Crossover is a term applied to musical works or performers who appeal to different types of audience, for example by appearing on two or more of the record charts which track differing musical styles or genres. If the second chart combines genres, such as a "Hot 100" list, the work is not a crossover. In some contexts the term "crossover" can have negative connotations associated with cultural appropriation, implying the dilution of a music's distinctive qualities to appeal to mass tastes. For example, in the early years of rock and roll, many songs recorded by African-American musicians were re-recorded by white artists such as Pat Boone in a more toned-down style with changed lyrics, that lacked the hard edge of the original versions; these covers were popular with a much broader audience. In practice crossover results from the appearance of the music in question in a film soundtrack. For instance, Sacred Harp music experienced a spurt of crossover popularity as a result of its appearance in the 2003 film Cold Mountain, bluegrass music experienced a revival due to the reception of 2000's O Brother, Where Art Thou?.
Classical crossover broadly encompasses both classical music that has become popularized and a wide variety of popular music forms performed in a classical manner or by classical artists. It can refer to collaborations between classical and popular performers, as well as music that blends elements of classical music with popular music. Pop vocalists and musicians, opera singers, classical instrumentalists, rock groups perform classical crossover. Although the phenomenon was long common in the music world, the name "classical crossover" was coined by record companies in the 1980s, it has acquired its own Billboard chart. Particular works of classical music have become popular among individuals who listen to popular music, sometimes appearing on non-classical charts; some classical works that achieved crossover status in the twentieth century include the Canon in D by Johann Pachelbel, the Symphony No. 3 by Henryk Górecki, the second movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 21, K. 467. Such popularity has been assisted by the use of classical music in advertising campaigns.
For example, the long-running British Airways advertisements familiarised a large viewing public with the song Aria by New Age artist Yanni a piece itself based on a duet from the opera Lakmé, by Léo Delibes. Another means of generating vast popularity for the classics has been through their use as inspirational anthems in sports settings; the aria "Nessun Dorma" from Puccini's Turandot Luciano Pavarotti's version, has become indissolubly linked with soccer. Within the classical recording industry, the term "crossover" is applied to classical artists' recordings of popular repertoire such as Broadway show tunes. Two examples of this are Lesley Garrett's excursions into musical comedy and José Carreras's recording West Side Story, as well as Teresa Stratas' recording Showboat. Soprano Eileen Farrell is considered to be one of the first classical singers to have a successful crossover recording with her 1960 album I've Got a Right to Sing the Blues. A popular pioneering figure in classical crossover was classically trained tenor and film star Mario Lanza, although the term "crossover" did not yet exist at the time of his greatest popularity in the 1950s.
Signed to RCA Victor as an artist on its premium Red Seal label, Lanza's albums appealed to more than just classical music audiences. His recording of "Be My Love" from his second film, The Toast of New Orleans, hit Number One on the Billboard pop singles chart in February 1951 and sold more than two million copies, a feat no classical artist before or since has achieved. Lanza recorded two other million-selling singles that made Billboard's top ten, "The Loveliest Night of the Year" and "Because You're Mine". Five of Lanza's albums hit Number One on Billboard's pop album chart between 1951 and 1955; the Great Caruso was the first and to date is the only recording composed of operatic arias to reach Number One on the U. S. pop album charts. The Student Prince, released in 1954, was Number One for 42 weeks. Arguably another early pioneer of crossover was the twentieth century composer Kurt Weill. A writer of avant garde serious music, his collaborations with playwright Bertolt Brecht on projects such as The Threepenny Opera gave an early indication of his interest in writing in an accessible, popular musical style.
This trend in his work came to full fruition in life in the United States, where he switched to writing the scores for Broadway musicals such as Knickerbocker Holiday and One Touch of Venus. Some of the hits from those shows, such as September Song and Speak Low, are better remembered than the musicals from which they came; the first Three Tenors concert in 1990 was a landmark in which Luciano Pavarotti, José Carreras and Plácido Domingo brought a combination of opera, Neapolitan folksong, musical theatre and pop to a vast television audience. This laid the foundations for the modern flourishing of classical crossover; the aspiration of classical singers to appeal to a wide pop audience is exemplified by the career of Rhydian. Classically trained, Rhydian appeared in the UK version of the pop talent show X Factor, his four albums and subsequent appearances have straddled pop, musical theatre and religious television fields. This applies to classically trained instrumentalists, such as Vanessa Mae, Escal
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment, popular from the early Victorian era, beginning around 1850. It ended, after the First World War, when the halls rebranded their entertainment as Variety. Perceptions of a distinction in Britain between bold and scandalous Victorian Music Hall and subsequent, more respectable Variety differ. Music hall involved a mixture of popular songs, speciality acts, variety entertainment; the term is derived from a type of venue in which such entertainment took place. American vaudeville was in some ways analogous to British music hall, featuring rousing songs and comic acts. Originating in saloon bars within public houses during the 1830s, music hall entertainment became popular with audiences. So much so, that during the 1850s some public houses were demolished, specialised music hall theatres developed in their place; these theatres were designed chiefly so that people could consume food and alcohol and smoke tobacco in the auditorium while the entertainment took place.
This differed somewhat from the conventional type of theatre, which until seated the audience in stalls with a separate bar-room. Major music halls were based around London. Early examples included: the Canterbury Music Hall in Lambeth, Wilton's Music Hall in Tower Hamlets, The Middlesex in Drury Lane, otherwise known as the Old Mo. By the mid-19th century, the halls cried out for many catchy songs; as a result, professional songwriters were enlisted to provide the music for a plethora of star performers, such as Marie Lloyd, Dan Leno, Little Tich, George Leybourne. All manner of other entertainment was performed: male and female impersonators, lions comiques, mime artists and impressionists, trampoline acts, comic pianists were just a few of the many types of entertainments the audiences could expect to find over the next forty years; the Music Hall Strike of 1907 was an important industrial conflict. It was a dispute between artists and stage hands on one hand, theatre managers on the other, culminating in a strike.
The halls had recovered by the start of the First World War and were used to stage charity events in aid of the war effort. Music hall entertainment continued after the war, but became less popular due to upcoming jazz and big-band dance music acts. Licensing restrictions had changed, drinking was banned from the auditorium. A new type of music hall entertainment had arrived, in the form of variety, many music hall performers failed to make the transition, they were deemed old-fashioned, with the closure of many halls, music hall entertainment ceased and modern-day variety began. Music hall in London had its origins in the 18th century, it grew with the entertainment provided in the new style saloon bars of public houses during the 1830s. These venues replaced earlier semi-rural amusements provided by fairs and suburban pleasure gardens such as Vauxhall Gardens and the Cremorne Gardens; these latter became fewer and less popular. The saloon was a room where for an admission fee or a greater price at the bar, dancing, drama or comedy was performed.
The most famous London saloon of the early days was the Grecian Saloon, established in 1825, at The Eagle, 2 Shepherdess Walk, off the City Road in east London. According to John Hollingshead, proprietor of the Gaiety Theatre, this establishment was "the father and mother, the dry and wet nurse of the Music Hall". Known as the Grecian Theatre, it was here that Marie Lloyd made her début at the age of 14 in 1884, it is still famous because of an English nursery rhyme, with the somewhat mysterious lyrics: Up and down the City RoadIn and out The EagleThat's the way the money goesPop goes the weasel. Another famous "song and supper" room of this period was Evans Music-and-Supper Rooms, 43 King Street, Covent Garden, established in the 1840s by W. H. Evans; this venue was known as'Evans Late Joys' – Joy being the name of the previous owner. Other song and supper rooms included the Coal Hole in The Strand, the Cyder Cellars in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden and the Mogul Saloon in Drury Lane; the music hall as we know it developed from such establishments during the 1850s and were built in and on the grounds of public houses.
Such establishments were distinguished from theatres by the fact that in a music hall you would be seated at a table in the auditorium and could drink alcohol and smoke tobacco whilst watching the show. In a theatre, by contrast, the audience was seated in stalls and there was a separate bar-room. An exception to this rule was the Britannia Theatre, Hoxton which somehow managed to evade this regulation and served drinks to its customers. Though a theatre rather than a music hall, this establishment hosted music hall variety acts; the establishment regarded as the first true music hall was the Canterbury, 143 Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth built by Charles Morton, afterwards dubbed "the Father of the Halls", on the site of a skittle alley next to his pub, the Canterbury Tavern. It opened on 17 May 1852 and was described by the musician and author Benny Green as being "the most significant date in all the history of music hall"; the hall looked like most contemporary pub concert rooms, but its replacement in 1854 was of unprecedented size.
It was further extended in 1859 rebuilt as a variety theatre and destroyed by German bombing in 1942. Another early music hall was Drury Lane. Popularly known as the'Old Mo', it was built on the site of the Mogul Saloon. Converted into a theatre it was demolished in 1965; the New London Theatre stands on its site. Several la
A novelty song is a comical or nonsensical song, performed principally for its comical effect. Humorous songs, or those containing humorous elements, are not novelty songs; the term arose in Tin Pan Alley to describe one of the major divisions of popular music. Novelty songs achieved great popularity during the 1930s, they had a resurgence of interest in the 1960s. Novelty songs are a parody or humor song, may apply to a current event such as a holiday or a fad such as a dance or TV programme. Many use unusual lyrics, sounds, or instrumentation, may not be musical. For example, the 1966 novelty song "They're Coming to Take Me Away, Ha-Haaa!" has little music and is set to a rhythm tapped out on a snare drum and tambourine. A book on achieving an attention-grabbing novelty single is The Manual, written by The KLF, it is based on their achievement of a UK number-one single with "Doctorin' the Tardis", a 1988 dance remix mashup of the Doctor Who theme music released under the name of'The Timelords.'
It argued that achieving a number one single could be achieved less by musical talent than through market research and gimmicks matched to an underlying danceable groove. Novelty songs were a major staple of Tin Pan Alley from its start in the late 19th century, they continued to proliferate in the early years of the 20th century, some rising to be among the biggest hits of the era. Varieties included songs with an unusual gimmick, such as the stuttering in "K-K-K-Katy" or the playful boop-boop-a-doops of "I Wanna Be Loved By You", which made a star out of Helen Kane and inspired the creation of Betty Boop. We Have No Bananas"; these songs were perfect for the medium of Vaudeville, performers such as Eddie Cantor and Sophie Tucker became well-known for such songs. Zez Confrey's 1920s instrumental compositions, which involved gimmicky approaches or maniacally rapid tempos, were popular enough to start a fad of novelty piano pieces that lasted through the decade; the fad was brought about by the increasing availability of audio recordings by way of the player piano and the phonograph.
A 1940s novelty song was Spike Jones' 1942 "Der Fuehrer's Face", which included raspberries in its chorus. Tex Williams's "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke!" Topped the Billboard best-sellers chart for six weeks and the country music chart for 16 weeks in 1947 and 1948. Hank Williams, Sr.'s "Move It On Over," his first hit song, has some humor and novelty elements, but contemporaries disputed this and noted that many men had been faced with eviction under similar circumstances. The 1953 #1 single " That Doggie in the Window?" became notable both for its extensive airplay and the backlash from listeners who found it annoying. Satirists such as Stan Freberg and Tom Lehrer used novelty songs to poke fun at contemporary pop culture in the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1951, Frank Sinatra was paired in a CBS television special with TV personality Dagmar. Mitch Miller at Columbia Records became intrigued with the pairing and compelled songwriter Dick Manning to compose a song for the two of them; the result was "Mama Will Bark", a novelty song performed by Sinatra with interspersed spoken statements by Dagmar, saying things like "mama will bark", "mama will spank", "papa will spank".
The recording includes the sound of a dog yowling. It is regarded by both music scholars and Sinatra enthusiasts to be the worst song he recorded. Sinatra would in fact record a few others before he left Columbia and joined Capitol Records in 1952. Dickie Goodman faced a lawsuit for his 1956 novelty song "The Flying Saucer", which sampled snippets of contemporary hits without permission and arranged them to resemble interviews with an alien landing on Earth. Goodman released more hit singles in the same vein for the next two decades including his gold record RIAA certified hit with Mr. Jaws in 1975 which charted #1 in Cash Box and Record World and was based on the movie Jaws. Among the more far out songs of this genre was the two released in 1956 by Nervous Norvus, "Transfusion" and "Ape Call"; the Coasters had novelty songs such as "Charlie Brown" and "Yakety Yak". "Yakety Yak" became a #1 single on July 21, 1958, is the only novelty song included in the Songs of the Century. "Lucky Ladybug" by Billy and Lillie was popular in December 1958.
Lonnie Donegan's 1959 cover of the 1924 novelty song "Does Your Chewing Gum Lose Its Flavour" was a transatlantic hit, reaching #5 on the Billboard charts two years after its release. Three songs using a sped-up recording technique became #1 hits in the United States in 1958-59: David Seville's "Witch Doctor" and Ragtime Cowboy Joe, Sheb Wooley's "The Purple People Eater", Seville's "The Chipmunk Song", which used a speeded-up voice technique to sim
Contemporary Christian music
Contemporary Christian music is a genre of modern popular music, lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. It formed as those affected by the 1960s Jesus movement revival began to express themselves in a more contemporary style of music than the hymns and Southern gospel music, prevalent in the church at the time. Today, the term is used to refer to pop, rock, or praise & worship styles, it has representation on several music charts including Billboard's Christian Albums, Christian Songs, Hot Christian AC, Christian CHR, Soft AC/Inspirational, Christian Digital Songs as well as the UK's Official Christian & Gospel Albums Chart. Top-selling CCM artists will appear on the Billboard 200. In the iTunes Store, the genre is represented as part of the Christian and gospel genre while the Google Play Music system labels it as Christian/Gospel; the growing popularity in the styles of Rock'n'Roll music in the 1950s was dismissed by the church because it was believed to encourage sinfulness.
Yet as evangelical churches adapted to appeal to more people, the musical styles used in worship changed as well by adopting the sounds of this popular style. The genre became known as contemporary Christian music as a result of the Jesus movement revival in the latter 1960s and early 1970s, was called Jesus music. "About that time, many young people from the sixties' counterculture professed to believe in Jesus. Convinced of the bareness of a lifestyle based on drugs, free sex, radical politics,'hippies' became'Jesus people'". However, there were people who felt that Jesus was another "trip", it was during the 1970s Jesus movement that Christian music started to become an industry within itself. "Jesus Music" started by playing instruments and singing songs about love and peace, which translated into love of God. Paul Wohlegemuth, who wrote the book Rethinking Church Music, said " 1970s will see a marked acceptance of rock-influenced music in all levels of church music; the rock style will become more familiar to all people, its rhythmic excesses will become refined, its earlier secular associations will be less remembered."Larry Norman is remembered as the "father of Christian rock", because of his early contributions to the developing new genre that mixed rock rhythms with the Christian messages.
Though his style was not well received by many in the Christian community of the time, he continued throughout his career to create controversial hard-rock songs such as "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?". He is remembered as the artist "who first combined rock'n' roll with Christian lyrics" in the Gospel Music Hall of Fame. Though there were Christian albums in the 1960s that contained contemporary-sounding songs, there were two albums recorded in 1969 that are considered to be the first complete albums of "Jesus rock": Upon This Rock by Larry Norman released on Capitol Records, Mylon – We Believe by Mylon LeFevre, released by Cotillion, LeFevre's attempt at blending gospel music with southern rock. Unlike traditional or southern gospel music, this new Jesus music was birthed out of rock and folk music. Pioneers of this movement included Keith Green, 2nd Chapter of Acts, Barry McGuire, Andraé Crouch and the Disciples, Benny Hester, The Imperials, among others; the small Jesus music culture had expanded into a multimillion-dollar industry by the 1980s.
Many CCM artists such as Benny Hester, Amy Grant, DC Talk, Michael W. Smith and Jars of Clay found crossover success with Top 40 mainstream radio play; the genre became prevalent in the 1970s and 1980s. Beginning in July 1978, CCM Magazine began covering "Contemporary Christian Music" artists and a wide range of spiritual themes until it launched online publications in 2009, it has certain themes and messages behind the songs and their lyrics including Praise and worship, faith and prayer. These songs focus on themes of devotion, redemption and renewal. Many people listen to contemporary Christian music for comfort through tough times; the lyrics and messages conveyed in CCM songs are aimed to worship Jesus. One of the earliest goals of CCM was to spread the news of Jesus to non-Christians. In addition, contemporary Christian music strengthens the faith of believers. Contemporary Christian music has influences from folk, gospel and rock music. Genres of music such as soft rock, folk rock, hip-hop, etc. have played a large influence on CCM.
Charismatic churches have had a large influence on contemporary Christian music and are one of the largest producers of CCM. Hillsong Church is one of the many prominent CCM artists. Contemporary Christian music has expanded into many subgenres. Christian punk, Christian hardcore, Christian metal, Christian hip hop, although not considered CCM, can come under the genre's umbrella. Contemporary worship music is incorporated in modern CCM. Contemporary worship is both performed during church services; some prominent artists who assisted CCM to become popular include Amy Grant, Michael W. Smith, Phil Keaggy and John Elefante. Several mainstream artists, such as The Byrds, Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, Elvis Presley, Lifehouse and U2, have dealt with Christian themes in their music, yet are not part of the CCM industry. Other artists representing the genre include MercyMe, Casting Crowns, Jeremy Camp, Third Day, Matthew West, tobyMac, Chris Tomlin, Brandon Heath, Aaron Shust, Lauren Daigle. Jars of Clay, dc Talk, Steven Curtis Chapman and Newsboys have belonged to this genre.
Adult contemporary music
In North American music, adult contemporary music is a form of radio-played popular music, ranging from 1960s vocal and 1970s soft rock music to predominantly ballad-heavy music of the present day, with varying degrees of easy listening, soul and blues, quiet storm, rock influence. Adult contemporary is rather a continuation of the easy listening and soft rock style that became popular in the 1960s and 1970s with some adjustments that reflect the evolution of pop/rock music. Adult contemporary tends to have lush and polished qualities where emphasis on melody and harmonies is accentuated, it is melodic enough to get a listener's attention, is inoffensive and pleasurable enough to work well as background music. Like most of pop music, its songs tend to be written in a basic format employing a verse–chorus structure; the format is heavy on romantic sentimental ballads which use acoustic instruments such as acoustic guitars, pianos and sometimes an orchestral set. The electric guitars are faint and high-pitched.
However, recent adult contemporary music may feature synthesizers. An AC radio station may play mainstream music, but it excludes hip hop, dance tracks, hard rock, some forms of teen pop, as these are less popular among adults, the target demographic. AC radio targets the 25–44 age group, the demographic that has received the most attention from advertisers since the 1960s. A common practice in recent years of adult contemporary stations is to play less newer music and more hits of the past; this de-emphasis on new songs slows the progression of the AC chart. Over the years, AC has spawned subgenres including "hot AC", "soft AC", "urban AC", "rhythmic AC", "Christian AC"; some stations play only "hot AC", only one of the variety of subgenres. Therefore, it is not considered a specific genre of music. Adult contemporary traces its roots to the 1960s easy listening format, which adopted a 70—80% instrumental to 20–30% vocal mix. A few offered 90% instrumentals, a handful were instrumental; the easy listening format, as it was first known, was born of a desire by some radio stations in the late 1950s and early 1960s to continue playing current hit songs but distinguish themselves from being branded as "rock and roll" stations.
Billboard first published the Easy Listening chart July 1961, with 20 songs. The chart described itself as "not too far out in either direction"; the vocalists consisted of artists such as Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, Johnny Mathis, Connie Francis, Nat King Cole, Perry Como, others. The custom recordings were instrumental versions of current or recent rock and roll or pop hit songs, a move intended to give the stations more mass appeal without selling out; some stations would occasionally play earlier big band-era recordings from the 1940s and early 1950s. After 1965, differences between the Hot 100 chart and the Easy Listening chart became more pronounced. Better reflecting what middle of the road stations were playing, the composition of the chart changed dramatically; as rock music continued to harden, there was much less crossover between the Hot 100 and Easy Listening chart than there had been in the early half of the 1960s. Roger Miller, Barbra Streisand and Bobby Vinton were among the chart's most popular performers.
One big impetus for the development of the AC radio format was that, when rock and roll music first became popular in the mid-1950s, many more conservative radio stations wanted to continue to play current hit songs while shying away from rock. These middle of the road stations frequently included older, pre-rock-era adult standards and big band titles to further appeal to adult listeners who had grown up with those songs. Another big impetus for the evolution of the AC radio format was the popularity of easy listening or "beautiful music" stations, stations with music designed to be purely ambient. Whereas most easy listening music was instrumental, created by unknown artists, purchased, AC was an attempt to create a similar "lite" format by choosing certain tracks of popular artists. Hard rock had been established as a mainstream genre by 1965. From the end of the 1960s, it became common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock, with both emerging as major radio formats in the US.
Soft rock was derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. Major artists included Carole King, Cat Stevens, James Taylor and Bread; the Hot 100 and Easy Listening charts became more similar again toward the end of the 1960s and into the early and mid-1970s, when the texture of much of the music played on Top 40 radio once more began to soften. The adult contemporary format began evolving into the sound that defined it, with rock-oriented acts as Chicago, the Eagles, Elton John becoming associated with the format. Soft rock reached its commercial peak in the mid-to-late 1970s with acts such as Toto, England Dan & John Ford Coley, Air Supply and Crofts, Dan Fogelberg and the reformed Fleetwood Mac, whose Rumours was the best-selling album of the decade. By 1977, some radio stations, notably New York's WTFM and NBC-owned WYNY, Boston's WEEI, had switched to an all-soft rock format; as Softrock
Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular songs, as well as dance. The etymology of the name is uncertain, but some propose it may derive from the name of a Royal hunting lodge, the Palacio de la Zarzuela near Madrid, where this type of entertainment was first presented to the court; the palace was named after the place called "La Zarzuela" because of the profusion of brambles that grew there, so the festivities held within the walls became known as "Zarzuelas". There are two main forms of zarzuela: Baroque zarzuela, the earliest style, Romantic zarzuela, which can be further divided into two. Main subgenres are género género chico, although other sub-divisions exist. Zarzuela spread to the Spanish colonies, many Hispanic countries – notably Cuba – developed their own traditions. There is a strong tradition in the Philippines where it is known as sarswela/sarsuela. Other regional and linguistic variants in Spain include the Basque zartzuela and the Catalan sarsuela.
A masque-like musical theatre had existed in Spain since the time of Juan del Encina. The zarzuela genre was innovative in giving a dramatic function to the musical numbers, which were integrated into the argument of the work. Dances and choruses were incorporated as well as solo and ensemble numbers, all to orchestral accompaniment. In 1657 at the Royal Palace of El Prado, King Philip IV of Spain, Queen Mariana and their court attended the first performance of a new comedy by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, with music by Juan Hidalgo de Polanco titled El Laurel de Apolo. El Laurel de Apolo traditionally symbolises the birth of a new musical genre that had become known as La Zarzuela. Like Calderón de la Barca's earlier El golfo de las sirenas, El Laurel de Apolo mixed mythological verse drama with operatic solos, popular songs and dances; the characters in these early, baroque zarzuelas were a mixture of gods, mythological creatures and rustic or pastoral comedy characters. Unlike some other operatic forms, there were spoken interludes in verse.
In 18th-century Bourbon Spain, Italian artistic style dominated in the arts, including Italian opera. Zarzuela, though still written to Spanish texts, changed to accommodate the Italian vogue. During the reign of King Charles III, political problems provoked a series of revolts against his Italian ministers; the older style zarzuela fell out of fashion, but popular Spanish tradition continued to manifest itself in shorter works, such as the single-scene tonadilla of which the finest literary exponent was Ramón de la Cruz. Musicians such as Antonio Rodríguez de Hita were proficient in the shorter style of works, though he wrote a full-scale zarzuela with de la Cruz entitled Las segadoras de Vallecas. José Castel was one of several composers to write for the Teatro del Príncipe. In the 1850s and 1860s a group of patriotic writers and composers led by Francisco Barbieri and Joaquín Gaztambide revived the zarzuela form, seeing in it a possible release from French and Italian music hegemony; the elements of the work continue to be the same: sung solos and choruses, spiced with spoken scenes, comedic songs and dances.
Costume dramas and regional variations abound, the librettos are rich in Spanish idioms and popular jargon. The zarzuelas of the day included in their librettos various regionalisms and popular slang, such as that of Madrid castizos; the success of a work was due to one or more songs that the public came to know and love. Despite some modifications the basic structure of the zarzuela remained the same: dialogue scenes, songs and comic scenes performed by two actor-singers; the culminating masterpieces from this period were Barbieri's Pan y toros and Gaztambide's El juramento. Another notable composer from this period was Emilio Arrieta. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868, the country entered a deep crisis, reflected in theatre; the public could not afford high-priced theatre tickets for grandiose productions, which led to the rise of the Teatros Variedades in Madrid, with cheap tickets for one-act plays. This "theatre of an hour" had great success and zarzuela composers took to the new formula with alacrity.
Single-act zarzuelas were classified as género chico whilst the longer zarzuelas of three acts, lasting up to four hours, were called género grande. Zarzuela grande battled on at the Teatro de la Zarzuela de Madrid, founded by Barbieri and his friends in the 1850s. A newer theatre, the Apolo, opened in 1873. At first it attempted to present the género grande, but it soon yielded to the taste and economics of the time, became the "temple" of the more populist género chico in the late 1870s. Musical content from this era ranges from full-scale operatic arias through to popular songs, dialogue from high poetic drama to lowlife comedy characters. There are many types of zarzuela in between the two named genres, with a variety of musical and dramatic flavours. Many of the greatest zarzuelas were written in the 1880s and 1890s, but the form continued to adapt to new theatrical stimuli until well into the 20th century. With the onset of the Spanish Civil War, the form declined, the last romantic zarzuelas to hold the stage were written in the 1950s.
Whilst Barbieri produced the greatest zarzuela grande in El barberill