Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
The Maldivian rufiyaa is the currency of the Maldives. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Maldives Monetary Authority; the most used symbols for the rufiyaa are MRF and Rf. The ISO 4217 code for Maldivian rufiyaa is MVR; the rufiyaa is subdivided into 100 laari. The name "rufiyaa" is derived from the Sanskrit रूप्य; the midpoint of exchange rate is 12.85 rufiyaa per US dollar and the rate is permitted to fluctuate within a ±20% band, i.e. between 10.28 rufiyaa and 15.42 rufiyaa as of 10 April 2011. The earliest form of currency used in the Maldives was cowry shells and historical accounts of travellers indicate that they were traded in this manner during the 13th century; as late as 1344, Ibn Batuta observed that more than 40 ships loaded with cowry shells were exported each year. A single gold dinar was worth 400,000 shells. During the 17th and 18th centuries, lārin were traded as currency; this form of currency was used in the Persian Gulf, India and the Far East during this time.
Historians agree that this new form of currency was most exchanged for cowry shells and indicates Maldives’ lucrative trade with these countries. The first Sultan to imprint his own seal onto this currency was Ghaazee Mohamed Thakurufaanu Al Auzam; the seal was much broader than the wires hence it was legible. The first known of coins were introduced by Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar. Compared to the previous forms of money, these coins were much neater and minted in pure silver; the coins were minted in the capital city of a fact which it acknowledged on the reverse. The legend "King of Land and Sea, Iskandhar the Great" is found on the edge. After this period, gold coins replaced the existing silver ones during the reign of Sultan Hassan Nooruddin in 1787, he used two different qualities of gold in his coins. How this gold was obtained is uncertain. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, bronze coins were issued denominated in laari. Sultan Mohamed Imaadhudheen IV introduced what historians believe to be the first machine struck coins, judging the superior quality of the engravements.
His successor Sultan Mohamed Shamshudeen III made the last of these coins, 1 and 4 laari denominations, which were struck in the United Kingdom by Heaton's Mint, England in 1913. Following the end of coin production for the Maldives, the Sultanate came to use the Ceylonese rupee; this was supplemented in 1947 by issues of banknotes denominated in rufiyaa, equal in value to the rupee. In 1960, coins denominated in laari, now worth one hundredth of the rufiyaa, were introduced. In 1960, Sultan Mohamed Fareed; the new issue consisted of denominations of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 laari. Unlike his predecessors, Sultan Fareed did not embellish his title on the coins; the currency was put into circulation in February 1961 and all the traded coins, with the exception of Shamshudeen III's 1 and 4 laari, were withdrawn from circulation on 17 June 1966. The newly established central bank, the Maldives Monetary Authority, introduced the 1 rufiyaa coin on 22 January 1983; the coin was minted in West Germany. In 1984, a new series of coins was introduced.
In 1995, 2 rufiyaa coins were introduced. Coins in circulation are 1 laari, 2 laari, 5 laari, 10 laari, 25 laari, 50 laari, 1 rufiyaa, 2 rufiyaa. In 1945, the People's Majlis passed bill number 2/66 on the "Maldivian Bank Note". Under this law, notes for 1⁄2, 1, 2, 5 and 10 rufiyaa were printed and put into circulation on 5 September 1948. In 1951, 50 and 100 rufiyaa notes were introduced; the current series of banknotes was issued in 1983 in denominations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 rufiyaa. 500 rufiyaa notes were added in 1990, with the 2 rufiyaa replaced by a coin in 1995. In October 2015, the Maldives Monetary Authority issued a 5,000 rufiyaa banknote in polymer to commemorate the 50th anniversary of independence, issued a new family of notes in polymer that included a new denomination of 1,000 rufiyaa. A 5 rufiyaa banknote printed in polymer was revealed in May 2017 and was issued in July 2017, it was planned that this denomination was to be replaced by a coin of the same denomination, but public input convinced the Maldives Monetary Authority to go for the note.
Illustrations on the bank notes were done by Maizan Hassan Manik and Abbaas. Currency of Maldives Economy of Maldives Currency in Circulation, Maldives Monetary Authority Official Exchange Rates Banknotes of the Maldives
East African rupee
The rupee was the currency of Britain's East African colonies and protectorates between 1906 and 1920. It was divided into 100 cents; the rupee replaced the Indian rupee, which had circulated. In 1920, the rupee was revalued against sterling to a peg of 1 rupee. In East Africa, this was followed in the same year by the replacement of the rupee with the East African florin at par; the currency is noteworthy for including the 1907 1 cent coin. Silver coins were introduced for 25 and 50 cents in 1906, followed by the aluminium 1 cent and cupro-nickel 10 cent coins in 1907, the aluminium ½ cent coin in 1908 and the cupro-nickel 5 cent coin in 1913. Cupro-nickel replaced aluminium in 1909. In 1906, notes were introduced by the government of the East Africa Protectorate in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 100 and 500 rupees. In 1920, the East African Currency Board issued 1 rupee notes shortly. Global Financial Data currency histories table Tables of modern monetary history: Kenya Tables of modern monetary history: Tanzania Tables of modern monetary history: Uganda
Japanese government-issued currency in the Dutch East Indies
The Netherlands Indies gulden the Netherlands Indies roepiah, was the currency issued by the Japanese occupiers in the Dutch East Indies between 1942 and 1945. It replaced the gulden at par. In December 1941, the Empire of Japan began its assault on British Borneo; this was followed by attacks on Java in February. The Dutch colonial government capitulated on 8 March 1942, though pockets of resistance lasted for several months. In the succeeding months, the Japanese government closed the banks, seized assets and currency, assumed control of the Indies' economy. Java was left under the administration of the Sixteenth Army, Sumatra under the Twenty-Fifth Army, the remainder of the archipelago under the Japanese Navy; this administrative division meant that some notes were localized. For instance, the 100 and 1000 gulden notes, with a design similar to that used in occupied Malaya, were only meant to be circulated in Sumatra. There is no evidence, that the latter were in use; the Japanese occupation government began issuing military banknotes for use in the occupied Indies, as had been done in other occupied territories.
These first banknotes were printed in Japan, issued by the Ministry of Finance. This issue formally retained the gulden name, though in common indigene parlance it was called oeang Djepang or oeang pisang; each gulden consisted of 100 cents. After the occupation began, the Japanese military government ruled that, as of 11 March 1942, the only valid currency in the region were military banknotes and existing colonial gulden. Soon, they had begun replacing the pre-war currency at par, they soon required. This policy, was not implemented strictly, pre-war currency was hoarded in the internment camps. In March 1943, the Japanese occupation government ceased issuing military notes. Printing operations were moved to Kolff in Java; these banknotes, which experienced no change in appearance, were issued by the Southern Development Bank, established the preceding year and was managed by Yokohama Specie Bank and Bank of Taiwan. Under the SDB, an large amount of currency was issued; this increase in circulation was followed by a drastic increase in inflation.
This currency, renamed the roepiah for the 1944 issue, was used but depreciated. The Japanese forces surrendered on 15 August, two days the Republic of Indonesia proclaimed its independence; the available Japanese-issued roepiah were accepted as legal tender, together with the pre-war gulden, in both areas controlled by the Netherlands and those under Republican rule. Japanese issued notes were not, however, at par with pre-war gulden. On 6 March 1946, Dutch-controlled areas replaced the Japanese-issue roepiah with the NICA-issued gulden, giving an official exchange rate of 3 NICA gulden to 100 Japanese roepiah; the Republican government followed suit on 30 October 1946, replacing the occupation currency with Oeang Repoeblik Indonesia at an official rate of 50 Japanese roepiah for 1 ORI. However, owing to the ongoing Indonesian National Revolution and the resulting chaotic monetary landscape, Japanese-issued bills remained in use into 1949; the Indonesian Minister of Finance, Alexander Andries Maramis, estimated in 1946 that the Japanese had put some 2.2 billion roepiah into circulation by the end of the occupation.
Yoshimasa gives a higher amount, over 3.1 billion. The Australian historian Robert Cribb, writes that the Japanese issued more than they recorded, that – combined with money printed after the Japanese surrender – the actual total could be between 3.5 and 8 billion, with only 2.7 billion issued during the occupation. Known as the "Puppet Series" for each having depicted a distinctive traditional Indonesian shadow puppet, these coins were struck in tin with denominations of 1, 5, 10 sen, they were dated 2604 using the classical Japanese imperial year calendar system, which equals 1943 in the Gregorian calendar. However, as the war began to turn against Japan her advantageous shipping routes were disrupted, many coins destined towards the Indies were lost in transit due to heavy artillery fire and torpedoing of Japanese ships by Allied forces. Most of the unused stock was melted down and today few specimens of any denomination survive; the Japanese invasion money used in the Netherlands Indies was first denominated in Gulden and in Roepiah.
The Gulden issue bears the payment obligation "De Japansche Regeering Betaalt Aan Toonder" on notes one-half Gulden and above. On smaller change notes it is shortened to “De Japansche Regeering”. All Japanese invasion money used in the Netherlands Indies bear the block prefi
A currency, in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in common use for people in a nation. Under this definition, US dollars, pounds sterling, Australian dollars, European euros, Russian rubles and Indian Rupees are examples of currency; these various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote and money; the latter definition, pertaining to the currency systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the currency's value.
Some currencies are legal tender in certain political jurisdictions. Others are traded for their economic value. Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of the Internet. Money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and in Ancient Egypt. In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities; this formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place, safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store. A trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military. By the late Bronze Age, however, a series of treaties had established safe passage for merchants around the Eastern Mediterranean, spreading from Minoan Crete and Mycenae in the northwest to Elam and Bahrain in the southeast.
It is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency. It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end, it was only the recovery of Phoenician trade in the 10th and 9th centuries BC that led to a return to prosperity, the appearance of real coinage first in Anatolia with Croesus of Lydia and subsequently with the Greeks and Persians. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ivory, various forms of weapons, the manilla currency, ochre and other earth oxides; the manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves. African currency is still notable for its variety, in many places, various forms of barter still apply; these factors led to the metal itself being the store of value: first silver both silver and gold, at one point bronze.
Now we have other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined and stamped into coins; this was to assure the individual accepting the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but the existence of standard coins created a new unit of account, which helped lead to banking. Archimedes' principle provided the next link: coins could now be tested for their fine weight of metal, thus the value of a coin could be determined if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with. Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins of different values, made of copper and gold. Gold coins were the most valuable and were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities. Units of account were defined as the value of a particular type of gold coin. Silver coins were used for midsized transactions, sometimes defined a unit of account, while coins of copper or silver, or some mixture of them, might be used for everyday transactions.
This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas. The exact ratios between the values of the three metals varied between different eras and places. However, the rarity of gold made it more valuable than silver, silver was worth more than copper. In premodern China, the need for credit and for a medium of exchange, less physically cumbersome than large numbers of copper coins led to the introduction of paper money, i.e. banknotes. Their introduction was a gradual process which lasted from the late Tang dynasty into the Song dynasty, it began as a means for merchants to exchange heavy coinage for receipts of deposit issued as promissory notes by wholesalers' shops. These notes were valid for temporary use in a small regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song dynasty government began to circulate these notes amongst the traders in its monopolized salt industry; the Song government granted several shops the right to issue banknotes, in the early 12th century the government took over these shops to produce state-issued currency.
Yet the banknotes issued w
The Travancore rupee was a type of currency issued by the State of Travancore, now a part of Kerala in South India. The rupee was a newer currency in comparison to the older currencies of Kerala such as the Fanams, Chuckrams as well as the Kasu, its creation was intended for the increased trading with British India and the high-value transactions therein. The Travancore Rupee was the highest denomination of currency issued for general circulation; the highest face value issued was the'1/2 rupee'. While there had been plans to introduce'One Travancore Rupee', this was never done; the half-rupee and the quarter-rupee remained the highest values issued for circulation. The Travancore Rupee was issued until 1946 CE, remaining in circulation till 1949, it was replaced by the Indian rupee following Travancore's accession into India. Issues of the Travancore Rupee had the names or insignia of the reigning monarch in English; the reverse features inscriptions in the native language of Malayalam as well as the royal insignia of Travancore.
The inscriptions are a direct translation of the front of the coin. The year, when printed on the coins was based on the Malayalam calendar which begins circa 825 CE. Therefore, the year of issue of the coin can be found by adding 825 to it. Example - The year of issue of a coin showing 1000, will be 1825 C. E.. Therefore, the year of issue of the coin with the year 1116, as depicted in the images, will be 1940-41. Unlike the Indian Rupee issued by the British and other princely States of India, the Travancore Rupee was subdivided into 7 Travancore Fanams; these Fanams were further sub-divided into each of 16 Cash. We can see these sub-divisions in the following table - As of the early 1900s, silver coins were issued in the denominations of Rupee and Chakrams, their various values included 4 chakrams, 1/4 rupee and 1/2 rupee. The cash or kashu coins were copper coins, they were struck in values of 4 cash and 8 cash. The exchange rate with the British Indian rupee was set at 1 British Indian rupee = 28 chakram, 8 cash.
The rupee is the currency of Mauritius. One rupee is subdivided into 100 cents. Several other currencies are called rupee. In 1877, coins for 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 cents were introduced, with the lower three denominations in copper and the higher two in silver. Coin production ceased in 1899 and did not recommence until 1911, with silver coins not produced again until 1934, when ¼, ½ and 1 rupee coins were introduced. In 1947, cupro-nickel 10 cents were introduced, with cupro-nickel replacing silver in 1950.1000 In 1971 a new set of coins and banknotes were introduced by the Royal Mint. This set has a range of heraldic motives on the reverse; some of the reverse designs for this set were designed by Christopher Ironside OBE including the 10 rupee, 200 gold rupee and 250 gold rupee. In 1987, a new series of coins was introduced which, for the first time, did not feature the portrait of the monarch but that of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam; this coinage consisted of copper-plated-steel 1 and 5 cents, nickel-plated-steel 20 cents and ½ rupee, cupro-nickel 1 and 5 rupees.
Cupro-nickel 10 rupees were introduced in 1997. Coins in circulation are the 5 cents, 20 cents, ½ rupee, 1, 5, 10 and 20 rupees. Coins below 1 Rupee in value are regarded as "supermarket" small-change; the 1 cent coin has not been seen in circulation for many years, the last series of 1 cent coins issued in 1987 are only seen as collectors' items. In 2007, a bi-metallic 20-rupee coin was issued to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Bank of Mauritius, this has now become a coin in general circulation; the first banknotes were issued by the government dated 1876 in denominations of 5, 10 and 50 rupees. 1 rupee notes were added in 1919. In 1940, emergency issues were made of 1 rupee. In 1954, 25 and 1000 rupees were introduced; the Bank of Mauritius was established in September 1967 as the nation’s central bank and has been responsible for the issue of banknotes and coins since that time. The bank issued its first notes in 1967, comprising four denominations: 5, 10, 25, 50 rupees, all undated and featuring a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse.
Over the years, some denominations were revised with new signatures of the Bank's Governor and Managing Director but were otherwise unchanged. In 1985, the Bank of Mauritius issued a new set of banknotes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 rupees. A close study of these banknotes reveals an interesting array of subsets which were printed by two banknote printing companies; the notes were designed at different time periods as there are few identical and consistent design features appearing on all the denominations. Varying banknote numbering systems, different types of security threads, variations in the design and size of the Mauritian Coat of Arms, different ultraviolet light latent printing, inconsistent variations in the size incrementation between the denominations and multiple different typesets are just a few of the differences; this issue lasted up to 1998. In 1998, The Bank of Mauritius made a new issue of banknotes consisting of 7 denominations, viz. 25, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 rupees.
These banknotes had a standard format and were all issued in November 1998. All the banknotes of this issue were printed in England by Thomas de la Rue Limited; these first banknotes were withdrawn from circulation in June 1999 following controversies due to the ordering of the text while the population of Mauritius was Tamil. The Bank of Mauritius made its latest issue of banknotes, still current, after June 1999; each denomination bears a hand engraved portrait of a prominent Mauritian figure, which appears on the left. There is a drawing of the Bank of Mauritius building and a portrayal of the statue of justice on each of the denominations. Below the denomination in the top right-hand corner is a feature to aid the visually impaired; this is in addition to the differences in sizes between the banknotes of various denominations. Each denomination carries a different vignette; the value figure in Tamil can be found below the vignette. The feel of banknotes paper Three-dimensional watermark in the form of a dodo: When held up to the light the head of the dodo can be viewed.
See-through in the form of a conch shell: this image completes. Windowed security thread reading "Bank of Mauritius" when held up to the light, this can be seen as a continuous band running through the paper. Viewed flat, the metallic areas can be seen on the surface of the paper. Engraved Portrait in Intaglio ink. Latent image: when viewed at eye level, the image of "BM" becomes visible. Micro-text reading "BM": under a magnifying glass, these letters are clear to see. Under ultra-violet light: figures corresponding to the face value of the banknote become apparent.100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 rupee notes Iridescent band in gold: when held under the light, this band visualizes and disappears when the viewing angle is changed. 100, 200 rupee notes Silver metallic ink: dull silver metallic band running from top to bottom on front, left of note. Metallic strip beneath top right value numeral. 500, 1000 rupee notes Silver Foil: two different images, value numeral or geometric shape, can be seen when viewed from different angles.
2000 rupee note Hologram containing images of the dodo and the value "2000" 200, 500, 1000 rupee notes Hologram containing images of the dodo and the denomination on the 200 rupees note, a deer and the denomination on the