French ironclad Redoutable

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Le Redoutable (1889).jpg
Redoutable in 1889
History
France
Name: Redoutable
Builder: Arsenal de Lorient[1]
Laid down:
  • December 1872[2]
  • 18 July 1873[1]
Launched: 18 September 1876.[1][2]
Commissioned:
  • 22 November 1878 for trials.[2]
  • 31 December 1878 for service.[2]
  • 8 February 1879[1]
Struck: 9 March 1910[1][3]
Fate:
  • Sold 17 August 1911 for 100,000 francs.[3] 1912 broken up at Saigon.[3]
  • Sold for demolition at Saigon 1913[1]
General characteristics
Type: Central-battery ironclad
Displacement:
Length:
  • 95 m (311 ft 8 in) between perpendiculars[5]
  • 100.7 m (330 ft 5 in) total[5]
Beam: 19.76 m (64 ft 10 in)[5]
Draft: 7.8 m (26 ft)[5]
Installed power:
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 2 horizontal return connecting rod compound steam engines
Sail plan:
  • Square rig, sail area 2,033 square metres (21,880 sq ft)[6]
  • 2,700 square metres (29,000 sq ft).[1]
Speed: 14.5 knots (26.9 km/h; 16.7 mph) max speed on trials[7]
Range: 2,840 nautical miles at 10 knots (5,260 km at 19 km/h)[8]
Complement: 709[9]
Armament:
  • 7 × 27cm Model 1875[10]
  • 6 × 14cm[11] Model 1870[12]
  • 1 × 47mm[11]
  • 12 × 37mm Hotchkiss revolving cannons[11]
  • 4 × torpedo launchers[11]
Armour:
  • Belt: 350 mm (13.8 in)
  • Battery: 240–300 mm (9.4–11.8 in)
  • Deck: 45–60 mm (1.8–2.4 in)

Redoutable was a central battery and barbette ship of the French Navy. She was the first warship in the world to use steel as the principal building material,[13] she was preceded by the Colbert-class ironclads.

Compared to iron, steel allowed for greater structural strength for a lower weight. France was the first country to manufacture steel in large quantities[citation needed], using the Siemens process. At that time, steel plates still had some defects, and the outer bottom plating of the ship was made of wrought iron.

All-steel warships were later built by the Royal Navy, with the dispatch vessels Iris and Mercury, laid down in 1875–1876.

Construction[edit]

Contemporary description in Scientific American[edit]

Crew[edit]

Full complement: 30 officers + 679 ratings.[9]

Trials or 1st category reserve: 8 officers + 371 ratings.[9]

2nd category reserve: 5 officers + 139 ratings.[9]

3rd category reserve: 0 officers + 27 ratings.[9]

Service[edit]

Redoutable formed part of the French Mediterranean squadron.

Redoutable was present during the negotiation of the Boxer Protocol, a treaty signed on 7 September 1901 with China.

Commanding officers of the Redoutable[edit]

Date Commanding Officer
1879 Captain Rallier[15]
1881 Captain Behic[15]
1883 Captain de Boissondy[15]
1885 Captain de Slane[15]
1887 Captain de Libran[15]
1889 Captain Dieulouard[15]
1892 Captain Chateauminois[15]
1894 Captain Billard[15]
1896 Captain Mallarmé[15]
5 September 1898 Captain Esmez[15]
21 July 1900 Captain Neny[15]
3 December 1901 Captain Duroch[15]
15 October 1903 Captain Poidloue[15]
1906 Captain Passerat de Sillans[15]
5 December 1907 Captain Drouet[15]
1909 Lieutenant Arnauld*[15]
  • Lieutenant Arnauld was the director of movements of the port of Saigon, and commander of the naval auxiliaries and naval barracks.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Roche, Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française, p417.
  2. ^ a b c d Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part I, Warship International, No 1, 1994, p19.
  3. ^ a b c Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part III, Warship International, No 1, 1995, p22.
  4. ^ Saibène, Les Cuirasses Redoutable, Dévastation, Courbet, Programme de 1872, p18 & 38.
    • Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part I, Warship International, No 1, 1994, p19.
  5. ^ a b c d Saibène, Les Cuirasses Redoutable, Dévastation, Courbet, Programme de 1872, p18.
    • Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part I, Warship International, No 1, 1994, p21.
  6. ^ Saibène, Les Cuirasses Redoutable, Dévastation, Courbet, Programme de 1872, p18.
  7. ^ Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part III, Warship International, No 1, 1995, p26.
  8. ^ Saibène, Les Cuirasses Redoutable, Dévastation, Courbet, Programme de 1872, p35.
    • Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part I, Warship International, No 1, 1994, p42.
  9. ^ a b c d e Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part I, Warship International, No 1, 1994, p38-9.
  10. ^ Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part III, Warship International, No 1, 1995, p28.
  11. ^ a b c d Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part I, Warship International, No 1, 1994, p40.
  12. ^ Saibène, The Redoubtable, Part II, Warship International, No 2, 1994, p126.
  13. ^ Conway Marine, 'Steam, Steel, and Shellfire"
  14. ^ a b Scientific American 1881
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Saibène, Les Cuirasses Redoutable, Dévastation, Courbet, Programme de 1872, p 56.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gardiner, Robert, ed. (1992). Steam, Steel and Shellfire: the Steam Warship 1815-1905. Conway's History of the Ship. France: Conway Marine Édition. ISBN 2-909675-16-5.
  • Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française, Tome II (1870-2006) (December 2005 ed.). Levallois-Perret, France: Netmarine.
  • Saibene, Marc (1995). Les Cuirasses Redoutable, Dévastation, Courbet, Programme de 1872. Bourg en Bresse, France: Marine Édition Press. ISBN 2-909675-16-5.
  • Saibene, Mark (1994–1995). "The Redoubtable, Parts I-III". Warship International. Toledo, Ohio: International Naval Research Organization. XXXI–XXXII (1, 2, 1): 15–45, 117–139, 10–37. ISSN 0043-0374.

External links[edit]