Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
University of Bordeaux 1
The University of Bordeaux 1 is a French university, in the Academy of Bordeaux. Its main campus is in Talence, it has many important laboratories such as Centre de Neurosciences Intégratives et Cognitives, a neuroscience research center Laboratoire Bordelais de Recherche en Informatique, a computer science research center University of Bordeaux List of public universities in France by academy
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system. The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case in a criminal trial against an individual accused of breaking the law; the prosecutor represents the government in the case brought against the accused person. Prosecutors are lawyers who possess a law degree, are recognized as legal professionals by the court in which they intend to represent society, they only become involved in a criminal case once a suspect has been identified and charges need to be filed. They are employed by an office of the government, with safeguards in place to ensure such an office can pursue the prosecution of government officials. Multiple offices exist in a single country in those countries with federal governments where sovereignty has been bifurcated or devolved in some way. Since prosecutors are backed by the power of the state, they are subject to special professional responsibility rules in addition to those binding all lawyers.
For example, in the United States, Rule 3.8 of the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct requires prosecutors to "make timely disclosure to the defense of all evidence or information that tends to negate the guilt of the accused or mitigates the offense." Not all U. S. states adopt the model rules. S. Supreme Court cases and other appellate cases have ruled. Typical sources of ethical requirements imposed on prosecutors come from appellate court opinions, state or federal court rules, state or federal statutes. In Australia, Canada and Wales, Hong Kong, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Trinidad & Tobago and South Africa, the head of the prosecuting authority is known as the Director of Public Prosecutions, is appointed, not elected. A DPP may be subject to varying degrees of control by the Attorney General by a formal written directive which must be published. In Australia, the Offices of the Director of Public Prosecutions institute prosecutions for indictable offences on behalf of the Crown.
At least in the case of serious matters, the DPP will be asked by the police, during the course of the investigation, to advise them on sufficiency of evidence, may well be asked, if he or she thinks it proper, to prepare an application to the relevant court for search, listening device or telecommunications interception warrants. More recent constitutions, such as South Africa's, tend to guarantee the independence and impartiality of the DPP. Prosecutors in Australia come in a few distinct species. Prosecutors of minor criminal cases in lower courts, are Police Sergeants with a traineeship in prosecution and advocacy lasting appoximately 1 year in duration, although they may hold law degrees. Crown Prosecutors are always lawyers, barristers, they represent the state or Commonwealth in serious criminal cases in higher courts, County Court and above. Aside from Police prosecutors and Crown prosecutors, government agencies have the authority to appoint non-lawyers to prosecute on their behalf, such as the RSPCA Inspectors.
In Canada, public prosecutors in most provinces are called Crown Counsel. They are appointed by the provincial Attorney-General. Though Scots law is a mixed system, its civil law jurisdiction indicates its civil law heritage. Here, all prosecutions are carried out by Procurators Fiscal and Advocates Depute on behalf of the Lord Advocate, and, in theory, they can direct investigations by the police. In serious cases, a Procurator Fiscal, Advocate Depute or the Lord Advocate, may take charge of a police investigation, it is at the discretion of the Procurator Fiscal, Advocate Depute, or Lord Advocate to take a prosecution to court, to decide on whether or not to prosecute it under solemn procedure or summary procedure. Other remedies are open to a prosecutor in Scotland, including fiscal fines and non-court based interventions, such as rehabilitation and social work. All prosecutions are handled within the Crown Procurator Fiscal Service. Procurators fiscal will refer cases involving minors to Children's Hearings, which are not courts of law, but a panel of lay members empowered to act in the interests of the child.
In the United States, the director of a prosecution office may be known by any of several names depending on the jurisdiction, most District Attorney. In Commonwealth states, like Virginia, they are known as Commonwealth's Attorney The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case against an individual or a corporation suspected of breaking the law and directing further criminal investigations and recommending the sentencing of offenders, are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings; the titles of prosecutors in state courts vary from state to state and level of government and include the terms District Attorney in New York, Texas, Delaware, North Carolina, Nevada, Wisconsin and Oklahoma.
Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers
E-Artsup is a French private school created in 2001 and specialized in digital creativity and multimedia. The school is located at Paris, Lyon, Montpellier and Lille and is part of IONIS Education Group; the school delivers degrees recognized by French state. There are 100 graduates per year, it is one of the only universities in France to specialize in digital creativity and multimedia. In April 2015, a new digital and innovative campus has opened in Paris bringing together the Institut supérieur européen de gestion group, Sup'Internet and E-Artsup; the school provides two courses: A five-year course in digital creativity. The first two years focus on the acquisition of basic knowledge of drawing: academic drawing, life model drawing, analytical drawing and computer graphics. During the third year, students learn subjects such as 3D creativity, web design, graphic arts, identity design, creative advertising and motion design. During the last two years of the curriculum, students choose an area of specialization among the four provided: communication, game design and interactive design.
A three-year Bachelor course in game & creative coding, motion & 3D or digital media. Official website
Federal Judicial Center
The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts. It was established by Pub. L. 90–219 in 1967, at the recommendation of the Judicial Conference of the United States. According to 28 U. S. C. § 620, the main areas of responsibility for the Center include: conducting and promoting "research and study of the operation of the courts of the United States," and to act to encourage and coordinate the same by others. S.. S. judiciary, for all employees in the justice system, from judges through probation officers and mediators. In addition to these major provisions, §620 sets forth the additional provisions that the FJC will provide staff and assistance to the Judicial Conference and component bodies, coordinate programs and research on the administration of justice with the State Justice Institute, cooperatively assist other government agencies in providing advice, receiving advice, regarding judicial administration in foreign countries, in each of these cases, to the extent it is "consistent with the performance of the other functions set forth" earlier.
The Code states that the Chief Justice of the United States is the permanent Chair of the Center's board, that it includes the director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and seven federal judges elected by the Judicial Conference. The Board appoints the Center's deputy director. Since its founding in 1967, the Center has had eleven directors; the current director is John S. Cooke; the deputy director is Clara Altman. The Federal Judicial Center was established by Congress on the recommendation of Chief Justice Earl Warren and other members of the judiciary who hoped that regular programs of research and education would improve the efficiency of the federal courts and help to relieve the backlog of cases in the lower courts. Governed by its own board, the Federal Judicial Center offered the courts the benefits of independent social science research and educational programs designed to improve judicial administration. In the 1950s and early 1960s, the Judicial Conference and the Administrative Office commissioned research projects to examine problems of judicial administration and organized educational programs to help judges manage growing and complicated caseloads.
These research and educational programs had funding. Support for an institutionalized program of judicial research and education increased after the establishment of 60 new district judgeships in 1961 demonstrated that the number of judges alone would not solve all of the problems of overworked courts. A growing number of judges and members of the bar urged the judiciary to establish a formal means to bring improved research and education to the courts. At the suggestion of Chief Justice Warren, the Judicial Conference in 1966 authorized a committee to examine the research and education requirements of the judiciary. Former Justice Stanley Reed agreed to Warren’s request to chair the committee; as the Reed committee formulated its recommendation for establishment of a Federal Judicial Center, President Johnson, at Warren’s request, included the proposal in his publicized message on crime in February 1967. The Judicial Committee adopted the recommendation. Bills to create the Center were soon submitted in both houses of Congress.
With broad support for the concept of a research and education center for the judiciary, discussion in the House and Senate hearings centered on questions about the proper institutional form and leadership for the Center. The Reed Committee and the director of the Administrative Office, among others, advocated an independent agency with its own governing board to which the Center director would report; the goal was to protect the research and education resources from being absorbed into administrative duties and to insure the objectivity of research. The Federal Judicial Center’s board consists of the Chief Justice, a rotating group of judges selected by the Judicial Conference, the director of the Administrative Office; the statute authorizes the Center to conduct and support research on the operation of the courts, to offer education and training for judges and court personnel, to assist and advise the Judicial Conference on matters related to the administration and management of the courts.
Legislation expanded the Center’s mandate to include programs related to the history of the federal judiciary. The Center includes several divisions; the Director's Office is responsible for the Center's overall management and its relations with other organizations. Its Office of Systems Innovation and Development provides technical support for Center education and research. Communications Policy and Design edits and distributes all Center print and electronic publications, operates the Federal Judicial Television Network, through the Information Services Office maintains a specialized library collection of materials on judicial administration; the Research Division undertakes empirical and exploratory research on federal judicial processes, judicial resources, court administration and case management, sentencing and its consequences at the request of the Judicial Conference and its committees, the courts themselves, or other groups in the federal system. James B. Eaglin is the current director of the research division.
Ministry of Justice (France)
The Ministry of Justice is controlled by the French Minister of Justice - Keeper of the Seals, a top-level cabinet position in the French Government. The current Minister of Justice is Nicole Belloubet; the ministry is headquartered in Paris. The roles of the minister are to: oversee the building and administration of courts; the Minister of Justice holds the ceremonial office of Keeper of the Seals and, as such, is custodian of the Great Seal of France. This symbolic role is still shown in the order of words of the minister's official designation, "Keeper of Seals, Minister of Justice". France's Ministry of Justice might oversee the administration of justice in French Guiana, French Polynesia, Jersey, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Réunion, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Wallis and Futuna; the French Ministry of Justice is subdivided into a number of departments, namely: Cabinet du ministre – Cabinet to the Minister Secrétariat général – Administration Inspection Générale des Services Judiciaires – Office of Inspector General Direction des Services Judiciaires – Office of Court Administration Direction des Affaires civiles et du Sceau – Office of Civil Justice Direction des affaires criminelles et des grâces – Office of Public Prosecutions French Prison Service Direction de la protection judiciaire de la jeunesse – Office of Juvenile Justice Service de contrôle budgétaire et comptable ministériel – Office of Accounting and Budget In 2010 the prisons in the French Prison Service has one of the highest rates of prisoner suicide in Europe.
Marguerite-Louis-François Duport-Dutertre, 1790–1792 Jean Marie Roland de la Platière, March–April, 1792 Antoine Duranton, April–July, 1792 Étienne Dejoly, July–August, 1792 Georges Jacques Danton, August–October, 1792 Dominique Joseph Garat, 1792–1793 Louis Gohier, 1793–1794 Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai, 1795–1796 Jean Joseph Victor Génissieu, January–April, 1796 Philippe Antoine Merlin de Douai, 1796–1797 Charles Joseph Lambrechts, 1797–1799 Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, July–December, 1799 André Joseph Abrial, 1799–1802 Claude Ambroise Régnier, duc de Massa, 1802–1813 Mathieu Louis Molé, 1813–1814 Pierre Paul Nicolas Henrion de Pansey, April–May, 1814 Charles-Henri Dambray, 1814–1815 Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, March–June, 1815 Antoine Boulay de la Meurthe, June–July, 1815 Étienne-Denis Pasquier, July–September, 1815 François de Barbé-Marbois, 1815–1816 Charles-Henri Dambray, 1816–1817 Étienne-Denis Pasquier, 1817–1818 Pierre François Hercule de Serre, 1818–1821 Charles Ignace de Peyronnet, 1821–1828 Joseph Marie Portalis, 1828–1829 Pierre Bourdeau, May–August 1829 Jean de Courvoisier, 1829–1830 Jean de Chantelauze, May–July, 1830 Jacques Charles Dupont de l'Eure, July–December, 1830 Joseph Mérilhou, 1830–1831 Félix Barthe, 1831–1834 Jean-Charles Persil, 1834–1836 Paul Jean Pierre Sauzet, February–September, 1836 Jean-Charles Persil, 1836–1837 Félix Barthe, 1837–1839 Amédée Girod de l'Ain, March–May, 1839 Jean-Baptiste Teste, 1839–1840 Alexandre-François Vivien, March–October, 1840 Nicolas Martin du Nord, 1840–1847 Michel Hébert, 1847–1848 Adolphe Crémieux, February–June, 1848 Eugène Bethmont, June–July, 1848 Alexandre Marie, July–December, 1848 Eugène Rouher, 1847–1851 Eugène Corbin, October–November, 1851 Alfred Daviel, November–December, 1851 Eugène Rouher, 1851–1852 Jacques Pierre Abbatucci, 1852–1857 Paul de Royer, 1857–1859 Claude Delangle, 1859–1863 Pierre Jules Baroche, 1863–1869 Jean-Baptiste Duvergier, 1869–1870 Émile Ollivier, January–August 1870 Théodore Grandperret, August–September, 1870 Adolphe Crémieux, 1870–1871 Jules Dufaure, 1871–1873 Jean Ernoul, May–November, 1873 Octave Depeyre, 1873–1874 Adrien Tailhand, 1874–1875 Jules Dufaure, 1875–1876 Louis Martel, 1876–1877 Albert, duc de Broglie, May–November, 1877 François Le Pelletier, November–December, 1877 Jules Dufaure, 1877–1879 Philippe Le Royer, February–December, 1879 Jules Cazot, 1879–1882 Gustave Humbert, January–August, 1882 Paul Devès, 1882–1883 Félix Martin-Feuillée, 1883–1885 Henri Brisson, 1885–1886 Charles Demôle, January–December, 1886 Ferdinand Sarrien, 1886–1887 Charles Mazeau, May–November, 1887 Armand Fallières, 1887–1888 Jean-Baptiste Ferrouillat, 1888–1889 Jean François Edmond Guyot Dessaigne, February, 1889 François Thévenet, 1889–1890 Armand Fallières, 1890–1892 Louis Ricard, February–December, 1892 Léon Bourgeois, 1892–1893 Jules Develle, March, 1893 Léon Bourgeois, March–April, 1893 Eugène Guérin, April–December, 1893 Antonin Dubost, 1893–1894 Eugène Guérin, 1894–1895 Ludovic Trarieux, January–November, 1895 Louis Ricard, 1895–1896 Jean-Baptiste Darlan, 1896–1897 Victor Milliard, 1897–1898 Ferdinand Sarrien, June–November, 1898 Georges Lebret, 1898–1899 Ernest Monis, 1899–1902 Ernest Vallé, 1902–1905 Joseph Chaumié, 1905–1906 Ferdinand Sarrien, March–October, 1906 Jean François Edmond Guyot Dessaigne, 1906–1907 Aristide Briand, 1908–1909 Louis Barthou, 1909–1910 Théodore Girard, 1910–1911 Antoine Perrier, March–June, 1911 Jean Cruppi, 1911–1912 Aristide Briand, 1912–1913 Louis Barthou, January–March, 1913 Antony Ratier, March–December, 1913 Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin, 1913–1914 Alexandre Ribot, June, 1914 Jean Bienvenu-Martin, June–August, 1914 Aristide Briand, 1914–1915 René Viviani, 1915–1917 Raoul Péret, September–November, 1917 Louis Nail, 1917–1920 Gustave L'Hopiteau, 1920–1921 Laurent Bonneva