A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, it is sometimes used or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first used during World War I, are now used in many navies large and small. Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships, attacking other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack, covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection and maintenance. Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, for undersea archaeology.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing. Submarines have one of the widest ranges of capabilities of any vessel, they range from small autonomous examples and one- or two-person vessels that operate for a few hours, to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian Typhoon class, the biggest submarines built.
Submarines can work at greater depths than are practical for human divers. Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. Whereas the principal meaning of "submarine" is an armed, submersible warship, the more general meaning is for any type of submersible craft; the definition as of 1899 was for any type of "submarine boat". By naval tradition, submarines are still referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. In other navies with a history of large submarine fleets they are "boats". According to a report in Opusculum Taisnieri published in 1562: Two Greeks submerged and surfaced in the river Tagus near the City of Toledo several times in the presence of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, without getting wet and with the flame they carried in their hands still alight. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
A few years the Scottish mathematician and theologian John Napier wrote in his Secret Inventions the following: "These inventions besides devises of sayling under water with divers, other devises and strategems for harming of the enemyes by the Grace of God and worke of expert Craftsmen I hope to perform." It's unclear whether he carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England, it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England. In 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion, his design used leather bags. A mechanism was used to cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemen's Magazine reported that a similar design had been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. Further design improvement stagnated for over a century, until application of new technologies for propulsion and stability.
The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, the first to use screws for propulsion. In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by the Nautilus; the French gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they considered Fulton's submarine design. In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's H. L. Hunley became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic. In the aftermath of its successful attack against the ship, the Hunley sank because it was too close to its own exploding torpedo. In 1866, the Sub Marine Explorer was the first submarine to dive, cruise underwater, resurface under the control of the crew; the design by German American Julius H. Kroehl incorporated elements that are still used in modern submarines.
In 1866, the Flach was built at the request of the Chilean government, by Karl Flach, a German engineer and immigrant
French Narval-class submarine
The Narval class were patrol submarines built for the French Navy in the 1950s. The Narval type was an offspring of the E-48 project, inspired by the German Type XXI U-boats of the Second World War Roland Morillot which were brought into French service. Compared to the Type XXI, the Narval class introduced an new schnorchel system and novel detection systems, gained 33% in operational range on electric power, doubled the test depth; the propellers were particularly studied to minimise noise. The hulls of the Narvals were assembled from seven 10-metre sections wielded together; the engine were two-stroke diesels made by the French constructor Schneider, which proved unreliable and noisy to the point where the engine section became difficult to man at full power. From 1966 to 1970, the Narvals underwent extensive modernisation, where their engines were replaced by a diesel-electrical design based on the SEMT-Pielstick 12PA4-185; the four stern torpedo tubes were deleted, electronics were replaced, the conning tower was replaced by a more modern sail plan from the Daphné class.
The Narvals were used to explore limits of submarines performances in several ways. In 1958, Dauphin and Requin broke the 30-day world record of the longest underwater cruise held jointly by the nuclear-powered USS Skate and USS Seawolf, with 32 and 42 days submerged respectively. In 1964, Espadon and Marsouin sailed up to the 70th parallel north to prepare the first French attempts at navigation under sea ice; these tests were carried out the next year by Dauphin and Narval when they spent a week and a half in the 72nd parallel north. During her last years, from 1980, Requin was fitted with the sonar system planned for the M4 refit of the SNLE. Dauphin was extensively modified from 1986 to be used as a test bed for equipment and sensors to be installed on the Triomphant-class submarines under design; when decommissioned in 1992, she was the oldest submarine in service. She was expended as a target ship off Toulon. In 1985, Espadon became the first French submarine used as a museum ship. List of submarines of France Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995 Les sous-marins d'escadre type Narval
Bergen Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway. At the end of the first quarter of 2018, the municipality's population was 280,216, the Bergen metropolitan region has about 420,000 inhabitants. Bergen is the second-largest city in Norway; the municipality is on the peninsula of Bergenshalvøyen. The city centre and northern neighbourhoods are on Byfjorden,'the city fjord', the city is surrounded by mountains. Many of the extra-municipal suburbs are on islands. Bergen is the administrative centre of Hordaland, consists of eight boroughs: Arna, Fana, Laksevåg, Ytrebygda, Årstad, Åsane. Trading in Bergen may have started as early as the 1020s. According to tradition, the city was founded in 1070 by king Olav Kyrre and was named Bjørgvin,'the green meadow among the mountains', it served as Norway's capital in the 13th century, from the end of the 13th century became a bureau city of the Hanseatic League. Until 1789, Bergen enjoyed exclusive rights to mediate trade between Northern Norway and abroad and it was the largest city in Norway until the 1830s when it was overtaken by the capital, Christiania.
What remains of the quays, Bryggen, is a World Heritage Site. The city was hit by numerous fires over the years; the Bergen School of Meteorology was developed at the Geophysical Institute starting in 1917, the Norwegian School of Economics was founded in 1936, the University of Bergen in 1946. From 1831 to 1972, Bergen was its own county. In 1972 the municipality absorbed four surrounding municipalities and became a part of Hordaland county; the city is an international center for aquaculture, the offshore petroleum industry and subsea technology, a national centre for higher education, media and finance. Bergen Port is Norway's busiest in terms of both freight and passengers, with over 300 cruise ship calls a year bringing nearly a half a million passengers to Bergen, a number that has doubled in 10 years. Half of the passengers are German or British; the city's main football team is SK Brann and a unique tradition of the city is the buekorps. Natives speak a distinct dialect, known as'Bergensk'.
The city features Bergen Airport and Bergen Light Rail, is the terminus of the Bergen Line. Four large bridges connect Bergen to its suburban municipalities. Bergen has a mild winter climate, though with a lot of precipitation. From December to March, Bergen can be, in rare cases, up to 30°C warmer than Oslo though both cities are at about 60° North; the Gulf Stream keeps the sea warm, considering the latitude, the mountains protect the city from cold winds from the north, north-east and east. The city of Bergen was traditionally thought to have been founded by king Olav Kyrre, son of Harald Hardråde in 1070 AD, four years after the Viking Age in England ended with the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Modern research has, discovered that a trading settlement had been established in the 1020s or 1030s. Bergen assumed the function of capital of Norway in the early 13th century, as the first city where a rudimentary central administration was established; the city's cathedral was the site of the first royal coronation in Norway in the 1150s, continued to host royal coronations throughout the 13th century.
Bergenhus guards the entrance to the harbour in Bergen. The functions of the capital city were lost to Oslo during the reign of King Haakon V. In the middle of the 14th century, North German merchants, present in substantial numbers since the 13th century, founded one of the four Kontore of the Hanseatic League at Bryggen in Bergen; the principal export traded from Bergen was dried cod from the northern Norwegian coast, which started around 1100. The city was granted a monopoly for trade from the north of Norway by King Håkon Håkonsson. Stockfish was the main reason. By the late 14th century, Bergen had established itself as the centre of the trade in Norway; the Hanseatic merchants lived in their own separate quarter of the town, where Middle Low German was used, enjoying exclusive rights to trade with the northern fishermen who each summer sailed to Bergen. Today, Bryggen, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. In 1349, the Black Death was brought to Norway by an English ship arriving in Bergen.
Outbreaks occurred in 1618, 1629 and 1637, on each occasion taking about 3,000 lives. In the 15th century, the city was attacked several times by the Victual Brothers, in 1429 they succeeded in burning the royal castle and much of the city. In 1665, the city's harbour was the site of the Battle of Vågen, when an English naval flotilla attacked a Dutch merchant and treasure fleet supported by the city's garrison. Accidental fires sometimes got out of control, one in 1702 reduced most of the town to ashes. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, Bergen remained one of the largest cities in Scandinavia, it was Norway's biggest city until the 1830s, when the capital city of Oslo became the largest. From around 1600, the Hanseatic dominance of the city's trade declined in favour of Norwegian merchants, in the 1750s, the Hanseatic Kontor closed. Bergen retained its monopoly of trade with northern Norway until 1789; the Bergen stock exchange, the Bergen børs, was established in 1813. Bergen was separated from Hordaland as a county of its own in 1831.
It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdis
The tonne referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms or one megagram. It is equivalent to 2,204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons or 0.984 long tons. Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures; the tonne is derived from the weight of 1 cubic metre of pure water. The SI symbol for the tonne is't', adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879, its use is official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. It is a symbol, not an abbreviation, should not be followed by a period. Use of upper and lower case is significant, use of other letter combinations is not permitted and would lead to ambiguity. For example,'T','MT','Mt','mt' are the SI symbols for the tesla, megatesla and millitonne respectively. If describing TNT equivalent units of energy, this is equivalent to 4.184 petajoules.
In French and most varieties of English, tonne is the correct spelling. It is pronounced the same as ton, but when it is important to clarify that the metric term is meant, rather than short ton, the final "e" can be pronounced, i.e. "tonny". In Australia, it is pronounced. Before metrication in the UK the unit used for most purposes was the Imperial ton of 2,240 pounds avoirdupois or 20 hundredweight, equivalent to 1,016 kg, differing by just 1.6% from the tonne. The UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded from use for trade certain imperial units, including the ton, unless the item being sold or the weighing equipment being used was weighed or certified prior to 1 December 1980, then only if the buyer was made aware that the weight of the item was measured in imperial units. In the United States metric ton is the name for this unit used and recommended by NIST. Both spellings are acceptable in Canadian usage. Ton and tonne are both derived from a Germanic word in general use in the North Sea area since the Middle Ages to designate a large cask, or tun.
A full tun, standing about a metre high, could weigh a tonne. An English tun of wine weighs a tonne, 954 kg if full of water, a little less for wine; the spelling tonne pre-dates the introduction of the SI in 1960. In the United States, the unit was referred to using the French words millier or tonneau, but these terms are now obsolete; the Imperial and US customary units comparable to the tonne are both spelled ton in English, though they differ in mass. One tonne is equivalent to: Metric/SI: 1 megagram. Equal to 1000000 grams or 1000 kilograms. Megagram, Mg, is the official SI unit. Mg is distinct from milligram. Pounds: Exactly 1000/0.453 592 37 lb, or 2204.622622 lb. US/Short tons: Exactly 1/0.907 184 74 short tons, or 1.102311311 ST. One short ton is 0.90718474 t. Imperial/Long tons: Exactly 1/1.016 046 9088 long tons, or 0.9842065276 LT. One long ton is 1.0160469088 t. For multiples of the tonne, it is more usual to speak of millions of tonnes. Kilotonne and gigatonne are more used for the energy of nuclear explosions and other events in equivalent mass of TNT loosely as approximate figures.
When used in this context, there is little need to distinguish between metric and other tons, the unit is spelt either as ton or tonne with the relevant prefix attached. *The equivalent units columns use the short scale large-number naming system used in most English-language countries, e.g. 1 billion = 1,000 million = 1,000,000,000.†Values in the equivalent short and long tons columns are rounded to five significant figures, see Conversions for exact values.ǂThough non-standard, the symbol "kt" is used for knot, a unit of speed for aircraft and sea-going vessels, should not be confused with kilotonne. A metric ton unit can mean 10 kilograms within metal trading within the US, it traditionally referred to a metric ton of ore containing 1% of metal. The following excerpt from a mining geology textbook describes its usage in the particular case of tungsten: "Tungsten concentrates are traded in metric tonne units (originally designating one tonne of ore containing 1% of WO3, today used to measure WO3 quantities in 10 kg units.
One metric tonne unit of tungsten contains 7.93 kilograms of tungsten." Note that tungsten is known as wolfram and has the atomic symbol W. In the case of uranium, the acronym MTU is sometimes considered to be metric ton of uranium, meaning 1,000 kg. A gigatonne of carbon dioxide equivalent is a unit used by the UN climate change panel, IPCC, to measure the effect of a technolo
A submarine snorkel is a device which allows a submarine to operate submerged while still taking in air from above the surface. British Royal Navy personnel refer to it as the snort. A concept devised by Dutch engineers, it was used on German U-boats during the last year of World War II and known to them as a schnorchel; until the advent of nuclear power, submarines were designed to operate on the surface most of the time and submerge only for evasion or for daylight attacks. Until the widespread use of radar after 1940, at night a submarine was safer on the surface than submerged, because sonar could detect boats underwater but was useless against a surface vessel. However, with continued radar improvement as the war progressed, submarines were forced to spend more time underwater, running on electric motors that gave speeds of only a few knots and limited range. An early submarine snorkel was designed by James Richardson, an Assistant Manager at Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Scotland as early as 1916, during World War I.
Although the company received a British patent for the design, no further use was made of it—the British Admiralty did not accept it for use in the Royal Navy. In November 1926 Capt. Pericle Ferretti of the technical corps of the Italian Navy ran tests with a ventilation pipe installed on the submarine H 3; the tests were successful and a similar system was designed for the Sirena class, but was scrapped. Germany defeated the Netherlands in 1940; the Dutch O-21 series was operating a device named a snuiver. The Royal Netherlands Navy had been experimenting as early as 1938 with a simple pipe system on the submarines O-19 and O-20 that enabled diesel propulsion at periscope depth, while charging the batteries; the system was designed by the Dutchman Jan Jacob Wichers. The Kriegsmarine first viewed the snorkel as a means to take fresh air into the boats but saw no need to run the diesel engines under water. However, by 1943 more U-boats were being lost, so the snorkel was retrofitted to the VIIC and IXC classes and designed into the new XXI and XXIII types.
The first Kriegsmarine boat to be fitted with a snorkel was U-58 which experimented with the equipment in the Baltic Sea during the summer of 1943. Operational use began in early 1944, by June 1944 about half of the boats stationed in the French bases had snorkels fitted. On Type VII U-boats the snorkel folded forward and was stored in a recess on the port side of the hull, while on the IX Types the recess was on the starboard side; the XXI and XXIII types both had telescopic masts that rose vertically through the conning tower close to the periscope. Snorkels created several problems for their users. A U-boat with a snorkel raised was limited to six knots to avoid breaking the tube, its sound-detection gear was useless with the diesel engine running. Most snorkels were equipped with automatic valves to prevent seawater from being sucked into the diesels, but when these valves slammed shut the engines would draw air from the boat itself before shutting down, causing a partial vacuum, painful to the ears of the crew and sometimes ruptured eardrums.
This problem still exists in modern diesel submarines, but is mitigated by high-vacuum cut-off sensors that shut down the engines when the pressure drop in the ship reaches a pre-set point. While the snorkel renders a submarine far less detectable, it is not perfect. In clear weather, diesel exhaust can be seen on the surface to a distance of about 4.5 kilometers, while "periscope feather", is visible from far off in a calm sea. Modern radar is capable of detecting a snorkel in calm conditions; the early British ship's radar set Model 271 was shown in tests conducted in 1940 to detect the periscope tip of a submerged submarine at a distance of 800 meters. Modern snorkel induction masts use a fail-safe design using compressed air, controlled by a simple electrical circuit, to hold the "head valve" open against the pull of a powerful spring. Seawater washing over the mast shorts out exposed electrodes on top; this allows the head valve to slam shut. When the electrodes are again clear of the water, the circuit is re-energized and the valve reopens.
Autolycus Notes Further reading "New Subs Are Undersea Aircraft", June 1949, Popular Science: detailed drawing at bottom of page 102 explaining the new Guppy class's snorkel system Media related to Submarine snorkels at Wikimedia Commons
A berth is a designated location in a port or harbour used for mooring vessels when they are not at sea. Berths provide a vertical front which allows safe and secure mooring that can facilitate the unloading or loading of cargo or people from vessels. Berth is the term used in ports and harbors for a designated location where a vessel may be moored for the purposes of loading and unloading. Berths are designated by the management of a facility. Vessels are assigned to berths by these authorities. Most berths are alongside a jetty or a floating dock. Berths are either specific to the types of vessel that use them; the size of the berths varies from 5–10 m for a small boat in a marina to over 400 m for the largest tankers. The rule of thumb is that the length of a berth should be 10% longer than the longest vessel to be moored at the berth; the following is a list of berth types based on the method of construction: Solid Structure Berth In these berths, a solid vertical structure is created to contain fill material, brought all the way to the structure.
They can be constructed using either a gravity wall structure where the front wall of the structure uses its own weight and friction to contain the fill or with a sheet pile structure where an anchoring plate is used to contain the weight of the fill dirt. Open Structure Berth Open berths feature structures supported by piles set off shore from the natural extent of the land or the farthest extent of fill dirt; this style of berth can offer more flexibility in the specificity of construction but presents more complicated dredging projects afterwards and limits the amount of weight the berth is able to support and resist. The following is a list of berth types based on the method of geometry: Finger Pier Used to maximize the berthing space per length of waterfront. Finger piers are used for small to medium vessels associated with passenger travel. Finger piers can be used for dangerous cargoes such as military Equipment that can not be used with offshore berths because of the weight and equipment requirements.
In these instances long finger piers allow for far reach far off shore with access for rail or other cargo moving methods on the pier. Offshore Berth Used. Offshore berths are created for berthing of oil and gas vessels, they contain stand alone structures called dolphins which have fenders and bollards located to based on the geometry of the vessels which would call the berth. The following is a list of berth types based on cargo of the ships calling: Bulk Berth Used to handle either dry or liquid bulk cargo. Vessels are loaded using conveyor belts, and/or pipelines. Storage facilities for the bulk cargo are alongside the berth – e.g. silos or stockpiles. Container Berth Used to handle standard intermodal containers. Vessels are loaded and unloaded by container cranes, designed for the task; these berths will feature large areas of land for container handling near the berth and will have significant equipment on dock to facilitate rapid movement of containers on and off the vessels. Alongside the quay there is a large flat area used to store both the imported and exported containers.
General Berth Used to handle smaller shipments of general cargo. Vessels using these would have their own lifting gear, but some ports will provide mobile cranes to do this; these are common at smaller ports where special project cargo is common. Lay Berth A berth used for idle vessels. Vessels being put on the hook can use these as intermediate points between operational use and mothballing at an off shore mooring; these berths will feature little land side access or equipment except what is needed to secure the vessel. Lay-by Berth A general berth for use by vessels for short term waiting until a loading or discharging berth is available; these berths can feature basic amenities for fuel and utilities to sustain a crew and vessel until the destination berth is available. Liquid Berth Used to handle gas related products. Berths are placed offshore to keep safe zone of operation from rest of port operations. Vessels are loaded via loading arms containing the pipe lines. Cargo is the pumped back on shore through pipelines, which are submerged.
Storage facilities for the products are some distance away from the berth and connected by these pipelines. Marina Berth Used to allow the owners of leisure craft off their boats. Alongside pontoons and accessed by hinged bridges to the shore. Marina berths are built with modular capabilities to adjust the berth size for various shapes and sizes of recreational craft. Specialized equipment for keeping boats out of the water is a frequent feature; this allows the vessel to be removed from the negative effects of wave action on the hull and helps prevent organic growth on the hull. Z Berth Suitable for nuclear-powered warships, part of an operational Naval base or a building and refitting yard. All X-berths have as an integral part of their safety arrangements a permanent health physics department, a local emergency monitoring organisation and a local safety plan prepared under the auspices of a local liaison committee
Jacques-Yves Cousteau was a French naval officer, conservationist, innovator, photographer and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the Aqua-lung, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française. Cousteau described his underwater world research in a series of books the most successful being his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure, published in 1953. Cousteau directed films, most notably the documentary adaptation of the book, The Silent World, which won a Palme d'or at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival, he remained the only person to win a Palme d'Or for a documentary film, until Michael Moore won the award in 2004 for Fahrenheit 9/11. Cousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac, France, to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau, he had Pierre-Antoine. Cousteau completed his preparatory studies at the Collège Stanislas in Paris. In 1930, he graduated as a gunnery officer. After an automobile accident cut short his career in naval aviation, Cousteau indulged his interest in the sea.
The accident caused him to break both his arms and could have killed him. This caused Cousteau to have to change his plans in becoming a naval pilot, but it worked out because of his passion for the ocean. In Toulon, where he was serving on the Condorcet, Cousteau carried out his first underwater experiments, thanks to his friend Philippe Tailliez who in 1936 lent him some Fernez underwater goggles, predecessors of modern swimming goggles. Cousteau belonged to the information service of the French Navy, was sent on missions to Shanghai and Japan and in the USSR. On 12 July 1937 he married Simone Melchior, with whom he had Jean-Michel and Philippe, his sons took part in the adventures of the Calypso. In 1991, one year after his wife Simone's death from cancer, he married Francine Triplet, they had a daughter Diane Cousteau and a son, Pierre-Yves Cousteau, born during Cousteau's marriage to his first wife. The years of World War II were decisive for the history of diving. After the armistice of 1940, the family of Simone and Jacques-Yves Cousteau took refuge in Megève, where he became a friend of the Ichac family who lived there.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Marcel Ichac shared the same desire to reveal to the general public unknown and inaccessible places — for Cousteau the underwater world and for Ichac the high mountains. The two neighbors took the first ex-aequo prize of the Congress of Documentary Film in 1943, for the first French underwater film: Par dix-huit mètres de fond, made without breathing apparatus the previous year in the Embiez islands with Philippe Tailliez and Frédéric Dumas, using a depth-pressure-proof camera case developed by mechanical engineer Léon Vèche. In 1943, they made the film Épaves, in which they used two of the first Aqua-Lung prototypes; these prototypes were made in Boulogne-Billancourt by the Air Liquide company, following instructions from Cousteau and Émile Gagnan. When making Épaves, Cousteau could not find the necessary blank reels of movie film, but had to buy hundreds of small still camera film reels the same width, intended for a make of child's camera, cemented them together to make long reels.
Having kept bonds with the English speakers and with French soldiers in North Africa, Jacques-Yves Cousteau, helped the French Navy to join again with the Allies. At that time, he kept his distance from his brother Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, a "pen anti-semite" who wrote the collaborationist newspaper Je suis partout and who received the death sentence in 1946. However, this was commuted to a life sentence, Pierre-Antoine was released in 1954. During the 1940s, Cousteau is credited with improving the aqua-lung design which gave birth to the open-circuit scuba technology used today. According to his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure, Cousteau started diving with Fernez goggles in 1936, in 1939 used the self-contained underwater breathing apparatus invented in 1926 by Commander Yves le Prieur. Cousteau was not satisfied with the length of time he could spend underwater with the Le Prieur apparatus so he improved it to extend underwater duration by adding a demand regulator, invented in 1942 by Émile Gagnan.
In 1943 Cousteau tried out the first prototype aqua-lung which made extended underwater exploration possible. In 1946, Cousteau and Tailliez showed the film Épaves to Admiral Lemonnier, who gave them the responsibility of setting up the Groupement de Recherches Sous-marines of the French Navy in Toulon. A little it became the GERS the COMISMER, more the CEPHISMER. In 1947, Chief Petty Officer Maurice Fargues became the first diver to die using an aqualung, while attempting a new depth record with the GERS near Toulon. In 1948, between missions of mine clearance, underwater exploration and technological and physiological tests, Cousteau undertook a first ca