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French North Africa

French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France during the 19th and 20th-century colonial era, centering on French Algeria. At its height, it comprised most of the Maghreb. In the 19th century, the decline of the Ottoman Empire, which had loosely controlled the area since the 16th century, left the region vulnerable to other forces. In 1830, French troops captured Algiers and from 1848 until independence in 1962, France treated Mediterranean Algeria as an integral part of France, the Métropole or metropolitan France. Seeking to expand their influence beyond Algeria, the French established protectorates to the east and west of it; the French protectorate of Tunisia was established in 1881, following a military invasion, the French protectorate in Morocco in 1912. These lasted until 1955, in the case of Morocco, 1956, when Tunisia gained full independence. French North Africa came to an end soon after the Évian Accords of March 1962, which enabled the Algerian independence referendum of July 1962.

Algerian War Army of Africa French Colonial Empire French conquest of Algeria French conquest of Tunisia History of Algeria July Monarchy#Colonization of Algeria Napoleon III of France#Algeria Nationalism and resistance in Algeria Pied-Noir Scramble for Africa Edwards, Sketches of French North Africa Gottmann, Economic problems of French North Africa *Liebesny, Herbert J. The Government of French North Africa Thomas, French Empire Between the Wars Wallerstein, Immanuel M. Africa: The Politics of Independence and Unity

Insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer

Insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer is a signal resolution enhancement method used in NMR spectroscopy. It involves the transfer of nuclear spin polarization from spins with large Boltzmann population differences to nuclear spins of interest with low Boltzmann population differences. INEPT uses J-coupling for the polarization transfer in contrast to Nuclear Overhauser effect which arises from dipolar cross-relaxation; this method of signal enhancement was introduced by Ray Freeman in 1979. Due to its usefulness in signal enhancement, pulse sequences used in heteronuclear NMR experiments contain blocks of INEPT or INEPT-like sequences; the sensitivity of NMR signal detection depends on the gyromagnetic ratio of the nucleus. In general, the signal intensity produced from a nucleus with a gyromagnetic ratio of γ is proportional to γ3 because the magnetic moment, the Boltzmann populations, the nuclear precession all increase in proportion to the gyromagnetic ratio γ. For example, the gyromagnetic ratio of 13C is 4 times lower than that of the proton, so the signal intensity it produces will be 64 times lower than one produced by a proton.

However, noise increases as the square root of the frequency, the sensitivity therefore becomes proportional to γ5/2. A 13C nucleus would be 32 times less sensitive than a proton, 15N around 300 times less sensitive. Sensitivity enhancement techniques are therefore desirable when recording an NMR signal from an insensitive nucleus; the sensitivity can be enhanced artificially by increasing the Boltzmann factors. One method may be through NOE, for example, for 13C signal, the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved three-fold when the attached protons are saturated. However, for NOE, a negative value of K, the ratio of gyromagnetic ratios of the nuclei, may result in a reduction in signal intensity. For 15N which has a negative gyromagnetic ratio, if the dipolar relaxation has to compete with other mechanisms, the observed 15N signal can be near zero. Alternative methods are therefore necessary for nuclei with a negative gyromagnetic ratio, one such method using the INEPT pulse sequence was proposed by Ray Freeman in 1979, a method that became adopted.

The INEPT signal enhancement has two sources: The spin population effect increases the signal by a factor of K = ratio of gyromagnetic ratios γI/γS of the nuclei, where γI and γS are the gyromagnetic ratio of the proton and the low-sensitivity nuclei respectively. Nuclei with higher magnetogyric ratio relax more quickly. Since the rate at which the INEPT transfer that can be repeated is limited by the relaxation of these spins the experiment can be repeated more increasing the signal-to-noise ratio; as a result, INEPT can enhance the NMR signal by a factor larger than K, while the maximum enhancement via NOE is by a factor of 1+K/2. Unlike NOE, no penalty is incurred by a negative gyromagnetic ratio in INEPT, it is therefore a useful method for enhancing the signal from nuclei with negative gyromagnetic ratio such as 15N or 29Si; the 15N signal may be enhanced by a factor of 10 via INEPT. The pulse sequence of INEPT, as represented in the diagram, can be read as a combination of spin echo and selective population inversion.

The spin echo is a 90° pulse followed by a 180° separated by a time period τ and is applied on the proton, the sensitive nucleus. Spin Echo90°I — τ — 180°I The first 90° pulse flips the magnetization onto the +y axis and, due to the inhomogeneity of the field, the isochromats fan out at different rate. After a time period, a 180° pulse is applied along the x axis, rotating the isochromats onto the -y axis; as individual isochromat still processes at the same rate as before, all the isochromats would converge and become refocused, thereby regenerating the signal, i.e. the echo. The chemical shifts are refocused at the same time as the inhomogeneity, this property allows the magnetization to be manipulated independent of the chemical shifts; the refocusing allows all the proton chemical shifts to undergo population inversion in the SPI step without its undesirable selectivity. Selective Population Inversion180°S — τ — 90°I, 90°S — AcquisitionAs shown in the diagram, a 180° pulse is applied on the insensitive nucleus with the 180° pulse on the proton.

This is the population inversion part of the scheme, where a further 90° pulse after a time period on both the sensitive and insensitive nuclei rotate the magnetization onto the z-axis. This has the effect of producing an antiphase alignment of magnetization on the z axis, an important step during which the polarization is transferred from the sensitive nucleus to the insensitive one. There are a number of variations of the experiments, for example, a refocusing step or an extra 90° 1H pulse may be added, there are reverse INEPT pulse sequences

Suzanne A. Rogers

Suzanne A. Rogers is a Canadian philanthropist. Rogers was born in Elliot Lake – a small town in northeast Ontario – where her parents and Miklos, had immigrated to from Budapest, Hungary; the family moved to London, Ontario. Rogers attended grade school in London, but she completed her secondary education at the Salzburg International Preparatory School in Austria, she returned to London to attend the University of Western Ontario, where she graduated in 1992 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science. As a young girl at school in Austria, she recalls taking the train to Paris, Vienna or Munich, to stay ahead of current trends in the industry, her fundraiser series, Suzanne Rogers Presents, partners with notable designers, which have included Oscar de la Renta, Zac Posen and Diane von Fürstenberg. 2014’s Suzanne Rogers Presents Zac Posen gala was the catalyst for the documentary House of Z. Rogers funded the $25,000 Suzanne Rogers Award for Most Promising New Label at the Toronto Fashion Incubator’s annual gala.

In October 2016, Toronto's Ryerson University announced the launch of the Suzanne Rogers Fashion Institute. Providing master classes and mentorship opportunities, the program is made possible through a $1-million gift from The Edward and Suzanne Rogers Foundation to Ryerson's Faculty of Communication and Design. Rogers is involved with Boost Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention, an organization offering support services to families who experience abuse or violence, as well as prevention programs with the mission of reducing vulnerability in children. Rogers serves as honorary chair of the charity's annual fundraiser. Rogers served as Honorary Chair of the Governor General’s Performing Arts Awards Gala from 2015–17, as Chair of Covenant House’s anti-trafficking “Just Like a Girl You Know” campaign, as Honorary Chair of Le Grand Bal, benefitting Covenant House and Oolagen Youth Mental Health, she is a committee member of the annual fundraising event Scrubs in the City, benefitting the Hospital for Sick Children.

Beyond her philanthropic ties to the fashion industry, Rogers serves on the judging panel for the annual Canadian Arts and Fashion Awards. As well as having her own namesake Canadian Arts and Fashion Awards grant, the "Suzanne Rogers Designer Grant for International Development". Past recipients include Sid Neigum, she was featured along with her daughter in the 2013 Flare’s Icons issue, showcasing the 50 most stylish Canadians of all time, as well as Hello! Canada's 2014 list of Canada's Best Dressed. In 2019, designer Sid Neigum said she was "the Fairy Godmother of Canadian Fashion", citing her support for emerging designers over many years

Ancient DNA

Ancient DNA is DNA isolated from ancient specimens. Due to degradation processes ancient DNA is more degraded in comparison with contemporary genetic material. Under the best preservation conditions, there is an upper boundary of 0.4–1.5 million years for a sample to contain sufficient DNA for sequencing technologies. Genetic material has been recovered from paleo/archaeological and historical skeletal material, mummified tissues, archival collections of non-frozen medical specimens, preserved plant remains and from permafrost cores and lake sediments and excavation dirt; the first study of what would come to be called aDNA was conducted in 1984, when Russ Higuchi and colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley reported that traces of DNA from a museum specimen of the Quagga not only remained in the specimen over 150 years after the death of the individual, but could be extracted and sequenced. Over the next two years, through investigations into natural and artificially mummified specimens, Svante Pääbo confirmed that this phenomenon was not limited to recent museum specimens but could be replicated in a range of mummified human samples that dated as far back as several thousand years.

The laborious processes that were required at that time to sequence such DNA were an effective brake on the development of the field of ancient DNA. However, with the development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction in the late 1980s, the field began to progress rapidly. Double primer PCR amplification of aDNA can produce skewed and non-authentic sequence artifacts. Multiple primer, nested PCR strategy was used to overcome those shortcomings; the post-PCR era heralded a wave of publications as numerous research groups tried their hands at aDNA. Soon a series of incredible findings had been published, claiming authentic DNA could be extracted from specimens that were millions of years old, into the realms of what Lindahl has labelled Antediluvian DNA; the majority of such claims were based on the retrieval of DNA from organisms preserved in amber. Insects such as stingless bees and wood gnats, as well as plant and bacterial sequences were extracted from Dominican amber dating to the Oligocene epoch.

Still older sources of Lebanese amber-encased weevils, dating to within the Cretaceous epoch also yielded authentic DNA. DNA retrieval was not limited to amber. Several sediment-preserved plant remains dating to the Miocene were investigated. In 1994 and to international acclaim, Woodward et al. reported the most exciting results to date — mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, extracted from dinosaur bones dating to more than 80 million years ago. When in 1995 two further studies reported dinosaur DNA sequences extracted from a Cretaceous egg, it seemed that the field would revolutionize knowledge of the Earth's evolutionary past; these extraordinary ages were topped by the claimed retrieval of 250-million-year-old halobacterial sequences from halite. Whole genome sequencing started to yield results in 1995. Single primer extension amplification was introduced in 2007 to address postmortem DNA modification damage. Since 2009 the field of aDNA studies has been revolutionized with the introduction of much cheaper research-techniques, leading to new insights in human migrations.

The use of high-throughput Next Generation Sequencing techniques in the field of ancient DNA research has been essential for reconstructing the genomes of ancient or extinct organisms. A single-stranded DNA library preparation method has sparked great interest among ancient DNA researchers. Due to degradation processes ancient DNA is of lower quality in comparison with modern genetic material; the damage characteristics and ability of aDNA to survive through time restricts possible analyses and places an upper limit on the age of successful samples Allentoft et al.. There is a theoretical correlation between time and DNA degradation, although differences in environmental conditions complicates things. Samples subjected to different conditions are unlikely to predictably align to a uniform age-degradation relationship; the environmental effects may matter after excavation, as DNA decay rates may increase under fluctuating storage conditions. Under the best preservation conditions, there is an upper boundary of 0.4–1.5 million years for a sample to contain sufficient DNA for contemporary sequencing technologies.

Research into the decay of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA in Moa bones has modelled mitochondrial DNA degradation to an average length of 1 base pair after 6,830,000 years at −5 °C. The decay kinetics have been measured by accelerated aging experiments further displaying the strong influence of storage temperature and humidity on DNA decay. Nuclear DNA degrades at least twice as fast as mtDNA; as such, early studies that reported recovery of much older DNA, for example from Cretaceous dinosaur remains, may have stemmed from contamination of the sample. A critical review of ancient DNA literature through the development of the field highlights that few studies after about 2002 have succeeded in amplifying DNA from remains older than several hundred thousand years. A greater appreciation for the risks of environmental contamination and studies on the chemical stability of DNA have resulted in concerns being raised over reported results; the dinosaur DNA was revealed to be human Y-chromosome, while the DNA reported from encapsulated halobacteria has been criticized based on its similarity to modern bacteria, which hints at contamination.

A 2007 study suggests that t

This Book Is Not Good for You

This Book is Not Good for You is a book by anonymous author Pseudonymous Bosch. It is part of the "Secret Series", a pentalogy of books written by Bosch, is the sequel to The Name of This Book is Secret and If You're Reading This, It's Too Late. In the story, a famous chef named Señor Hugo captures Cass's mother in order to get Cass to bring him the legendary Tuning Fork for the Midnight Sun, in hope that it will help the members achieve immortality; the novel starts out with an African girl named Simone, who tastes a piece of chocolate for the Midnight Sun. It is noted that she is a Supertaster, is able to distinguish between any food, no matter how similar they are. After tasting the chocolate, she blacks out. Meanwhile, Max-Ernest,Yo-Yoji and Cass, three members of the Terces Society and the three protagonists of the series, are searching for the box in which the letter was found when she was a baby, as she earlier found out she was adopted and wants to find out more about who she is. While they search, they find a box filled with magazines, dropped off at the front door of Cass's grandfathers' old, abandoned fire station, where the grandfathers live.

Max-Ernest points out a magazine with a picture of the Skelton Sisters on the cover, the teen pop stars who were known by the two collaborators as being members of the Midnight Sun. Knowing this, the kids become suspicious of what they are doing, discover that they are with Ms. Mauvais, the French woman, one of the most evil leaders of the Midnight Sun, that they have established headquarters in the country Côte d'Ivoire in Africa, where they take care of orphans and work on a chocolate plantation. Cass and Max-Ernest head to the old circus, where the Terces Society to tell Pietro and the others where the Midnight Sun is hiding. Mr. Wallace tells them that he thinks the legendary Tuning Fork is involved in the spa's plan with chocolate. Cass and her mother, Melanie, or "Mel" for short, sign up for a cooking class run by the famous blind chef, Señor Hugo. After bringing up the subject of the Tuning Fork, Cass is invited to Hugo's famous restaurant with her mother, Max-Ernest, other friend, Yoji, or "Yo-Yoji."

At the restaurant, the kids and Mel discover that it is dark to the point where no one can see anything, since Hugo wants the diners' other senses taste, to be heightened during their meal. After trying many different foods, Cass sees. Outside, she reads the note given to her by the waiter from Señor Hugo, which demands the Tuning Fork in return for her mother. At the fire station and her friends search for the Tuning Fork, as they were told earlier by Mr. Wallace that by now the Fork, possessed by the Aztec boy "Caca Boy", would have ended up in a junk shop, assumed that the junk shop he was talking about could only be Cass's grandfather's home. While searching, Cass finds the box in which she was dropped off by Mr. Wallace, sees on a television that the kids' principal, Mrs. Johnson, is in possession of the Tuning Fork; the trio heads to her house to her house to find out that she is opposite of what she says in school, is gambling and not recycling. They blackmail her into giving them the Fork.

Cass gives Señor Hugo the Fork at her house, finding out that he is in fact part of the Midnight Sun, will not give her back her mother as she told her friends what he had done, when she had been told not to. Meanwhile, the girl, awakes from her faint and finds a woman named Melanie in her cell. Mel gives her comfort and tells her that she has a daughter like her, gives Simone comfort, telling her that her parents must have loved her and thought it best to send her to the plantation. Mel is called to the Tasting Room, Simone warns her not to eat any chocolate. At Yo-Yoji's house, Max-Ernest, Yo-Yoji investigate the pictures of the Midnight Sun at the plantation in the magazine, looking for clues, they discover that they are at a zoo, since there was a "don't feed" sign and an American bird and are in fact not in Africa, but are located inside an artificial rainforest park somewhere in the United States. After taking a train to the park, the kids camp out there and journey through the rainforest, locating the plantation with the help of a Capuchin monkey.

Hiding in the cacao trees on the plantation, the kids witness Ms. Mauvais herself talking to an elderly man, who made a brief appearance in the first book, dies a few days later, they discover that Ms. Mauvais' first name is "Antoinette." The trio find a building called the "Pavilion," where the Tasting Room is located. The kids find three pieces of chocolate on a table, in fact a trap placed by the Midnight Sun. Cass and Yo-Yoji eat a piece each, though Max-Ernest refrains from eati

Nevada State Route 322

State Route 322 is a state highway in Lincoln County, Nevada. From State Route 321 in Pioche, State Route 322 passes by U. S. Route heads to the entrance of Spring Valley State Park via the community of Ursine; the route was known as State Route 85. The route begins with an intersection with State Route 321. SR 322 heads northward through town as Main Street. Upon intersecting U. S. Route 93, the route becomes Eagle Valley Road, heading eastward. SR 322 turns northward, passing through the town of Ursine before meeting its terminus at Spring Valley State Park; the route was the second highway in the state to be known as State Route 85, established in the 1970s. This designation was removed in favor of SR 322 in the 1976 renumbering of Nevada's state highways; the entire route is in Lincoln County