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French Union

The French Union was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system, colloquially known as the "French Empire". It was the formal end of the "indigenous" status of French subjects in colonial areas; the French Union had five components: Metropolitan France, which included French Algeria.'Old' colonies, notably those of the French West Indies in the Caribbean that became overseas departments in 1946.'New' colonies, renamed overseas territories. Protectorates of French Indochina, it had been expected that other protectorates would become part of the French Union, but the rulers of French Morocco and French Tunisia refused to become members and never belonged. United Nations Trust Territories, such as French Cameroons and French Togoland, successors of the League of Nations mandates; the French Union was established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946. Under it, it was said that there were no French colonies, but that metropolitan France, the overseas departments, the overseas territories combined to create a single French Union, or just one France.

The goal of this union was "assimilation of the overseas territories into a greater France, inhabited by French citizens, blessed by French culture". Whereas the British colonial system had local colonial governments which would evolve into separate national governments; this French Union had a High Council and an Assembly. The President was the President of the Republic; the Assembly of the Union had membership from the Council of the Republic, from the National Assembly and from regional assemblies of the overseas territories and departments but had no power. The High Council met only three times, first in 1951; the Assembly was the only functioning institution that could manage legislation within the overseas territories. In reality, the colonial areas had representation but all power remained in the French Parliament and thus was centralized; the colonies had local assemblies but these had only limited local power. Instead, various natives of the overseas territories in metropolitan France grew into a group of elites, known as evolués.

On January 31, 1956, hoping to having peace in Algiers, the system changed, abandoning assimilation in favor of autonomy, allowing territories to develop their own local government and to gain their independence. This would not succeed however and in 1958 the French Union was replaced by the French Community by Charles de Gaulle's Fifth Republic wherein France was now a federation of states with their own self-government. Cambodia withdrew on 25 September 1955. South Vietnam withdrew on 9 December 1955. Laos withdrew on 11 May 1957 by amending its constitution. Decolonization First Indochina War CEFEO French Community French colonial empire Cooper, Frederick. "French Africa, 1947–48: Reform and Uncertainty in a Colonial Situation." Critical Inquiry 40#4 pp: 466-478. In JSTOR Simpson, Alfred William Brian. Human Rights and the End of Empire: Britain and the Genesis of the European Convention. Smith, Tony. "A comparative study of French and British decolonization." Comparative Studies in Society and History 20#1 pp: 70-102.

Online Smith, Tony. "The French Colonial Consensus and People's War, 1946–58." Journal of Contemporary History: 217–247. in JSTOR

Michael Ryan (ice hockey)

Michael Ryan is an American former professional ice hockey forward who played in the National Hockey League. He is an assistant coach of the Springfield Thunderbirds of the AHL. Ryan was selected by the Dallas Stars in the 2nd round of the 1999 NHL Entry Draft; as a youth, Ryan played in the 1994 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with a minor ice hockey team from South Shore. Ryan was drafted by the Dallas Stars in 32nd overall, in the 1999 NHL Entry Draft. Ryan's rights were traded by the Stars to Buffalo, along with a draft pick, on March 10, 2003, in exchange for Stu Barnes. After playing four seasons for Northeastern University, where he led the team in goals his final three years as a Husky, Ryan made his professional debut with the Sabres' American Hockey League affiliate, the Rochester Americans, in the 2003–04 season, he made his NHL debut with the Sabres in the 2006 -- 07 season. He scored his first two career NHL goals on March 2, 2007 against David Aebischer and the Montreal Canadiens in an 8-5 Sabres victory.

Ryan signed a one-year deal with the HC Dinamo Minsk on August 9, 2008, but reported to the Nashville Predators training camp as a free agent tryout on September 19, 2008. He was subsequently released. On October 31, 2008, Ryan was signed by the Carolina Hurricanes to a 1-year deal and was assigned to their affiliate, the Albany River Rats. Ryan played in 18 games for the Hurricanes during the 2008–09 season and was re-signed to another one-year contract on July 1, 2009. On October 24, 2010, Ryan signed a professional tryout contract with the Springfield Falcons of the AHL. On November 23, 2010, the Philadelphia Flyers signed Ryan to a one-year contract and assigned him to their AHL affiliate the Adirondack Phantoms. On August 9, 2011, the Buffalo Sabres signed Ryan to a one-year contract to play for their AHL affiliate, the Rochester Americans. On May 10, 2012, Ryan left for Europe and signed a one-year contract with Ässät of the Finnish SM-liiga.on June 20, 2013 Ryan signed one-year contract with new KHL team Medveščak Zagreb from Croatia.

Following the 2015–16 season in Finland, having played in only 3 games, Ryan announced his retirement from professional hockey. Beginning with the 2016–17 season, Ryan was selected as an assistant coach of the inaugural Springfield Thunderbirds of the American Hockey League, affiliate to the Florida Panthers. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Al-Mansura, Safad

See El Mansurah for other sites with similar names. Al-Mansura was a Palestinian Arab village in the Safad Subdistrict, it was located 31 kilometres northeast of Safad on the Banyas River, to the south of what is now Dafna. The Christian missionary W. M. Thomson, traveling during the Ottoman Empire period, in 1852, mentions a corn mill at Mansura and comments that the wider region depended on the area around Mansura for Indian corn and sesamum, he saw hundreds of bee hives in Mansura. They were made from cylindrical baskets covered in mud and dung which were piled into a pyramid and covered with a thatched roof; as well as honey production the residents exported buffalo butter from their large herds of water buffalo. He comments that the area had the Ghawaraneh tribe, living in tents, he writes. In January 1869 canoeing pioneer John MacGregor spent the night beside the village corn-mill, it had a flat roof. Other buildings he saw had mud walls with a reed roof or were made of reeds. There were bedouin in tents.

The miller was Christian and had arrived the year before following the killing of four of his children during the massacres further north. Besides milling corn he sold gunpowder; as the MacGregor party, with his canoe on the back of a mule, approached Al-Mansura they met a procession celebrating the end of Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr. They were greeted with excitement because it was assumed they were entertainers travelling to the village to join in the celebrations. MacGregor commented that most of the men had tattoos or scars on their faces as well as ear and nose rings; the women's face were stained with blue patterns. "Their dress was the most various possible and short, coloured and plain and ample, of camel´s hair from Damascus, silk from Lebanon and Manchester cotton."In 1881 the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described the village as consisting "of stone and mud hovels on the plain, surrounded by arable land. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Mansura had an all-Muslim population of 41.

This had increased in the 1931 census when El Mansura had an all-Muslim population of 89, in 18 houses. In the 1945 statistics the population was 360, all Muslims, owning 1,254 dunams of land, while Jews owned 175 dunams, 115 was publicly owned, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 1,424 dunams were allocated for plantations and irrigable land, while 5 dunams were classified as built-up areas; the village was depopulated during the 1948 War on May 1948, under Operation Yiftach. The settlement She'ar Yashuv is located on village lands, about 1 km northeast of the village site. In 1992 the village site was described as: "The village has been obliterated and it is difficult to identify any trace of its former buildings; the site contain pools for this purpose. Between the pools there is a narrow strip of thorns and trees." Mallaha Al-Salihiyya Welcome To al-Mansura al-Mansura, Zochrot Survey of Western Palestine, Map 2: IAA, Wikimedia commons


Sentinum was an ancient town located in the Marche region of Italy. It was situated in the low ground about a kilometre south of the present-day town of Sassoferrato; the ruins of Sentinum were excavated in 1890 and the results were published by T. Buccolini; the foundations of the city walls are preserved. The city gates, a road and the remains of houses have been discovered. Notable cultural finds include several mosaic pavements and inscriptions of the latter half of the 3rd century AD, including three important tabulae patronatus, recording legal ratifications of civic appointments of official patrons; the Battle of Sentinum took place nearby in 295 BC, with the Romans defeating the combined forces of the Samnites and Gauls. During the civil wars of the 40s, Sentinum sided with Mark Antony, but in 41 BC was taken and destroyed by Quintus Salvidienus Rufus leading troops of Octavian, it was planned and rebuilt and continued to exist under the Empire, chartered as a municipium and a colonia.

Baths dating from the early Empire have yielded a large figured mosaic, preserved in the Museo Nazionale delle Marche. A 2nd-century colored mosaic of Mithra-Sol is conserved in Munich. Civic life at Sentinum seems to have collapsed at the time of the invasion of Alaric I and not to have been renewed; the site and its environs have been excavated under the joint auspices of the University of Genoa, led by Maura Medri, the University of Urbino under Sergio Rinaldi Tufi. The site is protected as the Archaeological park of Sentinum. Ancient Ostra Archaeological Park of Urbs Salvia Potentia Ricina Septempeda Suasa This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sentinum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 649. Sentinum - General Department for Archaeological Monuments in the Marches

Kazakhstan's membership in the United Nations Security Council

On June 28, 2016, at a vote at UN headquarters in New York, having won 138 votes out of 193 UN member states, for the first time was elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2017–2018. Kazakhstan's work in the UN Security Council began on January 1, 2017. Kazakhstan is the first state of Central Asia region, elected to UN Security Council; as a non-permanent member of UN Security Council Kazakhstan pays a great attention to the regional challenges and the issue of Afghanistan, in particular such threats like terrorism growth, illegal drugs production, human trafficking, the presence of "Islamic State" and Al-Qaida. The UN Security Council is a standing body of the United Nations, entrusted with the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security; the Security Council consists of 15 members, 5 of which are permanent, 10 are non-permanent, elected by the UN General Assembly for a two-year period for 5 countries each year. In 2017, non-permanent members of the UN Security Council include Bolivia, Italy, Senegal, Uruguay, Ethiopia, Japan.

Kazakhstan became a member of the UN on March 2, 1992. On April 15, 1992 Ms Akmaral Arystanbekova was appointed as the first Permanent Representative of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the United Nations by the decree of the President of Kazakhstan. On June 5, 1992 was signed the Presidential Decree on the establishment of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the UN. On February 16, 1993, the UN Office in Kazakhstan was opened. Mr Norimasa Shimamura is the UN Resident Coordinator in the Republic of Kazakhstan since December 2015, Mr Kairat Umarov is a Permanent Representative of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the United Nations. Kazakhstan has identified the following priorities for its membership in the UN Security Council. Achieving a world free of nuclear weapons.

Jim Jordan (actor)

James Edward Jordan was the American actor who played Fibber McGee in Fibber McGee and Molly and voiced the albatross Orville in Disney's The Rescuers. Jordan was born in 1896 on a farm near Illinois, he attended St. John's Church in Peoria, his family sold the farm and moved into Peoria, it was at church choir practice that he met Marian Driscoll, whom he married on August 31, 1918. Jim Jordan went on the vaudeville circuit, both as a solo act and with his wife, Marian, at various times until 1924, they went broke in 1923, having to be wired money by their parents to get back to Peoria from Lincoln, Illinois. Jim and Marian Jordan got their major break in radio while performing in Chicago in 1924. By the end of the evening and Marian had their first radio contract, at $10 per show for 26 weeks as The O'Henry Twins, sponsored by Oh Henry! candy. The Jordans would work as a double act for the remainder of their careers appearing separate from each other, with Jim as the comic foil and Marian as the stooge.

From 1931 to 1935, they produced the low-budget sitcom Smackout, in which they portrayed most of the characters. In 1935, the couple, along with head writer Don Quinn, teamed up to create Fibber McGee and Molly, a weekly sitcom, given a larger budget and an ensemble cast. Fibber McGee and Molly would run as a weekly series, becoming one of radio's most popular programs, until 1953. In addition to the general decline of scripted radio and the concurrent rise of television, Marian's health was beginning to fail; the show would transition to a pre-recorded daily sitcom from 1953 to 1956 to a short-form weekly series for Monitor from 1957 to 1959. In 1959, Fibber McGee and Molly was adapted for television, after years of resistance. Marian was too ill to continue, for reasons unexplained, neither Jim nor Don Quinn transitioned to the new series; the television version of Fibber McGee and Molly, with Bob Sweeney as Fibber, was a critical and commercial failure. Marian Jordan died in April 1961. Jim Jordan married Gretchen Stewart, the widow of radio comic Harry Stewart in 1962.

In March 1988, Jordan suffered a major stroke. Left comatose for over a week, he never regained consciousness and died on April 1, his death came shortly. He is buried next to Marian Jordan in the Saint Ann section of Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City, is next to the plot of Sharon Tate; this Way Please – Fibber McGee Look Who's Laughing – Fibber McGee Here We Go Again – Fibber McGee Heavenly Days – Fibber McGee / Ghost of fife player The Rescuers – Orville Jim Jordan on IMDb Jim Jordan at Find a Grave