Republic of Genoa
It began when Genoa became a self-governing commune within the Regnum Italicum, and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica was ceded to France in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768, before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent city-state, one of a number of Italian city-states during this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the city, actual power was wielded by a number of consuls annually elected by popular assembly. The Adorno and other merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth. The Republic of Genoa extended over modern Liguria and Piedmont, Corsica, through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa. The collapse of the Crusader States was offset by Genoa’s alliance with the Byzantine Empire, as Venices relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position.
Genoa took advantage of opportunity to expand into the Black Sea and Crimea. Internal feuds between the families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi, the Doria and others caused much disruption. However, this prosperity did not last, the Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, the wars with Venice continued, and the War of Chioggia -- where Genoa almost managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venices recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates with help from the French, though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa came under rule by the Visconti of Milan, Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Grimaldi, according to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. At the time of Genoa’s peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens and Van Dyck. The architect Galeazzo Alessi designed many of the city’s splendid palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco, a number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic of Genoa consisted of the city of Genoa, as the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria fell under the Republic of Genoa, after the First Crusade in 1098 Genoa gained settlements in Syria. In 1261 the city of Smyrna in Asia Minor became Genoese territory, in 1255 Genoa established the colony of Caffa in Crimea
The lira was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943. Between 1999 and 2002, the Italian lira was officially a national subunit of the euro, cash payments could be made in lira only, as euro coins or notes were not yet available. The lira was the currency of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy between 1807 and 1814, L, sometimes in a double-crossed script form, was the symbol most often used. Until the Second World War, it was subdivided into 100 centesimi, the lira was established at 4.5 grams of silver or 290.322 milligrams of gold. This was a continuation of the Sardinian lira. Other currencies replaced by the Italian lira included the Lombardy-Venetia pound, the Two Sicilies piastra, the Tuscan fiorino, the Papal States scudo and this practice has obviously ended with the introduction of the euro in 2002. World War I broke the Latin Monetary Union and resulted in prices rising severalfold in Italy, in 1927, the lira was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of 1 dollar =19 lire.
This rate lasted until 1934, with a separate tourist rate of US$1 =24.89 lire being established in 1936, in 1939, the official rate was 19.8 lire. After the Allied invasion of Italy, a rate was set at US$1 =120 lire in June 1943. In German occupied areas, the rate was set at 1 Reichsmark =10 lire. After the war, the value of the lira fluctuated, before Italy set a peg of US$1 =575 lire within the Bretton Woods System in November 1947, following the devaluation of the pound, Italy devalued to US$1 =625 lire on 21 September 1949. This rate was maintained until the end of the Bretton Woods System in the early 1970s, several episodes of high inflation followed until the lira was replaced by the euro. The lira was the unit of currency in Italy until January 1,1999. Old lira denominated currency ceased to be legal tender on February 28,2002, the conversion rate is 1,936.27 lire to the euro. All lira banknotes in use immediately before the introduction of the euro, originally Italys central bank pledged to redeem Italian coins and banknotes until 29 February 2012, but this was brought forward to 6 December 2011.
Italys Constitutional Court has now declared the law that shortening the period of Italian Lira unlawful. Currently, studies are being conducted by the Banca dItalia and the Ministry of Economy, in 1863, silver coins below 5 lire were debased from 90% to 83. 5% and silver 20 centesimi coins were introduced. Minting switched to Rome in the 1870s, apart from the introduction in 1894 of cupro-nickel 20 centesimi coins and of nickel 25 centesimi pieces in 1902, the coinage remained essentially unaltered until the First World War
During this period, there was an increase of literature, the arts, jurisprudence, liturgical reforms, and scriptural studies. The Carolingian Renaissance occurred mostly during the reigns of Carolingian rulers Charlemagne and it was supported by the scholars of the Carolingian court, notably Alcuin of York. Charlemagnes Admonitio generalis and Epistola de litteris colendis served as manifestos, the effects of this cultural revival were mostly limited to a small group of court literati. They applied rational ideas to social issues for the first time in centuries, providing a common language, kenneth Clark was of the view that by means of the Carolingian Renaissance, Western civilization survived by the skin of its teeth. Instead of being a rebirth of new movements, the period was more an attempt to recreate the previous culture of the Roman Empire. In its earlier state of barbarousness, his kingdom had been touched at all by any such zeal. In our own time the thirst for knowledge is disappearing again, of even greater concern to some rulers was the fact that not all parish priests possessed the skill to read the Vulgate Bible.
To address these problems, Charlemagne ordered the creation of schools in a known as the Charter of Modern Thought. A major part of his program of reform was to many of the leading scholars of the Christiandom of his day to his court. The Lombard Paul the Deacon was brought to court in 782 and remained until 787, theodulf of Orléans was a Spanish Goth who served at court from 782 to 797 when nominated as bishop of Orléans. Theodulf had been in competition over the standardization of the Vulgate with the chief among the Charlemagnes scholars. Alcuin was a Northumbrian monk and deacon who served as head of the Palace School from 782 to 796, after 796, he continued his scholarly work as abbot of St. Martins Monastery in Tours. Among those to follow Alcuin across the Channel to the Frankish court was Joseph Scottus, after this first generation of non-Frankish scholars, their Frankish pupils, such as Angilbert, would make their own mark. The courts of Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald had similar groups of scholars, the Irish monk Dicuil attended the former court, and the more famous Irishman John Scotus Eriugena attended the latter.
One of the efforts was the creation of a standardized curriculum for use at the recently created schools. Alcuin led this effort and was responsible for the writing of textbooks, creation of word lists, another contribution from this period was the development of Carolingian minuscule, a book-hand first used at the monasteries of Corbie and Tours that introduced the use of lower case letters. A standardized version of Latin was developed that allowed for the coining of new words while retaining the grammatical rules of Classical Latin and this Medieval Latin became a common language of scholarship and allowed administrators and travelers to make themselves understood in various regions of Europe. Carolingian art spans the roughly hundred-year period from about 800–900, although brief, it was an influential period
In the Roman currency system, the dēnārius, plural, dēnāriī was a small silver coin first minted about 211 BC during the Second Punic War. It is the origin of modern words such as the currency name dinar, it is the origin for the common noun for money in Italian denaro, in Portuguese dinheiro. Its symbol is X̶, a x with stroke. A predecessor of the denarius was first struck in 267 BC, five years before the first Punic War with a weight of 6.81 grams. Contact with the Greeks prompted a need for coinage in addition to the bronze currency that the Romans were using during that time. The predecessor of the denarius was a Greek-styled silver coin, very similar to the didrachm and drachma struck in Metapontion and these coins were inscribed for Rome but closely resemble their Greek counterparts. They were most likely used for purposes and were seldom used in Rome. The first distinctively Roman silver coin appeared around 226 BC, Rome overhauled its coinage around 211 BC and introduced the denarius alongside a short-lived denomination called the victoriatus.
This denarius contained an average 4.5 grams, or 1⁄72 of a Roman pound of silver and it formed the backbone of Roman currency throughout the Roman republic. The denarius began to undergo slow debasement toward the end of the republican period, under the rule of Augustus, its silver content fell to 3.9 grams. It remained at nearly this weight until the time of Nero, debasement of the coins silver content continued after Nero. Later Roman emperors reduced its content to 3 grams around the third century. The value at its introduction was 10 asses, giving the denarius its name, in about 141 BC, it was re-tariffed at 16 asses, to reflect the decrease in weight of the as. The denarius continued to be the coin of the Roman Empire until it was replaced by the antoninianus in the middle of the third century. The last issuance of this occurred in bronze form by Aurelian. For more details, see Denarius, in A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins, the denarius has a link from the Roman times to the British penny and US1 cent piece.
It is difficult to give even rough comparative values for money from before the 20th century, as the range of products and services available for purchase was different. Classical historians often say that in the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire the daily wage for an unskilled laborer and common soldier was 1 denarius or about US$2. 8$ in bread
The dinar is the currency of Algeria and it is subdivided into 100 centime. The name dinar is derived from the Roman denarius. The santeem come from French centime, since Algeria was under French administration from 1830 to 1962 The dinar was introduced on 1 April 1964, the obverses showed the emblem of Algeria, while the reverses carried the values in Eastern Arabic numerals. In decades, coins were issued sporadically with various commemorative subjects, the 1 and 2 santeem were not struck again, whilst the 5,10 and 20 santeem were last struck in the 1980s. In 1992, a new series of coins was introduced consisting of 1⁄4, a 200 dinar bi-metallic coin was issued in 2012 to commemorate Algerias 50th anniversary of independence. The 10,20,50,100, and 200 dinar coins are bimetallic, coins in general circulation are 5 dinars and higher. Nonetheless, prices are quoted in santeem in everyday speech. The first series of banknotes issued in 1964 consisted of 5,10,50 and 100 dinar denominations. In 1970500 dinar notes were added, followed by 1000 dinar in 1992, the 100 dinar note is being replaced by coins. 200,500, and 1000 dinar notes are in circulation, the 1998 dated 500 and 1000 dinar notes have an additional vertical holographic strip on obverse
The dinar is the currency of Serbia. The earliest use of the dates back to 1214. The first mention of a Serbian dinar dates back to the reign of Stefan Nemanjić in 1214, until the fall of Despot Stjepan Tomašević in 1459, most of the Serbian rulers minted silver dinar coins. The first Serbian dinars, like many other south-European coins, replicated Venetian grosso, for many years it was one of the main export articles of medieval Serbia, considering the relative abundance of silver coming from Serbian mines. The Ottomans operated coin mints in Novo Brdo, Kučajna and Belgrade, the subdivision of the dinar, the para, is named after the Turkish silver coins of the same name. After the Principality of Serbia was formally established there were many different foreign coins in circulation, Prince Miloš Obrenović decided to introduce some order by establishing exchange rates based on the groat as money of account. In 1819 Miloš published a table rating 43 different foreign coins,10 gold,28 silver, after the last Ottoman garrisons were withdrawn in 1867, Serbia was faced with multiple currencies in circulation.
Thus, prince Mihailo Obrenović ordered a national currency be minted, the first bronze coins were introduced in 1868, followed by silver in 1875 and gold in 1879. The first banknotes were issued in 1876, between 1873 and 1894, the dinar was pegged at par to the French franc. The Kingdom of Serbia joined the Latin Monetary Union, in 1920, the Serbian dinar was replaced at par by the Yugoslav dinar, with the Yugoslav krone circulating together. In 1868, bronze coins were introduced in denominations of 1,5 and 10 paras, the obverses featured the portrait of Prince Mihailo Obrenović III. Silver coins were introduced in 1875, in denominations of 50 paras,1 and 2 dinars, the first gold coins were issued in 1879, for 20 dinars, with 10 dinars introduced in 1882. The gold coins issued for the coronation of Milan I coronation in 1882 were popularly called milandor, in 1883, cupro-nickel 5,10 and 20 para coins were introduced, followed by bronze 2 paras coins in 1904. In 1876, state notes were introduced in denominations of 1,5,10,50 and 100 dinars and these were followed by notes of the Chartered National Bank from 1884, with notes for 10 dinars backed by silver and gold notes for 50 and 100 dinars.
Gold notes for 20 dinars and silver notes for 100 dinars were introduced in 1905, during World War I, silver notes for 50 and 5 dinars were introduced in 1914 and 1916, respectively. In 1915, stamps were authorized for circulation as currency in denominations of 5,10,15,20,25,30 and 50 paras. In 1941, the Yugoslav dinar was replaced, at par, the dinar was pegged to the German reichsmark at a rate of 250 dinars =1 Reichsmark. This dinar circulated until 1944, when the Yugoslav dinar was reintroduced by the Yugoslav Partisans, in 1942, zinc coins were introduced in denominations of 50 paras,1 and 2 dinars, with 10 dinar coins following in 1943
The dinar is the currency of Tunisia. It is subdivided into 1000 milim or millimes, the name dinar is derived from the Roman denarius, used in the Africa province, the antic territory of Carthage, modern day Tunisia. The dinar was introduced in 1960, having been established as a unit of account in 1958 and it replaced the franc at a rate of 1000 francs =1 dinar. The dinar did not follow the devaluation of the French franc in 1958, instead a peg to the United States dollar of 1 dinar =2.38 dollars was established which was maintained until 1964, when the dinar devalued to 1 dinar =1.90 dollars. This second rate was held until the dollar was devalued in 1971, Tunisia had a historically low inflation. The dinar was less volatile in 2000–2010 than the currencies of its neighbors, Egypt. Inflation was 4. 9% in fiscal year 2007–08 and 3. 5% in fiscal year 2008–09, in 1960, aluminium 1,2 and 5 millime and brass 10,20,50 and 100 millime coins were introduced. The 1 and 2 millimes were last issued in 1990 and 1983 respectively, in 1968, nickel ½ dinar coins were introduced, replaced by smaller, cupro-nickel pieces in 1976, when cupro-nickel 1 dinar coins were introduced.
Bimetallic 5 dinar coins were introduced in 2002, on 3 November 1958, banknotes were introduced by the Central Bank of Tunisia in denominations of ½,1 and 5 dinars. The designs of these denominations were changed with a series of notes dated 1-6-1965, a 10-dinar note dated 1-6-1969 was issued on 2 January 1970. The last ½-dinar notes were dated 1973-10-15 whilst the last 1-dinar notes were dated 1980-10-15, 20-dinar notes dated 1980-10-15 were introduced on 26 December 1984. 30-dinar notes were issued between 1997 and 2011, 50-dinar notes dated 2008 were issued on 25 July 2009. On 8 November 2005, a version of the frequently used 10-dinar note was issued. Tunisians sometimes do not use the division, when mentioning prices of goods. Accordingly, one dinar and a half, is referred to as khomstach en miya. This applies to all prices below 2 dinars,50 dinar is often referred to as khamsin alf. This convention is used even for higher prices, for example 70,000 dinars would be called sabin maliun, francs is still heard from time to time,1000 of them colloquially representing a single dinar.
It is an offence in Tunisia to import or export dinar
A coin is a small, round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government, Coins are usually metal or alloy, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. Coins made of metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in transactions, circulating alongside banknotes. Usually the highest value coin in circulation is less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain. Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value occur for some bullion coins made of copper, silver, or gold, while the Eagle, Maple Leaf, and Sovereign coins have nominal face values, the Krugerrand does not. The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.
Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire, important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages. Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the Middle Ages, the penny was minted as a silver coin until the 17th century. The first circulating United States coins were cents, produced in 1793, Coins were an evolution of currency systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made and these were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese currency, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell. According to Aristotle and Pollux, the first issuer of coins was Hermodike of Kyme The earliest coins are associated with Iron Age Anatolia. Early electrum coins were not standardized in weight, and in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests.
The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver, most of the early Lydian coins include no writing, only an image of a symbolic animal. Anatolian Artemis was the Πὀτνια Θηρῶν, whose symbol was the stag, a small percentage of early Lydian/Greek coins have a legend
The solidus, nomisma, or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. The Byzantine solidus inspired the originally slightly less pure Arabian dinar, in late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, the solidus functioned as a unit of weight equal to 1/72 of a pound. The solidus was introduced by Diocletian in AD301 as a replacement of the aureus, composed of solid gold. His minting was on a scale and the coin only entered widespread circulation under Constantine I after AD312. Constantines solidus was struck at a rate of 72 to a Roman pound of gold, each coin weighed 24 Greco-Roman carats. By this time, the solidus was worth 275,000 increasingly debased denarii, with the exception of the early issues of Constantine the Great and the odd usurpers the Solidus today is a much more affordable Gold Roman Coin to collect compared to the Older Aureus. Especially those of Valens Honorius and Byzantine issues, the solidus was maintained essentially unaltered in weight and purity until the 10th century.
During the 6th and 7th centuries lightweight solidi of 20,22 or 23 siliquae were struck along with the weight issues. Many of these coins have been found in Europe and Georgia. The lightweight solidi were distinguished by different markings on the coin, usually in the exergue for the 20 and 22 siliquae coins and by stars in the field for the 23 siliquae coins. In theory the solidus was struck from pure gold, but because of the limits of refining techniques, in the Greek-speaking world during the Roman period, and in the Byzantine economy, the solidus was known as the νόμισμα nomisma. Initially it was difficult to distinguish the two coins, as they had the design and purity, and there were no marks of value to distinguish the denominations. The only difference was the weight, the tetarteron nomisma was a lighter coin, about 4.05 grams, but the histamenon nomisma maintained the traditional weight of 4.5 grams. To eliminate confusion between the two, from the reign of Basil II the solidus was struck as a coin with a larger diameter.
From the middle of the 11th century the larger diameter histamenon nomisma was struck on a concave flan, former money changer Michael IV the Paphlagonian assumed the throne of Byzantium in 1034 and began the slow process of debasing both the tetarteron nomisma and the histamenon nomisma. Alexius reformed the coinage in 1092 and eliminated the solidus altogether, in its place he introduced a new gold coin called the hyperpyron nomisma at about 20. 5k fine. The weight and purity of the hyperpyron nomisma remained stable until the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders in 1204, after that time the exiled Empire of Nicea continued to strike a debased hyperpyron nomisma
The Kuwaiti dinar is the currency of Kuwait. It is sub-divided into 1,000 fils, the Kuwaiti dinar is the worlds highest-valued currency unit. The dinar was introduced in 1960 to replace the Gulf rupee and it was initially equivalent to one pound sterling. As the rupee was fixed at 1 shilling 6 pence, that resulted in a rate of 13 1⁄3 rupees to the dinar. When Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, the Iraqi dinar replaced the Kuwaiti dinar as the currency, after liberation, the Kuwaiti dinar was restored as the countrys currency and a new banknote series was introduced, allowing the previous notes, including those stolen, to be demonetized. The following coins were first introduced in 1961,1 fils 2 fils 5 fils 10 fils 20 fils 50 fils 100 fils Six series of the Kuwaiti dinar banknote have been printed. The first series was issued following the pronouncement of the Kuwaiti Currency Law in 1960 and this series was in circulation from 1 April 1961 to 1 February 1982 and consisted of denominations of 1⁄4, 1⁄2,1,5 and 10 and 20 dinars.
This second series was withdrawn on 1 February 1982, the third series was issued on 20 February 1980, after the accession to the throne of late Emir Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah, in denominations of 1⁄4, 1⁄2,1,5 and 10 dinars. A20 dinars banknote was introduced on 9 February 1986, as a result of the state of emergency after the Invasion of Kuwait, this series was ruled invalid with effect from 30 September 1991. Significant quantities of these notes were stolen by Iraqi forces and some had appeared on the numismatic market. This fourth series was legal tender until 16 February 1995, denominations were 1⁄4, 1⁄2,1,5,10 and 20 dinar. The fifth series of Kuwaiti banknotes were in use from 3 April 1994, denominations were as in the fourth series. Central Bank of Kuwait brought the series of Kuwaiti banknotes into circulation on 29 June 2014. Some of the bills are coarse so that the blind can identify them by touch. In both 1993 and 2001, the Central Bank of Kuwait issued commemorative 1-dinar polymer banknotes to celebrate its Liberation from Iraq, the first commemorative note, dated 26 February 1993, was issued to celebrate the second anniversary of the Liberation.
The front features the map of the State of Kuwait, the emblem of Kuwait and on the left and right side of the note is the list of nations that assisted in its Liberation, in both English and Arabic. The second commemorative note, dated 26 February 2001, was issued to celebrate the anniversary of the Liberation. One feature from the note is an optically variable device patch that shows a fingerprint, even though they were denominated as 1 dinar, both of the commemorative notes state that they were not legal tender. 100 From 18 March 1975 to 4 January 2003, the dinar was pegged to a currency basket
The Jordanian dinar is the currency of Jordan. It is used alongside the Israeli shekel in the West Bank. The dinar is divided into 10 dirham,100 qirsh or 1000 fulus, from 1927 to 1950, the Palestine Currency Board issued the Palestine pound as the official currency in both Mandatory Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan. After Jordan became an independent kingdom on 25 May 1946, the idea of issuing a national currency arose, under this Act, the Jordan Currency Board was formed, which became the sole authority entitled to issue Jordanian currency in the kingdom. The London-based entity consisted of a president and four members, as of 1 July 1950, the Jordanian dinar became the kingdom’s official currency, and use of the Palestine pound ceased in the kingdom on 30 September 1950. Although issued by the Jordan Currency Board, the bear the countrys official name. Until 1992, coins were denominated in Arabic using fils, qirsh and dinar but in English only in fils, since 1992, the fils and dirham are no longer used in the Arabic and the English denominations are given in dinar and either qirsh or piastres.
Coins were introduced in 1949 in denominations of 1,5,10,20,50 and 100 fils. The first issue of 1 fils were mistakenly minted with the denomination given as 1 fil.20 fils coins were minted until 1965, with 25 fils introduced in 1968, the 1 fils coin was last minted in 1985. In 1996, smaller 1⁄4 dinar coins were introduced alongside 1⁄2 and 1 dinar coins. Rubia is Arabic for piece of four or quarter nuus is Arabic for piece of two or half In 1949, banknotes were issued by the government in denominations of 1⁄2,1,5,10 and 50 dinars. From 1959, the Central Bank of Jordan took over note production,20 dinar notes were introduced in 1977, followed by 50 dinars in 1999. 1⁄2 dinar notes were replaced by coins in 1999, since October 23,1995, the dinar has been officially pegged to the IMFs special drawing rights. In practice, it is fixed at 1 U. S. dollar =0.709 dinar most of the time, the Central Bank buys U. S. dollars at 0.708 dinar, and sell U. S. dollars at 0.710 dinar. Economy of Jordan Economy of the Palestinian territories Coins of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Banknotes of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan The banknotes of Jordan