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French Fourth Republic

The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic, in place from 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War to 1940 during World War II, suffered many of the same problems. France adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946. Despite the political dysfunction, the Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after World War II, through assistance the United States provided through the Marshall Plan, it saw the beginning of the German-French co-operation, that led to the development of the European Union. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 21 administrations in its 12-year history.

Moreover, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization of the numerous remaining French colonies. After a series of crises, most the Algerian crisis of 1958, the Fourth Republic collapsed. Wartime leader Charles de Gaulle returned from retirement to preside over a transitional administration, empowered to design a new French constitution; the Fourth Republic was dissolved by a public referendum on 5 October 1958 which established the modern-day Fifth Republic with a strengthened presidency. After the liberation of France in 1944, the Vichy government was dissolved and the Provisional Government of the French Republic known as the French Committee of National Liberation, was instituted after a unanimous request of the Provisional Consultative Assembly to be properly represented. With most of the political class discredited and containing many members who had more or less collaborated with Nazi Germany and communism became the most popular political forces in France.

Charles de Gaulle led the GPRF from 1944 to 1946. Meanwhile, negotiations took place over the proposed new constitution, to be put to a referendum. De Gaulle advocated a presidential system of government, criticized the reinstatement of what he pejoratively called "the parties system", he resigned in January 1946 and was replaced by Felix Gouin of the French Section of the Workers' International. Only the French Communist Party and the socialist SFIO supported the draft constitution, which envisaged a form of government based on unicameralism. For the 1946 elections, the Rally of Left Republicans, which encompassed the Radical-Socialist Party, the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance and other conservative parties, unsuccessfully attempted to oppose the Christian democrat and socialist MRP–SFIO–PCF alliance; the new constituent assembly included 166 MRP deputies, 153 PCF deputies and 128 SFIO deputies, giving the tripartite alliance an absolute majority. Georges Bidault of the MRP replaced Felix Gouin as the head of government.

A new draft of the Constitution was written, which this time proposed the establishment of a bicameral form of government. Leon Blum of the SFIO headed the GPRF from 1946 to 1947. After a new legislative election in June 1946, the Christian democrat Georges Bidault assumed leadership of the Cabinet. Despite de Gaulle's so-called discourse of Bayeux of 16 June 1946 in which he denounced the new institutions, the new draft was approved by 53% of voters voting in favor in the referendum held on 13 October 1946; this culminated in the establishment in the following year of the Fourth Republic, an arrangement in which executive power resided in the hands of the President of the Council. The President of the Republic was given a symbolic role, although he remained chief of the French Army and as a last resort could be called upon to resolve conflicts; the wartime damage was extensive and expectations of large reparations from defeated Germany failed. The United States helped revive the French economy with the Marshall Plan, whereby it gave France $2.3 billion with no repayment.

France was the second largest recipient after Britain. The total of all American grants and credits to France from 1946 to 1953, amounted to $4.9 billion. The terms of the Marshall Plan required a modernization of French industrial and managerial systems, free trade, friendly economic relations with West Germany. After the expulsion of the Communists from the governing coalition, France joined the Cold War against Stalin, as expressed by becoming a founding member of NATO in April 1949. France now took a leadership position in unifying western Europe, working with Konrad Adenauer of West Germany. Robert Schuman, twice Prime Minister and at other times Minister of Finance and Foreign Minister, was instrumental in building post-war European and trans-Atlantic institutions. A devout Catholic and anti-Communist, he led France to be a member of the European Communities, the Council of Europe and NATO. Public opinion polls showed that in February 1954, only 7% of the French people wanted to continue the fight in Indochina against the Communists, led by Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh movement.

Pierre Mendes France was a Radical Party leader, Prime Minister for eight months in 1954–55, working with the support of the Socialist and Communist parties. His top priority was ending t

Saturday Night Special (album)

Saturday Night Special is an album by the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania jazz drummer Norman Connors. "Saturday Night Special" 5:10 "Dindi" 6:00 Lead VocalsJean Carn "Maiden Voyage" 6:30 "Valentine Love" 3:45 Lead Vocals – Michael Henderson & Jean Carn "Akia" 3:45 "Skin Diver" 6:55 Lead Vocals – Jean Carn "Kwasi" 4:30 Norman Connors - Drums Michael Henderson - Bass, Vocals Reggie Lucas - Electric Guitar Herbie Hancock - Piano Buster Williams - Double Bass Robert King - Acoustic Guitar Bernie Krause - Moog Synthesizer Hubert Eaves III - Electric Piano, Piano, Clavinet Onaje Allan Gumbs - Piano, Electric Piano, Synthesizer Eddie Henderson - Trumpet, Flugelhorn David Subke, William O. Murphy, Jr. - Flute Gary Bartz - Alto Saxophone, Soprano Saxophone Carlos Garnett - Tenor Saxophone Myra Bucky, Nathan Rubin - Violin Nancy Ellis - Viola Terry Adams - Cello Bill Summers - Additional Percussion Ken Nash - Congas, Percussion (Indonesian Temple Shakers, Asian & Latin American Hand Percussion Jean Carn - Vocals Norman Connors-Saturday Night Special at Discogs

1974 NCAA Division II Basketball Tournament

The 1974 NCAA Division II Basketball Tournament involved 44 schools playing in a single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division II college basketball as a culmination of the 1973–74 NCAA Division II men's basketball season. It was won by Morgan State University and Morgan State's Marvin Webster was the Most Outstanding Player; this was the first tournament to be designated as a Division II basketball championship. The NCAA first split into competitive divisions for the 1956–57 school year, creating the top-level University Division and second-tier College Division. Effective with the 1973–74 school year, the NCAA adopted the three-division system that exists to this day; the University Division was renamed Division I, while the College Division was split into Division II and the non-scholarship Division III. *denotes tie Location: Norfolk Scope Third Place – Roanoke 88, Rollins 77 Location: Dana Center Third Place – St. Michael's 95, Bentley 91 Location: Burkman Gymnasium Third Place – Siena 82, Potsdam State 74 Location: Bollman Center Third Place – King's 111, Hiram 81 Location: Roberts Municipal Stadium Third Place – Evansville 87, Wisconsin–Green Bay 75 Location: Hammons Center Third Place – North Dakota 75, St. Cloud State 71 Location: Third Place – Tennessee State 98, Southern 88 Location: Mott Gym Third Place – Cal Poly 81, Chico State 63*denotes each overtime played Location: Roberts Municipal Stadium Third Place – Assumption 115, New Orleans 103*denotes each overtime played William Doolittle John Grochowski Randy Magers Alvin O'Neal Marvin Webster 2010 NCAA Men's Basketball Championship Tournament Records and Statistics: Division II men's basketball Championship 1974 NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament jonfmorse.com