Pierre-Esprit Radisson was a French fur trader and explorer in New France. He is linked to his brother-in-law Médard des Groseilliers; the decision of Radisson and Groseilliers to enter the English service led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company. His career was notable for its repeated transitions between serving Britain and France; the location and date of Pierre-Esprit Radisson's birth are not clear, though the most accepted consensus seems to place his origin in the lower Rhone region of France near the town of Avignon, sometime in the mid-seventeenth century. An affidavit from 1697 and a petition from 1698 contain statements from Radisson himself indicating that he was 61 and 62 years old which would place his year of birth at 1636. However, a 1681 census of New France indicated that he was, at the time, 41 years old, placing his birth year instead at 1640. In Radisson's own writings, he claims that his family, the Hayet-Radissons came from the town of St. Malo. However, records seem to suggest that his family more came from either Paris or Avignon.
Baptismal Records from Carpentras, a city near Avignon, concerning Radisson's father provide evidence in support of the latter option. As Radisson himself describes in his writings, he immigrated from France to Canada on 24 May 1651. Information regarding Radisson's arrival in New France is scarce, but it is theorized that he arrived with, or as a result of, his half-sister Marguerite Hayet, it is unknown whether or not he arrived alongside other members of his family, namely his two sisters Élisabeth and Françoise. Regardless, by 1651, who would go on to marry Radisson's eventual fur-trading partner Médard Chouat Des Groseilliers, was living in Trois-Rivières at the same time as her three half-siblings. According to Radisson's account, in the same year he had been hunting fowl with several other men near his home in Trois-Rivières when he was captured by the Iroquois. A petty squabble had separated him from his friends and by the time he had found them, they had been killed by a Mohawk raiding party.
Citing his youth as the reason he was left alive, Radisson claims that the Iroquois, after capturing him, treated him kindly and that he by showing an interest in Mohawk language and culture, was assimilated into a local Mohawk family who had settled near modern day Schenectady in New York state. This assimilation was the custom for the Mohawk, who replaced people lost to disease and warfare and adopted young captives from other tribes and European nations. After six weeks of gradual integration, Radisson's assimilation and partial adoption of Iroquois nationality was solidified. Shortly thereafter, while out hunting with three Iroquois, Radisson reluctantly agreed to attempt escape after meeting an Algonquin man who offered to help him return to Trois-Rivières. After killing Radisson's Iroquois companions and the Algonquin man travelled for 14 days until they were within sight of Trois-Rivières, but were recaptured by patrolling Iroquois shortly before reaching the town; the Mohawks killed the Algonquin and subjected Radisson, along with 20 other prisoners, to ritual torture.
Much of his punishment was lessened as a result of the advocacy of his adopted Mohawk family. Radisson had his fingernails pulled out and one finger cut to the bone while being forced to watch ten Huron Indians being tortured to death. Radisson was spared death as his adopted parents gave gifts as compensation to the families of the men he had killed. While his fingernails were being pulled out, Radisson was forced to sing. Radisson's adopted parents told him that he would have to be brave for the next several days as the Iroquois despised cowards, if he showed fear, he would be killed. At the same time, the Iroquois liked to eat the hearts of brave men out of the belief that one could acquire their courage, so Radisson was warned to be only moderately brave; the day after his fingernails were pulled out, Radisson was tied to a scaffold, not knowing of his fate, was first burned by an old man and had a young man force a red hot dagger though his foot. Throughout it all, Radisson displayed much stoicism.
After three days of being tied to the scaffold and being burned and stabbed, the Iroquois brought out a group of Huron prisoners. Radisson watched as some of them had their heads smashed in with tomahawks while the rest were proclaimed to be Iroquois who were now to be adopted by Iroquois families, he was released, overwhelmed with relief, described the experience as a moment in which "all my paines and griefs ceased, not feeling the least paine. Bids me be merry, makes me sing, to wich I consented with all my heart." Knowing that it was adopted parents-who by his account much loved him-who saved him from executed, Radisson described feeling a deep sense of gratitude to his adopted parents who limited his punishment only to being tortured. The Canadian historian Martin Fournier noted that by Iroquois standards Radisson had not been tortured that badly as they only pulled out his fingernails and burned him, which suggested that he was meant to survive this ordeal. In contrast, Radisson wrote about the fate of a captured French woman: "They burned a Frenchwoman.
Afterwards, following the healing of his torture wounds and a subsequent 5 months war-party expedition, Radisson departed for a trading trip, alongside other
Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels, focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing. It is a popular activity, there are millions of boaters worldwide. Recreational boats fall into several broad categories, additional subcategories. Broad categories include dinghies, paddlesports boats, daysailers and cruising and racing sailboats; the National Marine Manufacturers Association, the organization that establishes several of the standards that are used in the marine industry in the United States, defines 32 types of boats, demonstrating the diversity of boat types and their specialization. In addition to those standards all boats employ the same basic principles of hydrodynamics. Boating activities are as varied as the boats and boaters who participate, new ways of enjoying the water are being discovered. Broad categories include the following: Paddlesports include ears and oceangoing types covered-cockpit kayaks.
Canoes are popular on lakes and rivers due to efficiency on the water. They are easy to portage, or carry overland around obstructions like rapids, or just down to the water from a car or cabin. Kayaks can be found on calm inland waters, whitewater rivers, along the coasts in the oceans. Known for their maneuverability and seaworthiness, kayaks take many shapes depending on their desired use. Rowing craft are popular for fishing, as a tender to a larger vessel, or as a competitive sport. Rowing shells are long and narrow, are intended to convert as much of the rower's muscle power as possible into speed; the ratio of length of waterline to beam has much importance in marine mechanics and design.. Row boats or dinghies are oar powered, restricted to protected waters. Rowboats are heavy craft compared to other has Sailing can be either competitive, as in collegiate dinghy racing, or purely recreational as when sailing on a lake with family or friends. Small sailboats are made from fiberglass, will have wood, aluminum, or carbon-fiber spars, a sloop rig.
Racing dinghies and skiffs tend to be lighter, have more sail area, may use a trapeze to allow one or both crewmembers to suspend themselves over the water for additional stability. Daysailers tend to be wider across the beam and have greater accommodation space at the expense of speed. Cruising sailboats have more width, but performance climbs as they tend to be much longer with a starting over-all length of at least 25 feet re-balancing the dynamic ratio between length of waterline and beam width. Freshwater fishing boats account for 1/3 of all registered boats in the U. S. and most all other types of boats end up being used as fishing boats on occasion. The boating industry has developed freshwater fishing boat designs that are species-specific to allow anglers the greatest advantage when fishing for walleye, trout, etcetera, as well as generic fishing craft. Watersport Boats or skiboats are high-powered Go-Fast boats is designed for activities where a participant is towed behind the boat such as waterskiing and parasailing.
Variations on the ubiquitous waterski include wakeboards, water-skiing, inflatable towables, wake surfing. To some degree, the nature of these boating activities influences boat design. Waterski boats are intended to hold a precise course at an accurate speed with a flat wake for slalom skiing runs. Wakeboard boats run at slower speeds, have various methods including ballast and negative lift foils to force the stern in the water, thereby creating a large and "jumpable" wake. Saltwater fishing boats vary in length and are once again specialized for various species of fish. Flats boats, for example, are used in protected, shallow waters, have shallow draft. Sportfishing boats range from 25 to 80 feet or more, can be powered by large outboard engines or inboard diesels. Fishing boats in colder climates may have more space dedicated to cuddy cabins and wheelhouses, while boats in warmer climates are to be open. Cruising boats applies to both power and sailboats, refers to trips from local weekend passages to lengthy voyages, is a lifestyle.
While faster "express cruisers" can be used for multiple day trips, long voyages require a slower displacement boat with diesel power and greater stability and efficiency. Cruising sailboats range from 20 to 70 feet and more, have managed sailplans to allow small crews to sail them long distances; some cruising sailboats will have two masts to further reduce the size of individual sails and make it possible for a couple to handle larger boats. Diesel- powered Narrowboats are a popular mode of travel on the inland waterways of England. Racing and Regattas are common group activities in the sub-culture of boaters owning larger small
Ontario Highway 69
King's Highway 69 referred to as Highway 69, is a major north–south highway in the central portion of the Canadian province of Ontario, linking Highway 400 north of Parry Sound with the city of Greater Sudbury at Highway 17. It is part of the National Highway System. From its northerly terminus at Sudbury, the highway follows a wide urban arterial route for several kilometres before widening into a full freeway south of Crown Ridge; as of July 2016 this freeway segment extends south 49 km to a point 5 km north of the French River. From there, the route narrows to a two-lane highway to its southerly terminus, located three kilometres north of Highway 559 at Carling. At this terminus, the roadway widens back into a freeway and changes its designation to Highway 400. South of this point, various former alignments of Highway 69 remain in use as parts of Highway 400 or as county or local roads; the highway forms part of the Georgian Bay Route of the Trans-Canada Highway, which continues south along Highway 400.
Highway 69 was first designated in 1936 when the Department of Highways assumed the Rama Road between Atherley and Washago. This short route was expanded the following year when the DHO merged with the Department of Northern Development and expanded the King's Highway network north of the Severn River. By the beginning of World War II, the route reached as far north as Britt. However, the rationing of labour and materials due to the war effort resulted in these two sections remaining separated until the mid-1950s. In 1976, several reroutings and renumbering took place in the Muskoka area; as a result, the portion of Highway 69 between Brechin and Foot's Bay was renumbered as Highway 169, while the entirety of Highway 103 between Coldwater and Foot's Bay was renumbered as Highway 69. Until the 1980s, the highway extended through Sudbury to Capreol, but was truncated at a junction with Highway 17's route through Sudbury along what is now Municipal Road 55. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Highway 400 was pushed north to its current terminus by twinning Highway 69 truncating the southern end of the Highway 69 route.
Highway 69 is a major highway serving the recreational areas surrounding Georgian Bay and the Thirty-Thousand Islands, as well as providing the westernmost fixed connection between southern and northern Ontario. The highway occupies the northern portion of a corridor that connects Toronto to Sudbury, with Highway 400 occupying the southern portion; the route forms part of the Georgian Bay Route of the Trans-Canada Highway. As of 2012, the highway begins just north of Exit 241 on Highway 400. From here the route travels northward. Between Nobel and Sudbury, there are no large communities, although numerous small communities lie adjacent to the route, including Shawanaga, Pointe au Baril, Byng Inlet, Bigwood and Estaire. South of Highway 64, the highway widens into a four-lane freeway extending most of the remaining distance to Sudbury, where the divided highway ends just south of Crown Ridge; the highway ends at an interchange with Highway 17 in Sudbury. North of the interchange, the roadway continues north into the urban core of Sudbury as Regent Street/Municipal Road 46.
Highway 69 has undergone several major changes during its existence, so much so that the first section designated has not been a King's Highway for 60 years and lay 80 km from the current highway. In other places, a minor two lane gravel highway has been upgraded to a four lane paved freeway. On August 5, 1936, the DHO assumed the Rama Road, connecting Highway 12 at Atherley with Highway 11 at Washago. On March 31, 1937, the Department of Northern Development was merged into the DHO, allowing the latter to extend the provincial highway network north of the Severn River. Subsequently, through August 1937, Highway 69 was extended 77.75 mi north to the Naiscoot River, midway between Pointe au Baril and Britt. This extension followed DND trunk routes to Nobel, where a munitions and aircraft factory would soon provide an instrumental role in the war effort. In the north, the road connecting Sudbury and Burwash was assumed as Highway 69 on August 11, it was intended to connect these two segments over the next several years.
Work resumed during the 1950s to bridge the 60 km gap between the two sections of highway. In 1954, a further 29 km of roadway north of Britt was assumed as Highway 69; that same year saw the rerouting of the southern end of the highway. The new routing was longer, but gave the southern end of the highway a more significant purpose than as a bypass of Highway 11; the Rama Road has since been known as Simcoe County Road 44. Once the war ended, construction resumed on Highway 69. Paving and extending the road continued, with the first gap being closed in 1951. French River would be linked to the provincial roadway network in 1952; this allowed motorists to take a far more direct route between Severn River and Sudbury, by taking advantage of a detour (via Highway 535 and H
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces, it is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River; the river rises at Lac des Outaouais, north of the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, flows west to Lake Timiskaming. From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario; the river reaches great depths of nearly 460 feet in some places. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, where it tumbles over Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau rivers; the Ottawa River drains into the Lake of the St. Lawrence River at Montreal; the river is 1,271 kilometres long. The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second, with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second. Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 529 cubic metres per second in 2005 and a high of 8,190 cubic metres per second in 1976.
The river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age. The coniferous forests and blueberry bogs occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, or in wetter areas with clay substrate; the deciduous forests, dominated by birch, beech and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil around the boundary with the La Varendrye Park. These primeval forests were affected by natural fire started by lightning, which led to increased reproduction by pine and oak, as well as fire barrens and their associated species; the vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers. Generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests. Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, but led to soil erosion. Nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, hence they are considered of considerable importance for conservation.
The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands. Some of the more biologically important wetland areas include, the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex, Mississippi Snye, Breckenridge Nature Reserve, Shirleys Bay, Ottawa Beach/Andrew Haydon Park, Petrie Island, the Duck Islands and Greens Creek; the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river. Like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level. High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps, while low water periods allow many rare wetland plants to grow on the emerged sand and clay flats. There are five principal wetland vegetation types. One is swamp silver maple. There are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them: Scirpus, Eleocharis and Typha.
Which type occurs in a particular location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour and fertility. Inland, south of the river, older river channels, which date back to the end of the ice age, no longer have flowing water, have sometimes filled with a different wetland type, peat bog. Examples include Alfred Bog. Major tributaries include: Communities along the Ottawa River include: The Ottawa River lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. Much of the river flows through the Canadian Shield, although lower areas flow through limestone plains and glacial deposits; as the glacial ice sheet began to retreat at the end of the last ice age, the Ottawa River valley, along with the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain, had been depressed to below sea level by the glacier's weight, filled with sea water; the resulting arm of the ocean is known as the Champlain Sea. Fossil remains of marine life dating 12 to 10 thousand years ago have been found in marine clay throughout the region.
Sand deposits from this era have produced vast plains dominated by pine forests, as well as localized areas of sand dunes, such as Westmeath and Constance Bay. Clay deposits from this period have resulted in areas of poor drainage, large swamps, peat bogs in some ancient channels of this river. Hence, the distribution of forests and wetlands is much a product of these past glacial events. Large deposits of a material known as Leda clay formed; these deposits become unstable after heavy rains. Numerous landslides have occurred as a result; the former site of the town of Lemieux, Ontario collapsed into the South Nation River in 1993. The town's residents had been relocated because of the suspected instability of the earth in that location; as the land rose again the sea coast retreated and the fresh water courses of today took shape. Following the demise of the Champlain Sea the Ottawa River Valley continued to drain the waters of the emerging Upper Great Lakes basin through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River.
Owing to the ongoing uplift of the la
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to, it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests. Clearcut logging is not considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, is called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers". Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading, it is sometimes called selective logging, confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land, flooded by damming to create reservoirs; such trees are by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, retention cutting; the above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump.
The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern. Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down and delimb a tree in the same process; this ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head. The trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing; this method requires. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops; this technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, depending on the species, many of the limbs are broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing and sorting at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree and buck it, place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder; this method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting. Felled logs are generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts. Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill; the cheapest and most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat, constructed of 1 1⁄2 inch steel.
In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders. In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-propelled and had wheels 24 feet high and a front dozer blade, 30 feet across and 6 feet high. Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are far from roads or watercourses. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zones; when felled logs sit adja
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h