Réunion, of the French establishments in India and he retired from active service in June 1856, and returned to France in 1957
Jules Bastide was a French politician. Bastide studied law for a time, and was engaged in business as a timber merchant. In 1821, he became a member of the French la Charbonnerie, modelled on that of the Italian Carbonari, after the July Days uprising, he received an artillery command in the National Guard. For his part in the riots in Paris on the occasion of the funeral of General Maximilien Lamarque, Bastide was sentenced to death, on his return to Paris in 1834, he was acquitted. He occupied himself with journalism, and he contributed to the National, in 1847, he founded the Revue Nationale as a collaborative venture with Philippe Buchez, whose ideas had thoroughly infected Bastide. At the close of 1848, he resigned his portfolio, after the coup détat of December 1851, retired to private life
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
National Guard (France)
The National Guard was originally a French militia which existed from 1789 until 1872, including a period of official disbandment from 1827 to 1830. It was separate from the French Army and existed both for policing and as a military reserve, for most of its history the National Guard, particularly its officers, were widely viewed as loyal to middle-class interests. This had rapidly spread anger and violence throughout Paris, the National Assembly declared the formation of a Bourgeois Militia on 13 July. In the early morning of the day, the search for weapons for this new militia led to the storming of the Hotel des Invalides. Lafayette was elected to the post of commander in chief of the Bourgeois Militia on 15 July, similar bodies were spontaneously created in the towns and rural districts of France in response to widespread fears of chaos or counter-revolution. When the French Guards mutinied and were disbanded during the same month, the officers of the National Guard were elected. Under the law of 14 October 1791, all active citizens and their role was the maintenance of law and order and, if necessary, the defence of the territory.
Following a nationwide scheme decided on in September 1791, the National Guard was organised on the basis of district or canton companies, five of these neighbourhood units made up a battalion. Eight to ten battalions comprised a legion, districts might provide companies of veterans and young citizens, respectively drawn from volunteers of over 60 or under 18. Where possible, there was provision for mounted detachments and artillerymen, the citizens kept their weapons and their uniforms at home, and set forth with them when required. This combination of colours matched those of the revolutionary tricolour, the former Guet royal had held responsibility for the maintenance of law and order in Paris from 1254 to 1791, when the National Guard took over this role. In fact, the last commander of the Guet royal, de La Rothière, was elected to head the National Guard in 1791, in the summer of 1792, the fundamental character of the guard changed. After 9 Thermidor, year II, the new government of the Thermidorian Reaction placed the National Guard under the control of conservative leadership.
The Paris National Guard thereafter ceased to play a significant political role, napoleon did not believe that the middle-class National Guard would be able to maintain order and suppress riots. Therefore, he created a Municipal Guard of Paris, a full-time gendarmerie which was strongly militarised, however, he did not abolish the National Guard, but was content to partially disarm it. He kept the force in reserve and mobilised it for the defence of French territory in 1809 and 1814, between 1811 and 1812 the National Guard, was organized in cohorts to distinguish it from the regular army, and for home defence only. By a skilful appeal to patriotism, and judicious pressure applied through the prefects, with the invasion of France by allied Austrian, Prussian and British armies in 1814, the National Guard was suddenly called on to provide support for regular Imperial forces. Existing National Guard units, such as those of Paris, were deployed as defence corps in their areas of recruitment, mass conscription was extended to age groups previously exempt from military service, to provide more manpower for the expanded National Guard
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Cabinet of General Cavaignac
The cabinet of General Cavaignac was the government of France from 28 June 1848 to 20 December 1848. It replaced the Executive Commission of 1848 after the June Days Uprising of 23 June to 26 June 1848, General Louis-Eugène Cavaignac was given executive power by the National Assembly and headed the government as President of the Council of Ministers. The government was replaced by the first cabinet of Odilon Barrot on 20 December 1848 after Louis Napoleon had been elected as President