Turbinia was the first steam turbine-powered steamship. The vessel can still be seen at the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, North East England, while her original powerplant can be found at the London Science Museum. Charles Algernon Parsons invented the steam turbine in 1884, having foreseen its potential to power ships. To develop this he had the experimental vessel Turbinia built in a design of steel by the firm of Brown and Hood. The Admiralty was kept informed of developments, and Turbinia was launched on 2 August 1894, despite the success of the turbine engine, initial trials with one propeller were disappointing. In trials this achieved a top speed of over 34 knots, the turbines were directly driven, as geared turbines were not introduced until 1910. Even after the introduction of geared turbines, efficiency of even the largest axial steam turbines was still below 12 percent, Turbinia was even less efficient, with its direct drive turbine moving with a tip speed of just 30 meters per second.
Despite this, it was an improvement over predecessors. Photographer and cinematographer Alfred J. West took several photographs of Turbinia traveling at speed at the Review. Both vessels were lost but although the loss of these trials ships slowed the introduction of turbines, in 1900 Turbinia steamed to Paris and was shown to French officials and displayed at the Paris Exhibition. The first turbine-powered merchant vessel, the Clyde steamer TS King Edward, the Admiralty confirmed in 1905 that all future Royal Navy vessels were to be turbine-powered, and in 1906 the first turbine-powered battleship, the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought, was launched. On 11 January 1907, Turbinia was struck and nearly cut in two by Crosby – a ship being launched across-river from the bank of the Tyne. She was repaired and steamed alongside RMS Mauretania after the launch of the ocean liner. However, mechanical problems prevented Turbinia from accompanying Mauretania down the River Tyne to the sea, the fore section was presented in 1944 to Newcastle Corporation and placed on display in the citys Exhibition Park.
In 1983 a complete reconstruction was undertaken, on 30 October 1994,100 years after her launch, Turbinia was moved to Newcastles Museum of Science and Engineering and put on display to the public in March 1996. Listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, in 2000, the gallery around Turbinia was the first area to be refurbished, with the main part of the work involving raising the roof by one storey to create viewing galleries on three levels. A detailed Museum originated blog entry by Ian Whitehead, the Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums curator charged with Turbinas care in 2013
Edwin Fox is the worlds second oldest surviving merchant sailing ship and the only surviving ship that transported convicts to Australia. She is unique in that she is the only intact hull of a wooden sailing ship built to British specifications surviving in the world outside the Falkland Islands. Edwin Fox carried settlers to both Australia and New Zealand and carried troops in the Crimean War, the ship is dry-docked at The Edwin Fox Maritime Centre at Picton in New Zealand. She was built of teak in Calcutta in 1853 and her voyage was to London via the Cape of Good Hope. She went into service in the Crimean War as a troop ship, on 14 February 1856 she began her first voyage to Melbourne, carrying passengers, moved to trading between Chinese ports. In 1858 she was chartered by the British Government as a ship bound for Fremantle. Conditions on board for the four to six-month voyage were harsh and luggage strictly limited, on arrival they often found conditions much harsher than expected, and were faced with being cut off from family and friends in distant Europe, sometimes for life.
Edwin Fox was overtaken by the age of steam, and in the 1880s she was refitted as a floating freezer hulk for the sheep industry in New Zealand. She was towed to Picton in the South Island on 12 January 1897 where she continued as a freezer ship. By this time she had long since lost her rigging and masts, and suffered holes cut in her sides, the ship was in use until 1950, abandoned to rot at her moorings. In 1965 she was bought by the Edwin Fox Society for the sum of one shilling. In 1967 she was towed to Shakespeare Bay where she remained for the next 20 years, after much further fundraising the ship was refloated and towed to her final home, a dry dock on the Picton waterfront. She floated in and the dock was drained to begin restoration, initially it was planned to restore the ship completely, replacing rigging and refurbishing the interior. It has since decided that this is not practical, not only for reasons of finance. She is thus preserved as a hull with an adjacent informative museum, the trust are looking for sponsors to continue their work on this unique vessel.
She has been given a category I registration from Heritage New Zealand, the Edwin Fox, New Zealand from H2G2
James Craig (barque)
James Craig is a three-masted, iron-hulled barque restored and sailed by the Sydney Heritage Fleet, Australia. Built in 1874 in Sunderland, England, by Bartram and she was employed carrying cargo around the world, and rounded Cape Horn 23 times in 26 years. In 1900 she was acquired by Mr J J Craig, renamed James Craig in 1905, unable to compete profitably with freight cargo, in years James Craig was used as a collier. Like many other sailing ships of her vintage, she fell victim to the advance of steamships, in 1932 she was sunk by fishermen who blasted a 3-metre hole in her stern. Restoration of James Craig began in 1972, when volunteers from the Lady Hopetoun and Port Jackson Marine Steam Museum refloated her, brought back to Sydney under tow in 1981, her hull was placed on a submersible pontoon to allow work on the hull restoration to proceed. Over twenty-five years, the vessel was restored, repaired by both paid craftspeople and volunteers and relaunched in 1997, in 2001 restoration work was completed and she now goes to sea again.
A DVD on her restoration has been produced and available from the Sydney Heritage Fleet, James Craig is currently berthed at Wharf 7 of Darling Harbour, near the Australian National Maritime Museum. She is open to the public, and takes passengers out sailing on Sydney Harbour and she is crewed and maintained by volunteers from the Sydney Heritage Fleet. The ship has now made historic return voyages to Hobart and to Port Philip in 2006 and 2008, the voyages to Hobart to coincide with the Wooden Boat Festival. In October 2013 James Craig participated in the International Fleet Review 2013 in Sydney, James Craig is of exceptional historical value in that she is one of only four 19th century barques in the world that still go regularly to sea. She sails out through the Sydney heads fortnightly, when not on voyages to Melbourne, as such she is a working link to a time when similar ships carried the bulk of global commerce in their holds. Thousands of similar ships plied the oceans in the 19th and early 20th centuries linking the old world and she is sailed in the traditional 19th Century manner entirely by volunteers from the Master to the galley crew.
Her running rigging consists of 140 lines secured to belaying pins, many of the crew know each rope by name. She achieved 11.3 knots on a voyage from Melbourne in February 2006. The James Craig, her history and restoration Jeff Toghill The James Craig story Jeff Toghill Welcome Aboard James Craig, flyer for visitors to the ship, Sydney Heritage Fleet, Sydney,2008. The James Craig restoration - archived website from the James Craig Restoration Division, Sydney Heritage Fleet, 1999–2002
The argonauts are a group of pelagic octopuses. They are called paper nautiluses, referring to the paper-thin eggcase that females secrete and this structure lacks the gas-filled chambers present in chambered nautilus shells and is not a true cephalopod shell, but rather an evolutionary innovation unique to the genus Argonauta. It is used as a chamber and for trapped surface air to maintain buoyancy. It was once speculated that the argonauts did not manufacture their own eggcases but instead borrowed them from other organisms, argonauts are found in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide, they live in the open ocean, i. e. they are pelagic. Like most octopuses, they have a body, eight arms. However, unlike most octopuses, argonauts live close to the sea rather than on the seabed. Argonauta species are characterised by large eyes and small distal webs. The funnel–mantle locking apparatus is a diagnostic feature of this taxon. It consists of knob-like cartilages in the mantle and corresponding depressions in the funnel, unlike the closely allied genera Ocythoe and Tremoctopus, Argonauta species lack water pores.
The chambered nautilus was named after the argonaut, but belongs to a different order, argonauts exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism in size and lifespan. Females grow up to 10 cm and make shells up to 30 cm, the males only mate once in their short lifetime, whereas the females are iteroparous, capable of having offspring many times over the course of their lives. In addition, the females have been known since ancient times, the males lack the dorsal tentacles used by the females to create their eggcases. The males use an arm, the hectocotylus, to transfer sperm to the female. For fertilization, the arm is inserted into the pallial cavity. The hectocotylus when found in females was originally described as a parasitic worm, female argonauts produce a laterally-compressed calcareous eggcase in which they reside. This shell has a double keel fringed by two rows of alternating tubercles, the sides are ribbed with the centre either flat or having winged protrusions. The eggcase curiously resembles the shells of extinct ammonites and it is secreted by the tips of the females two greatly expanded dorsal tentacles before egg laying.
After she deposits her eggs in the floating eggcase, the female takes shelter in it and she is usually found with her head and tentacles protruding from the opening, but she retreats deeper inside if disturbed
SS Meteor (1896)
SS Meteor is the sole surviving ship of the unconventional whaleback design. The design, created by Scottish captain Alexander McDougall, enabled her to carry a maximum amount of cargo with a minimum of draft, Meteor was built in 1896 in Superior, United States, with a number of modifications, sailed until 1969. She is currently a museum ship in the city of her birth, Meteor was built by the American Steel Barge Company at their yard in Superior, Wisconsin in the summer of 1896 as Frank Rockefeller, number 36 of 44 whalebacks built between 1888 and 1898. McDougalls expense records listed the cost of construction of Frank Rockefeller as $181,573.38. She was built for the ASB fleet and joined their barges and steamers in the movement of ore from Lake Superior ports down to the steel mills of Lake Erie. She would carry the odd loads of grain, as a steamer, she would often tow one or more of the companys consort barges to augment her carrying capacity. In 1900, along with the rest of the ASB fleet, she was sold to the Bessemer Steamship Company and she grounded off Isle Royale on 2 November 1905 after she got lost in a snowstorm.
Most of the damage from the grounding came from the barge she had been towing – when the hit the rocks. Eventually repaired and put back into service, she sailed as a Tin Stacker until 1927 and that year, she was sold for use as a sand dredge and renamed South Park. As a dredge, she was used to fill for the site of the Chicago Worlds Fair in 1933. In 1936, she changed hands again and became an auto carrier and she sailed for several years under this new guise, hauling new autos from Detroit and Kewaunee until 1942. She was wrecked off Manistique that year, had it not been for the great demand for tonnage in World War II, she would have been scrapped. Instead, she was sold to the Cleveland Tanker Company, and it was at this time that she obtained the name Meteor, as Cleveland Tanker named their vessels after celestial bodies. As a tanker, she hauled gasoline and other liquids for over 25 years, in 1969, Meteor was the last of the original 43 whalebacks, but that season, she ran aground on Gull Island Shoal off Marquette, Michigan.
Cleveland Tanker Company chose not to repair the 73-year-old steamer because Meteor was a single-hull tanker, because Meteor was the last surviving whaleback, she was bought and taken to Superior, Wisconsin in 1971 for use as a museum ship. She was berthed at Barkers Island where she remains today, Meteor is the last extant example of an experimental class of lakers, other than wrecks such as the Thomas Wilson and the barge Sagamore, a favorite divesite in Whitefish Bay. However, Meteor is at present poorly maintained, her hull is rusting, due to her condition, she was named one of the 10 most endangered historical properties by the Wisconsin Trust for Historic Preservation. However, as of 2016, restoration has progressed at an extrodinary rate, Meteor is 380 feet long overall with a 366-foot keel
City of Adelaide (1864)
City of Adelaide is a clipper ship, built in Sunderland and launched on 7 May 1864. The ship was commissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Carrick between 1923 and 1948 and, after decommissioning, was known as Carrick until 2001. At a conference convened by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh in 2001, the decision was made to revert the name to City of Adelaide. City of Adelaide was built by William Pile, Hay and Co. for transporting passengers, between 1864 and 1887 the ship made 23 annual return voyages from London and Plymouth to Adelaide, South Australia. During this period she played an important part in the immigration of Australia, on the return voyages she carried passengers and copper from Adelaide and Port Augusta to London. From 1869 to 1885 she was part of Harrold Brothers Adelaide Line of clippers, after 1887 the ship carried coal around the British coast, and timber across the Atlantic. In 1893 she became a hospital in Southampton, and in 1923 was purchased by the Royal Navy. Converted as a ship, she was renamed HMS Carrick to avoid confusion with the newly commissioned HMAS Adelaide.
HMS Carrick was based in Scotland until 1948 when she was decommissioned and donated to the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Club, Carrick remained on the River Clyde until 1989 when she was damaged by flooding. In order to safeguard the vessel she was protected as a listed building, Carrick was recovered by the Scottish Maritime Museum the following year, and moved to a private slipway adjacent to the museums site in Irvine. Restoration work began, but funding ceased in 1999, and from 2000 the future of the ship was in doubt, in 2010, the Scottish Government decided that the ship would be moved to Adelaide, to be preserved as a museum ship. In September 2013 the ship moved by barge from Scotland to the Netherlands to prepare for transport to Australia. In late November 2013, loaded on the deck of a ship, City of Adelaide departed Europe bound for Port Adelaide, Australia. City of Adelaide is the worlds oldest surviving clipper ship, of two that survive — the other is Cutty Sark. With Cutty Sark and HMS Gannet, City of Adelaide is one of three surviving ocean-going ships of composite construction to survive.
City of Adelaide is one of three surviving sailing ships, and the only of these a passenger ship, to have taken emigrants from the British Isles, City of Adelaide is the only surviving purpose-built passenger sailing ship. Adding to her significance as an emigrant ship, City of Adelaide is the last survivor of the trade between North America and the United Kingdom. Having been built in the prior to Lloyds Register publishing their rules for composite ships
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
C.A. Thayer (1895)
Thayer is a schooner built in 1895 near Eureka, California. The schooner is now preserved at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park and she is one of the last survivors of the sailing schooners in the West coast lumber trade to San Francisco from Washington and Northern California. She was added to the National Register of Historic Places on 13 November 1966 and this ship is used for many class field trips. Thayer was built by Danish-born Hans Ditlev Bendixsen in his shipyard, Bendixsen built the Wawona which was dismantled in 2009. Thayer was named for Clarence A. Thayer, a partner in the San Francisco-based E. K, woods mill in Grays Harbor, Washington, to San Francisco. But she carried lumber as far south as Mexico, and occasionally even ventured offshore to Hawaii, Thayer is typical of the sort of three-masted schooners often used in the west coast lumber trade. She is 219 feet in length and has a capacity of 575,000 board feet. She carried about half of her load below deck, with the remaining lumber stacked 10 feet high on deck, in port, her small crew of eight or nine men were responsible for loading and unloading the ship.
Unloading 75,000 to 80,000 board feet was a days work. With the increase in the use of power for the lumber trade. Thayer was retired from the trade in 1912, and converted for use in the Alaskan salmon fishery. Early each April from 1912 to 1924, C. A, Thayer sailed from San Francisco for Western Alaska. On board she carried 28-foot gillnet boats, bundles of barrel staves, tons of salt, and she spent the summer anchored at a fishery camp such as Squaw Creek or Koggiung. While there, the fishermen worked their nets and the cannery workers packed the catch on shore, Thayer returned to San Francisco each September, carrying barrels of salted salmon. Vessels in the trade usually laid up during the winter months. Thayer carried Northwest fir and Mendocino redwood to Australia and these off-season voyages took about two months each way. Her return cargo was coal, but sometimes hardwood or copra. Thayer made yearly voyages from Poulsbo, Washington, to Alaskas Bering Sea cod-fishing waters, in addition to supplies, she carried upwards of thirty men north, including fourteen fishermen and twelve dressers
A museum ship, called a memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public for educational or memorial purposes. Some are used for training and recruitment purposes, mostly for the number of museum ships that are still operational. Many, if not most, museum ships are associated with a maritime museum, only a few survive, sometimes because of historical significance, but more often due to luck and circumstance. The restoration and maintenance of museum ships presents problems for historians who are asked for advice, for instance, the rigging of sailing ships has almost never survived, and so the rigging plan must be reconstructed from various sources. Studying the ships allows historians to analyze how life on and operation of the ships took place, numerous scientific papers have been written on ship restoration and maintenance, and international conferences are held discussing the latest developments. Another consideration is the distinction between a museum ship, and a ship replica.
As repairs accumulate over time and less of the ship is of the materials. Visitors without historical background are often unable to distinguish between a historical museum ship and a ship replica, which may serve solely as a tourist attraction. Typically the visitor enters via gangplank, wanders around on the deck, goes below, usually using the original stairways, giving a sense of how the crew got around. The interior features restored but inactivated equipment, enhanced with mementos including old photographs, explanatory displays, pages from the logs, menus. Some add recorded sound effects, audio tours or video displays to enhance the experience, in some cases, the ships radio room has been brought back into use, with volunteers operating amateur radio equipment. Often, the callsign assigned is a variation on the identification of the ship. For example, the submarine USS Cobia, which had the call NBQV, is now on the air as NB9QV. The World War II submarine USS Pampanito, berthed at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, had the wartime call NJVT and is now on the air as NJ6VT, in other cases, such as the USS Missouri, a distinctive call is used.
This radio work not only helps restore part of the vessel, a number of the larger museum ships have begun to offer hosting for weddings, other events, and sleepovers, and on a few ships still seaworthy, cruises. In the United States, this includes the USS Constitutions annual turnaround, a place on the deck is by invitation or lottery only, and highly prized. Many consider the appeal of an interesting old vessel on the city waterfront strong enough that any port city should showcase one or more museum ships. This may even include building a ship at great expense
Lightvessel Gedser Rev
XVII Gedser Rev is a decommissioned lightvessel built in 1895, now serving as a museum ship in the Nyhavn Canal in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is owned by the National Museum and takes its name after Gedser Rev south of Falster where it was stationed most of its working life, denmarks first lightvessel was built at Jacob Holms shipyard at Christianshavn in 1829. Hansens shipyard in Odense in 1895, the ship now moored at Nyhavn was number seventeen in the line of Danish lightvessels and it was first stationed at Lappegrund in shallow waters at the entrance to the Øresund. It was powered by two engines which were replaced by a 16-hp kerosene engine in 1918. In 1921, a new three-cylinder Voelund 135-hp propulsion engine was installed, the ship was involved in a number of collisions during her years in operation. The most serious of these occurred in 1954 when she sank within a few minutes, the seaman on duty was thrown overboard and drowned while the rest of the crew were saved. During the Cold War and after the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many East Germans chose to escape by water, although most failed and many died in the attempt, at least 50 were rescued by the Gedser Rev.
As the Southernmost limit of Danish territory and as an obviously recognisable target, one notable escapee was Manfred Burmeister in 1969, who escaped by aid of a petrol-driven submersible scooter. XVII was decommissioned in 1972 and put up for sale at the warehouse at Holmen in Copenhagen. A donation from the A. P. Møller Foundation enabled the National Museum to purchase it, the A. P. Møller Foundation sponsored the ships restoration which was carried out at Hvide Sande Shipyard from January 2001 until November 2003. The lightvessel is open to the public every Saturday from 11 am to 3 pm from June through August and it is maintained by a group of volunteers. On 27 May 2009 Bank of Denmark issued a new 20 krone coin with lightvessel XVII, as depicted by the artist Karin Lorentzen, list of lighthouses and lightvessels in Denmark
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 and shares its border with Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the landmark of the region. At its foot is a populated city area, home to over 30,000 Gibraltarians. An Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar from Spain in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne, the territory was subsequently ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Today Gibraltars economy is based largely on tourism, online gambling, financial services, the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a major point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations as Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians overwhelmingly rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum, under the Gibraltar constitution of 2006, Gibraltar governs its own affairs, though some powers, such as defence and foreign relations, remain the responsibility of the British government.
The name Gibraltar is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq, earlier, it was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin and one of the Pillars of Hercules. The pronunciation of the name in modern Spanish is, evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar between 28,000 and 24,000 BP has been discovered at Gorhams Cave, making Gibraltar possibly the last known holdout of the Neanderthals. Within recorded history, the first inhabitants were the Phoenicians, around 950 BC, Gibraltar became known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. The Carthaginians and Romans established semi-permanent settlements, after the collapse of the Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals. The area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania from 414 AD until the Islamic conquest of Iberia in 711 AD, in 1160, the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mumin ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built.
It received the name of Medinat al-Fath, on completion of the works in the town, the Sultan crossed the Strait to look at the works and stayed in Gibraltar for two months. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today, from 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462, Gibraltar was finally captured by Juan Alonso de Guzmán, after the conquest, King Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. In 1501, Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, the occupation of the town by Alliance forces caused the exodus of the population to the surrounding area of the Campo de Gibraltar. As the Alliances campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated and ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britains withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence
Star of India (ship)
Star of India was built in 1863 at Ramsey in the Isle of Man as Euterpe, a full-rigged iron windjammer ship. After a full career sailing from Great Britain to India and New Zealand, retired in 1926, she was not restored until 1962–63 and is now a seaworthy museum ship home-ported at the Maritime Museum of San Diego in San Diego, California. She is the oldest ship still sailing regularly and the oldest iron-hulled merchant ship still floating, the ship is both a California Historical Landmark and United States National Historic Landmark. She was launched on 14 November 1863, and assigned British Registration No.47617, euterpes career had a rough beginning. She sailed for Calcutta from Liverpool on 9 January 1864, under the command of Captain William John Storry, a collision with an unlit Spanish brig off the coast of Wales carried away the jib-boom and damaged other rigging. The crew became mutinous, refusing to continue, and she returned to Anglesey to repair,17 of the crew were confined to the Beaumaris Jail at hard labor.
Then, in 1865, Euterpe was forced to cut away her masts in a gale in the Bay of Bengal off Madras and limped to Trincomalee, Captain Storry died during the return voyage to England and was buried at sea. In late 1871 she began twenty-five years of carrying passengers and freight in the New Zealand emigrant trade, the fastest of her 21 passages to New Zealand took 100 days, the longest 143 days. She made ports of call in Australia, California, a baby was born on one of those trips en route to New Zealand, and was given the middle name Euterpe. Another child, John William Philips Palmer, was born on the 1873 journey to Dunedin, New Zealand and she was registered in the United States on 30 October 1900. In 1906, the Association changed her name to be consistent with the rest of their fleet and she was laid up in 1923 after 22 Alaskan voyages, by that time, steam ruled the seas. In 1926, Star of India was sold to the Zoological Society of San Diego, the Great Depression and World War II caused that plan to be canceled, and it was not until 1957 that restoration began.
Alan Villiers, a captain and author, came to San Diego on a lecture tour. Seeing Star of India decaying in the harbor, he publicized the situation, progress was still slow, but in 1976, Star of India finally put to sea again. She houses exhibits for the Maritime Museum of San Diego, is kept fully seaworthy, unlike many preserved or restored vessels, her hull and equipment are nearly 100% original. This location is slightly west of downtown San Diego, the other ships belonging to the Maritime Museum are always docked to the north of Star of India. Her nearest neighbor – since 2007 – is HMS Surprise, a replica of a British frigate, when she sails, Star of India often remains within sight of the coast of San Diego County, and usually returns to her dock within a day. She is sailed by a volunteer crew of Maritime Museum members